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so

a

rear room, occupied

Italian, which seems by cheap furniture.

unnecessarily The nature and ar

vehement to the rangement of the fur

Anglo-Saxon. His niture reminded one

remarks were much of a lodge-room in

more pleasing to sce small American

than those of the town. On the tables

average Southern were inkstands and

Italian, for his words trays of gray sand

were cleanly cut, and for blotting the writ

his gesticulations, ings of those who

emphasized by his used the tables. Ap

slender fingers, very parently, the room

precise. was the village Coun

“The people were cil Chamber. Vil

very poor," said he, lagers gathered

"when emigration about the door. A

began. Few went at short, slender man

first, but when the with long, narrow

money began to head, high forehead,

come back, the numbulging eyes, and

bers increased. Now long, tapering fin

no one is satisfied to gers, and wearing

stay at home. There rusty, loose-fitting

are a thousard in black clothes invited

America ncw, and usto sit down. When

remaining in the he learned our mis

commune are persion, he began to

haps eight thousard. talk. The baron, for

Three hundred or so he proved to be, spoke with his hands more go every year to America. They and lips in the fashion of a Southern send back from 200,000 to 300,000 lire

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[$40,000 to $50,000] in the course of the credit Bagnara with being celebrated for year.” Then the gesticulations of the the beauty of its women. Evidently they rusty little baron with the prominent based their knowledge on one another's forehead and large eyes seemed to grow works. Perhaps in the days when the more precise and emphatic, if that were first of these guide-book writers gave possible. “When the people come back Bagnara this reputation it was true; but from America with money," he continued, one's impression to-day is that the beauty “ they are not so modest, so humble. has all been turned into physical strength, They are not so willing to work. The There were women and girls carrying people go now to get rich.”

all manner af burdens upon their heads, I wondered if he were one of those of even logs and building material. Filling the landholding class who are having the role of hod-carrier, they took mortar difficulty in securing labor for their to the tops of new houses. One rather estates and are obliged to pay more than slender girl, whose father was in America, the former eighteen or twenty cents a was pointed out as having a capacity of day for it.

two hundred kilograms, or nearly four On the following day we set forth in hundred and fifty pounds. She and the automobile from Reggio. Rounding many of the other women knitted as they a jutting point of rock about twenty miles walked, presenting a curious contrast of from that city, we came upon a scene masculine and feminine toil. described by ** 'Omer, when 'e smote 'is Walking down the main street while bloomin' lyre”-a strand extending to some repairs were being made to the where “fell Scylla rises," and the rock automobile, we passed a church in which itself. Its summit shrouded “in brood- a funeral service was being held with ing tempests and in rolling clouds," we much pomp. Stretching in front of did not fear Scylla's bellowing from “ the the edifice, and overlooking the blue dire abodes,” but swept along towards waters of the Mediterranean breaking the castle-crowned rock and Scilla, the on the rocky shore below, was a handtown, which stretches along the strand some piazza. This, we were informed, and climbs the hillside to the cathedral had been constructed with money earned in the shadow of the castle, with perfect in America. Thus was America helping confidence in the efficiency with which to beautify the world. the fane was holding down the lid over “Bagnara," said a sub-agent of a this fabled entrance to Hades. Scilla, steamship line, as we stood in a room too, we learned by conversation with the of the albergo, “ has lost one-quarter of inhabitants who gathered as soon as we her people. Four thousand have gone stopped on the hill, was one of the towns to Buenos Aires and North America." from · whence they come." Nearly a

Wherever we went we found some one fifth of the former population of less than who had relatives in America or who had ten thousand had gone to the land across been there. We stopped at Battiro, and the Atlantic.

a man beside the road who had returned By the time we had become accus- home after living several years in Buenos tomed to looking upon impending death Aires said that four hundred of its forfrom collisions with flocks of sheep and mer population of fourteen hundred were goats and herds of pigs and giant Cala- in North and South America. From brian oxen as we coasted around the Monteleone, which stands on the site of curves into them, we reached Bagnara. the ancient Greek city of Hippo, five This town, perhaps twenty-five miles hundred had gone to both Americas, from Reggio, lies stretched out in and three times as many from the surirregular fashion on the side of a pre- rounding country. At the mountain cipitous hill overlooking the sea. The town of Tiriolo a group of men gathered crest of the hill was swathed in clouds. around the machine, while comely women Innumerable barefooted women, girls, in the most picturesque costumes to be and children swarmed along the streets, found in Calabria stood off a few paces but of middle-aged men there were com- and watched the proceedings about the paratively few. Authors of guide-books curious vehicle. Tiriolo, occupying an

aerial site thousands of feet above sea so we were not astonished to find a level and among surroundings that re- crowd assembled in the town street when minded one of the Tyrol, seemed too far we finally reached it. Scores of women away from the world to have sent out gathered around the automobile when any emigrants. Of a former population we stopped to ask the usual questions. of six thousand, however, one thousand Practically all the men in this village of had found their way to Naples from their eighteen hundred souls were in America, mountain home and sailed for America. and the land proprietors were offering The number is being increased by up the almost unprecedented wages of four wards of two hundred each year. A and five lire a day, eighty cents and a young man pushed through the crowd dollar American, for laborers to gather to the side of the automobile. In Eng- the ripened harvest. lish, spoken almost without accent, he One met, in the most unexpected

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said that he had been a barber in Pitts- places, people who had been in the New burgh, but had come home to do military World or who had relatives there. On service. He added that he preferred the way up to Gallina from Reggio I America to Italy, and might go back again. saw a young Calabrian cutting wheat in

Beyond the old city of Cosenza we a neighboring field with a hand sickle crossed the Busento River, in whose bed of a design used by the Egyptians at the in the neighborhood Alaric, King of time the Israelites were marching out of the Goths, was buried, and climbed up that opulent land. I had been wishing the steep side of a hill crowned by the to secure a photograph showing the ancient town of Tarsia. Our slow prog- primitive methods in use in the fields of ress up the zigzag road was watched by southern Italy and Sicily, where until the inhabitants of the town, who looked recently labor has been so cheap that down at us from their balconies as from the proprietors have not deemed it worth battlements, and who could be seen while to spend money for labor-saving passing along the news of our approach, machinery. So I picked up my camera

from the bottom of the carriage and lowed he said that he had been in Amerstarted down the hill, dodging among ica four years, and had worked on the the prickly cactuses as I ran. As I railway at Dobbs Ferry. reached the shadow of the cactus hedge “ Shall you go back to America which bounded the piece of ground that again ?” was being harvested, these words floated I rich, I bring back fifteen hundred over it and my head : “Here, you dollars," was the reply, which suggested

fool !” That could have been that he had no intention of doing so. learned only in America, so when I “Si, si, signor," said he, with a broad

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MEN WERE ALREADY IN THE FIELDS TEARING UP THE

SOIL WITH THE CALACRIAN PLOW, A LARGE-BLADED HOE climbed up out of the ditch beneath the smile, when I proposed taking his picture. hedge I called out, “ Buon giorno," in As I left the field, he thanked me for my heartiest tones, and followed it im- taking the photograph. He displayed a mediately with, “ You been in New confidence in himself, a quickness of York?” in abbreviated English, confident perception, and an energy that suggested of receiving an affirmative reply in the that his contact with America had been same tongue. If he was angry at my of value. One could not but conclude, invasion of his field, he was over it now, however, that his education in the United and welcomed me most cordially. In States had not brought him in contact the conversation in English which fol- with agricultural operations.

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ONLY THE OLD MEN AND THE INCAPABLES REMAIN IN MASY ITALIAN TOWNS

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