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start the Reformation. In the first place, mentioned to her teacher at the pension he set himself up against the Pope in the the name of a certain French Literature matter of indulgences, which was very (the most complete and scholarly pubwrong. Then, when the Holy Father lished) which the Alliance had strongly corrected him, he got angry-his amour recommended. Hands were raised in propre was roused.

Of course he was a holy horror. What! That impious, that very wicked inan, for he seduced a nun. scandalous book! Never! She must She was to blame too, naturally, but not not sully her young mind by contact so much as he car Luther était un with it. Daunted by the outburst, she homme très séduisant. . . . The English did not venture on the purchase of Church ? Oh, that was quite a different the history till toward the end of the story-a very simple one.

There was

course, when, in desperation, she bought just one cause for it.. Henry the Eighth and secretly read it. But it was too wanted to divorce his wife, and the Pope late. She failed in her examination by wouldn't permit it. So he founded a new two or three points-a deficiency amply church, with himself as the head-et accounted for by the character of her voilà l'église anglicane."

training on this one most important line. Her confession of these facts to

the Spectator toward the close of his From these eminently simple and stay was not, as may be imagined, concise explanations the general char- wholly untinged with bitterness. As to acter of the histories in use at the pen- the new history, her young girl's innosion may be imagined. The History

cence had found in several weeks' peruof French Literature was an especially sal nothing to shock it; while as to the interesting work. However brief the

one in use at the pension--"What does biographical notes any author, it tell you ?” she exclaimed. “That a there was always space for an account man lived and died a Christian! And of his education by the “good Jesuit that's about all !” So, at the eleventh fathers ;" for the relation of death-bed hour, was the truth brought home to scenes in which the calling of a priest her that the scathing condemnation of figured largely; or, perhaps, for an ex “ Tartuffe as an attack on the Holy pression of regret that the writer had Catholic Church does not equal in value, not lived longer, as in that case the as training for a scholarly examination, “sound religious teaching instilled into its analysis as one of the masterpieces of him in his youth would surely have borne the world's dramatic literature. Now, fruit."

there is no doubt in the Spectator's mind

that, whatever may have been true of In this connection the experience of a Molière and the "good Jesuit fathers," young English girl encountered by the the teachings instilled into their pupils Spectator at the pension is in point. by certain devout Catholic ladies of his She had spent nearly a year there “ bur- acquaintance do, in many cases, bear ied,” as the phrase among students in excellent fruit-moral, if not intellectParis is, far from her friends, in concen ual. With minds hermetically sealed trated study; and at the time of the against the reception of an idea opposed Spectator's stay was following the sum to the Church's teaching, these children mer course at the Alliance Française, may grow up, and grow old, in the whose certificate is much prized by serene conviction that theirs is the one teachers. Brought to this severe test, true Church-the greatest, the most glori. she found herself well up to the standard ous, the “safest ”—and in the practice in her grammatical knowledge and in her of all, or nearly all, the Christian virtues. speaking and writing grasp of the lan- Why, then, you may ask, if they are guage. But when the question of litera- happy, find fault? Well—the Répubture arose, it was quite another story. lique Française has found fault-for After her first lecture, beginning to real reasons which the Spectator, at least, no ize her deficiencies in this line, she longer has any difficulty in imagining.




NOTHER Tailor King like incidents. His will had become the
George IV.!” That was strongest force in Europe ; and England

experienced diplomatist's pre was isolated, distrusted, and discredited. mature forecast soon after Queen Victo- In the course of seven years conditions, ria's death. He had been reading the have been transformed. London is now “Greville Memoirs,” and was impressed the diplomatic capital of Europe. Rewith superficial analogies between the sentful enemies like France have been characters of Edward VII. and the last reconciled; friendships with America, of the Georges. He assumed that the Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Spain have ceremonial side of royalty would be been strengthened; strained relations uppermost during the new reign. He with Russia and Germany have been gave the sovereign full credit for re eased ; and by the alliance with Japan sourceful tact, distinction of manner, and forces have been readjusted for the social graces, but considered him inca maintenance of existing order in the Papable of submitting to the daily drudgerycific. A new balance of power has been of examining state papers and of exert- established in Europe, and the diploing personal authority in home and for matic resources of the British Empire eign affairs. He was confident that a have been reinvigorated and enlarged. sumptuous coronation would be ordered, While there have been eminent statesthat niceties of etiquette · would have men in the British Foreign Office-Lord increased importance, and that Court Lansdowne and Sir Edward Grey—these functions would be conducted with unex transformations have been mainly King ampled dignity and stateliness ; but he Edward's work. Fifty years hence there lacked either discernment or imagination may be a true sense of proportion, so for anticipatir.g that Edward VII. would that his services as an empire-builder become one of the foremost figures in and a peace-maker can be judged aright. world politics. When an accomplished

When an accomplished At present there is only a vague condiplomatist, favored with long acquaint- ception of the momentous influence ance with the King as Prince of Wales, which he is exerting in world politics. displayed so little insight, it was not Critical estimates are premature because strange that there was a lack of public a sense of historic perspective is lacking. appreciation of the potentialities of a As the most conspicuous diplomatist unique personality.

of the time, King Edward may be treated At the opening of King Edward's without formality, but not without great reign Berlin was the center of European respect. His character is a composite diplomacy, as Paris had been when Bis one, with a strong strain of hereditary marck entered upon his series of machi traits and with qualities developed in nations and triumphs. The personal the environment of a prolonged apprenascendency of the German Emperor was ticeship as heir to the throne. What unchallenged in Europe. The dismissal may be described as the Victorian heriof Bismarck had been a stroke of mas tage includes absolute truthfulness, caterly audacity, since it disclosed inherent pacity for work, shrewdness of judgment, strength of character and an inflexible persistency of purpose, high-minded determination not to be overshadowed patriotism, and consciousness of moral even by an empire-maker. It had in- obligation. These virtues were less creased the young sovereign's authority, apparent while he was Prince of Wales and moderation and self-restraint had than some of his mother's ninor characcome after sensational and theatrical teristics, such as stately elegance of

manner, kindness of heart, intense inter- has left a strong impress, for here, whatest in small details of Court etiquette, ever may be said of his remote Hanoand a lively sense of humor. Light- verian forbears, his father and mother hearted and volatile in spirits, the patron were conspicuous for absolute truthfulof the turf and the idolized leader of ness. Queen Victoria was so careful the smart set took his pleasures easily of her reputation for candor that when and reveled in bright, spirited conversa- Gladstone was dead she refused to tion and the luxurious recreations of accord to him pre-eminence in statescountry-house life. He could not be manship or to profess for him a warmth suspected of having the indolent habits of personal attachment of which she had of the Georges, when he was displaying never been conscious. She never deuntiring energy in promoting public ceived either her own subjects or foreign charities and in conducting ceremonials; governments. King Edward commands but his reserves of working power were confidence by similar directness of purnot divined until he ascended the throne pose. He plays an honest game of and devoted his talents to the service of diplomacy, with the cards on the table the state. The Victorian virtues then in plain view, and with motives, methods, shone out with unimpaired luster, and and objects frankly disclosed. Napoleon along with them were qualities of his III., whose statecraft was tainted with own which facilitated his work.

Machiavellian intrigue, would have There was the precise knowledge of considered his straightforward method detail which proved helpful to him when clumsy and deficient in cleverness; and great state functions were planned or Bismarck, who had a cynical indifferdiplomatic policies carried out. There ence to ways and means and made were the resources of tact, simplicity, and flagrant use of secret wiles and backbonhomie, which were serviceable in the stairs agreements, would have described management of men at home and abroad. it as unbusinesslike ; but it is suited to There was the quickness of decision as a time when plain dealing and publicity

safeguard against procrastinating are indispensable. The entente between habits, suspension of judgment, and England and France was brought about vacillation of will. There was the flexi- because the King was trusted personally bility of mind for adapting him to cir- by a sensitive nation suspicious of cumstances and protecting him from " perfidious Albion." The German Emharassing controversy over minor details. peror's subtle play over the Morocco There was the freedom from prejudice Conference came to nothing because the which had left him on terms of close King was against him and Frenchmen friendship with both Gladstone and knew that they could depend upon EngBeaconsfield when his mother could not land in an emergency. conceal her antipathies and preferences, relations with sovereigns, presidents, and which was to enable him to balance ambassadors, and nations there is not a his social activities so impartially that trace of dissimulation or double dealing. he could work as readily with one Prime To truthfulness is added the soverMinister as with another. To his nat- eign's representative character. He is ural trend to greatness on a high plane as English as the nation. The German of action was added a special equipment Emperoris in close touch with the Fatherfrom his protracted training in public life. land, and controls its foreign and mari

The King has taken a more active time policies because he understands interest in foreign affairs than in any the interests of the Empire and the natother branch of state business. Diplo- ural aggressiveness and racial anibitions macy has become with him little short of his subjects. King Edward, with of a ruling passion. His success in it equal discernmentand fidelity, represents is due in large measure to his honesty England --its conservatism, its respect and sincerity. He is trusted at home for established order, its conciliatory and abroad. He has his mother's in- disposition, and its practical instincts. stinct for going straight and keeping He is in sympathetic relations with his faith with men and nations. Heredity subjects. He has the incomparable gift


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of forecasting the trend of forces of pub- in his methods and processes. He deals
lic opinion. Reconciliation with France with facts and tendencies as they are,
as a Mediterranean Power, a reasonable works with the grain of public opinion
understanding with Russia respecting rather than against it, considers a good
Asia, and more neighborly relations with understanding between rivals more profit-
Germany have been brought about with able than strained relations, and is con-
out undue haste or surrender of any vital tent with a stroke of practical business
principle ; and each policy in turn has here and there in the interest of peace
received popular support in the King- without claiming credit for his diplomacy
_dom. The most difficult undertaking as anything heaven-sent, or particularly
was the restoration of good feeling with brilliant or deep.
Germany, for French suspiciousness had Flexibility is one of the secrets of the
to be guarded against and English jeal- evolution of the King's character.
ousy allayed. The visit of the German shown in his methods of dealing with
Emperor to Windsor was deferred until and of accomplishing results.
the right moment, and it was then con Queen Victoria had her own point of
verted into a state event of supreme view, especially in foreign affairs, and
importance. The two sovereigns, after was drawn into many vexatious contro
being pitted against each other for a versies with her Ministers when state
long period, met on equal terms papeis were not submitted to her, or
though there had been a drawn battle. decisions were reached of which she
Berlin could not claim a victory for ag- disapproved. She had her own mentors
gressive diplomacy, and the only ground and advisers outside the Cabinet, nota-
for rivalry was honorable emulation in bly the Prince Consort, Stockmar, Mel-
peace-making. The King is an opti- bourne, Beaconsfield, and Granville, and
mist, who believes that all things are hampered the independence of Palmer-
working for the peace of the world; but ston, Russell, and other Ministers. Her
he is neither credulous nor in a hurry. letters recently published show that she
He stands for something essentially Eng- was in the habit of revising diplomatic
lish, enlightened self-interest, when as correspondence with her own hand, and
an opportunist he arranges an armistice of interfering strenuously in the conduct
in South Africa or proposes working of foreign affairs. There has been no
arrangements between rival nations based revival of Stockmar's sophistries during
on mutual accommodation,

the present reign. The King accepts One of King Edward's salient quali- the constitutional theory that there is no ties—and it is a portion of the Victorian stronghold of administrative authority heritage—is his common sense. He has outside the Council of Ministers of th an unerring perception of the adaptation Crown. He finds a clearly defined field of means to ends, and a subtle compre- of activity for himself in keeping in conbension of what can be done and of what stant communication with his responsibie is impracticable. Favre formed this advisers, and working with them tactfully estimate of Bismarck in conducting and effectively. An outside mentor he negotiations with him : “I found him does not need when his knowledge of to be a political man of business. He affairs, his capacity for business, and his seems only to calculate with what is resources of influence and prestige are actually before him ; his point of view unrivaled. If the initiative in diplomatic is only directed toward positive and policies sometimes comes from him, practical results, and he is indifferent to there is no shifting of constitutional everything that does not tend to useful authority, for his Ministers are easily ends." King Edward is a diplomatist persuaded that, with his dynastic relationof the same practical turn of mind, ships and friendships, his experience and although he is more scrupulous than judgment, and his popularity at home Bismarck in the choice of means, and and abroad, he is the safest adviser prefers the full glare of publicity to the whom they can have. He does not wait half-lights of intrigue. He is as busi- for emergencies to arise, but discusses nesslike in his objects as he is orderly them in advance as possible contingen,

cies; and when the necessity for action The King, with his high qualities and comes, he and his Ministers are of one flexibility of mind and method, has mind. His supremacy in foreign affairs unrivaled distinction and fascination. is complete, because he has broken There is no lack of either firmness or away from the conventional formalities power, and there is a characteristic of court life, and, without straining of charm which suffuses his personality as royal prerogative or any challenge to a smile softens and irradiates a face. Parliament or Ministry, is exercising It is a winsome rather than a commandmuch of the masterful authority of an ing personality. He is neither selfAmerican President.

opinionated, nor argumentative, nor The King's method is the art of man- domineering. He is tactful. considerate, aging men and regulating affairs by short and persuasive. He deals with matters talks, informal conferences, and quiet of state or of diplomacy with the light understandings. He writes fewer letters touch of a keen observer and a man of and state papers than Queen Victoria. the world. While not without sentiment When his reign comes to an end, his and ideals, since he has a lofty enthusidiplomatic correspondence may be as asm for peace-making, he is content with meager as hers was voluminous. This proving how useful the business of reignwill not be a proof of lack of industry or ing can be made.

He does not exagneglect of public business. It will merely gerate the value of his services, nor mean that he was economical of his consider himself indispensable to the time, left the drudgery of correspondence Empire, nor encourage flatterers to talk to his secretaries, and found it easier about his mission in world politics. He and more effective to talk over matters does not love power for its own sake, of state and diplomacy with public men nor is he dogmatic respecting any order than to dictate or to revise letters, which of policy. If he lacks the German Emwould be exposed to critical examina- peror's artistic sensibility and eclectic tion. If he were a diplomatist with faculty for absorbing information, he inscrutable mysteries to conceal, like does not pose as a many-sided genius Napoleon III., this might be a dangerous who knows a good deal about everything, practice. His own methods

nor does he persist in taking the center straightforward and his motives so sin- of the stage and overshadowing rivals. cere that frankness is a safe resource. His knowledge is precise and at his . He wants honest dealing among nations fingers' ends; his memory of details, and a peaceable solution of every ques- names, and faces is phenomenal. He tion, and his opinions are as candidly evades publicity, and prefers to work, so expressed to foreign Ambassadors as to far as possible, without observation. his own Ministers. He is an attentive His quickness in noticing petty things listener, and his unforced, businesslike like a misplaced decoration or a flaw in comments, while not brilliantly phrased, a court ceremonial has given place to are practical and to the point; and who- mastery of great affairs. He labors ever hears them is impressed with the strenuously for high-minded ends, but reasonableness and unaffected good does not encourage heroics over his sense of his opinions. He brings to career. His is a personality that does every conference and discussion the not repel support by affectations of manspirit of good breeding and conciliation. ner or vagaries of mind. He attracts Without sacrifice of dignity or relaxation and hypnotizes men and nations by of etiquette, he blends distinction and communicating to them his own concilicordiality in charm of manner. The atory spirit. result is the same whether he is confer- The King's activities are not restricted ring with public men at English country- to foreign affairs. His Ministers are houses, or entertaining distinguished responsible agents of Crown administraEuropeans in Paris or Marienbad. He tion under the supervision of Parliabegins by setting them at their ease and ment; but he himself stands apart from ends by securing their co-operation and political groups and exercises a salusupport.

tary influence in facilitating solutions of



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