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for it, would he hand it back to Spain. at the cost of a beggarly fifteen million He would, instead, transfer it to the dollars, and setting the seal on her future United States, which, he did not doubt, predominance over the North American would be willing to pay handsomely for continent. Well might Livingston exit, and would at the same time forgive claim : “We have lived long, but this and forget past injuries and be drawn is the noblest work of our lives!” And into closer relations with France than well might Jefferson feel, when the good ever before. And thus it happened that news from France reached America, that when Jefferson's envoys, Livingston and his dreams were at last coming true and Monroe, in the spring of 1803 formally that he had been well justified in viewing

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approached him with an offer for the the “ Confederacy” as “the nest from
purchase of New Orleans and the Flor- which all America, North and South, is
idas, they were informed that France to be peopled."
did not have the Floridas to sell, but There were, to be sure, certain phases
was quite willing to part not only with of the Purchase that troubled him. A
New Orleans, but with all Louisiana. stickler for strict construction of the

There is nothing to show that this. Constitution, he could find nowhere in counter-offer had been anticipated and the Constitution authority for the acquithat Monroe and Livingston carried sition of territory; and, moreover, such secret instructions authorizing them to acquisition would do violence to another accept it. But, confident that their of his strongest political beliefs—the action would be indorsed by Jefferson, belief that government derives its just Congress, and the Nation, they did not powers from the consent of the govhesitate. Less than a month after erned, it being evident that the people Monroe's arrival the treaty was signed, of Louisiana had had no voice in the doubling the area of the United States transaction. But, Constitution or no

Constitution, acquiescence or non-acqui- United States, can it be deemed surprisescence, the Purchase, he felt, must be ing that he chose to appear a monster carried through. Writing in August to of inconsistency rather than sacrifice the the Kentucky Senator, John C. Brecken- splendid opportunity that so suddenly ridge, he declared: “Objections are presented itself. On the contrary, it raising to the Eastward against the vast would have been surprising had he not extent of our boundaries, and proposi- pursued exactly the course he did. And, tions are made to exchange Louisiana, as a matter of fact, there was at bottom or a part of it, for the Floridas. But no inconsistency in his conduct. Up ... we shall get the Floridas without, hold as he might State rights, limitations and I would not give one inch of the of government, and the like, not even waters of the Mississippi to any nation.” Hamilton was more truly nationalistic at He did, indeed, as a compromise with heart than was Thomas Jefferson. His his fears regarding the unconstitutional fundamental principle was the welfare character of the transaction, suggest that of the Nation, the making of the Nation the Constitution be amended to permit really great and really strong. More the inclusion of Louisiana within the than this, as we have seen, his bounding boundaries of the United States, and vision overleaped the confines of space went so far as to draft an amendment to and time, hopefully anticipating the that effect. But when Livingston sent moment when his country would attain him word that there was danger of those “destinies beyond the reach of Napoleon's repenting the bargain and mortal eye.” He did not expect to live repudiating his agreement, he hesitated to see the first of the great extensions no longer, summoned Congress in extra of which he spoke so prophetically, and session, and forced the treaty to a speedy to bring about which he labored so and a happy vote.

earnestly. But a kindly fortune granted Nor, when we recall his earlier declara- him that boon, and when the hour struck tions with respect to the future of the he was not found wanting.

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MISS JAPAN, THE SCHOOL 34

BY WILLIAM T. ELLIS

I

WAS leaving the beautiful summer home of a member of the wealthiest family in Japan, where the host, his

wife, his sister, a woman missionary (an American exotic that blooms fragrantly and beautifully in the Orient), the president of the Woman's University, and myself, had been discussing the nature and progress and possibilities of the new higher education for women that has swept over Japan like a prairie fire. Meditating upon the enthusiastic and idealistic words of one of the group, herself a great philanthropist, patroness of advanced education, and practical business woman, I came upon a scene which formed a sharp contrast to the one I had left. At the very gate of the estate, grubbing with her bare hands in a potato-patch, beneath the pitiless summer sun, was a young woman, on whose bent back hung a baby, with its little head bobbing at every motion of the mother.

That represented the lot of many of the women of Old Japan. The craze for education that has filled to overcrowding every girls' school in the land, with thousands still clamoring outside for admission, will result in taking that young woman and myriads of her sisters out of the potato-patches and the rice-fields, and from beneath the

cruel loads such as no able-bodied American man' would attempt to carry. Education will entirely change woman's place in the society of this new member of the family of nations. Without losing the gentle grace of the lady of Old Japan, she will yet acquire the self-reliance, independence, liberty, and democracy of her American sister. Already education is leveling caste barriers; the daughter of a jinrikisha man now sits side by side in a certain higher school with the daughter of a governor.

When the prejudice against the education of women fell in Japan, a dozen years ago, it went down with a crash. Theretofore “polite accomplishments' had constituted the education of a Japanese lady; her humbler sister was not educated at all. A woman had no right except such as her husband or father chose to bestow. In her case marriage was the end, and it was truly a lottery, for she had no voice whatever in the selection of a husband, and if, for any reason, this strange man, thus suddenly made the guardian and circumference of her life, did not fancy her, she was cast back upon her family, divorced and shamed. Already many of the educated young women of the Empire are refusing so to be treated; they claim a voice in the choice of their husbands, and certain rights in the home. Some even put aside marriage altogether and give themselves to the service of their sisters, as teachers, physicians, and nurses.

Not that the freedom of the West has come to this demure and smiling maiden. A certain prominent school was the scene of quite a breeze lately because a new American teacher wanted to introduce the study of “Romeo and Juliet” in the English literature classes. Scandalous !" said the Japanese teachers, and they had their way; for balconies and serenades and kisses (I blush even to write about such things while I sit in a Japanese dwelling !) have no part in the thought or experience of the Japanese woman. How utterly different are

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66

the views of Japan and America concern Entrance into school life has been like ing “ the grand passion "—well, there is a voyage to the happy isles for the quiet no such thing as "the grand passion " little Japanese girls. Education has in the Japanese conception. I heard an opened up a new world, socially as well American traveler, in addressing a Japa- as intellectually. It would not be easy nese normal school, allude to the public to find anywhese happier companies of school teacher as “ the American sweet young women than the Japanese girl heart.” The interpreter had no word students. The smiling faces and merry with which to translate the phrase, be- disposition of the young women of the cause the character and the word alike Island Empire have always been famous. do not exist in Japan ; so he quoted it On the school campus and in the dormibodily, since the expression was unintel- tories this has developed a depth and

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SALUTATION

Peeresses' School ligible in Japanese. In passing, it is expansion unknown before. Quite underworthy of mention that all Japanese standable were the tears of a girl whom students, male and female, above a cer I saw come to take leave of her teachers tain grade are obliged to study English, and school, as she was about to be marand it is the bête noire of modern educa ried. Among themselves the students tion. It is said that the girls more have jolly times. As yet, the college readily master this perplexing tongue than yells and college songs have not penetheir brothers. I once heard a Tokyo trated to this land, and surreptitious college professor say that this is because midnight feasts are unknown. These women have less brains than men, lan- docile, ceremonious little ladies never guage study being a purely imitative, think of breaking over rules, although monkey-like art. To every one's amaze their brothers do not hesitate to go on ment, a Japanese man arose and roundly “strike " against an unpopular teacher. dissented, vigorously championing wo The formality of the relations between man's cause. Thus has Japan advanced. teacher and pupils would astonish breezy

Miss America. Before every recitation, the fact that almost the only pictures of when the teacher appears, the entire Japanese girls that have been published class arises and makes an elaborate are those of dancing-girls. The stubow; and so also at the end of every dent's hakama is fastened by a stiff band lesson. One of the favorite diversions at the waist, the waist line being close of these students, especially when they to the armpits. The obi, the most charwish to entertain teachers or visitors, is acteristic and costly feature of a Japthe production, at an hour's notice, of anese woman's dress, is omitted from the the most elaborate charades, or repre

student costume. Needless to say, corsentations from Japanese history. In sets are never worn. The old style of posturing and in dramatic instinct they hair-dressing, with its stiffness and elabare highly gifted.

orateness, requiring the use of a high

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A LESSON IN FLOWER ARRANGEMENT

Peeresses' School The Japanese school-girl wears a cos- wooden pillow, gives way in the case of tume all her own. It may be seen in students to the simple American pompaevery village in the Empire, but most dour, which does not take hours to commonly on the streets of Tokyo, which arrange, as does the former fashion. is now the greatest student center in the This modern coiffure is coming into world. Even the smallest girls attend- vogue among all classes of women. The ing the government primary schools wear school-girls wear wooden clogs, or geta, it. This uniform has as its distinguish- held in place by a thong passing between ing feature a dark red or purple hakama, the great toe and the second toe. Short or skirt, worn outside the regulation stockings, called tabi, with a compartkimono. The latter is always of quiet ment for the great toe, complete the footcolors, the gay gowns being worn only by wear. Clogs, sandals, or shoes are never little children and dancing-girls. The worn indoors, with the result that Jappopular idea in the West that the Jap- anese homes and schools are the cleananese dress in bright colors arises from est in the world. The geta-boxes are

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