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The atmosphere was cleared. They confidence. One of the officials who shook hands on the proposition, and ever resigned is in State prison, and another since have been firm friends. As for was convicted, but escaped through the the University, politics is still rigidly meshes of the law. banished from its affairs.
Johnson's leadership in the movement Governor Johnson has rather set a for uniform State laws on life insurance new mark in attending to such duties as has been generally acknowledged, notathe regency and membership in other bly in a special message by President State boards. He has never given per Roosevelt to Congress.
It was upon functory service. He attends nearly Governor Johnson's suggestion to the every meeting, stays from first to last, President that the Commissioner of the knows what is going on, and takes an District of Columbia called a National active hand, not as a governor or an meeting of Governors, attorneys-general, overlord, but as a member like the rest and insurance commissioners. This body of his associates.
selected a committee of fifteen, headed In his dealings with the Legisla- by Mr. O'Brien, of Minnesota. The ture Johnson has never been dogmatic. committee's output was a model code of He has firm ideas about executive en laws regulating life insurance, which has croachment, and has never forced matters been adopted almost entirely by Minneon legislative attention. Both Legisla- sota, and with little change by Illinois, tures have been about three-fourths Re- Michigan, West Virginia, and North publican, but relations have been pleas- Dakota. ant. The majority paid little attention It must not be supposed that Governor to the Governor's first inaugural. Some Johnson has been the only progressive of his recommendations went through, force in the State since his inauguration. as a "wide-open” tax amendment to the The radical Republicans kave kept pace Constitution, an inheritance tax bill, an with him. He has often acknowledged act placing the State Insurance Depart. the co-operation of other State officials. ment on a salary basis, and improvement Republican members of the Legislature of the laws against timber trespass. The during his first term fought for a two-cent proposals of a State immigration bureau fare law and a reciprocal demurrage law, and a separate training-school for delin- both of which the Governor recommended quent giris were not acted on till two at the next session. In the last year years later. His personal platform in there has been a great awakening for law the message included these ideas, either enforcement in the State, resulting in rejected or ignored : A four-year term Sunday closing of saloons everywhere. for Governors, with one-term limit; re In this movement the Governor was not duced freight rates, abolition of railway a necessary factor and had no part. passes, an employers' liability law, a The second State campaign for John liberal forestry policy, and a non-partisan A. Johnson was in 1906. The Republijudiciary law.
cans had difficulty in agreeing on Early in this first term a crisis was candidate. The man with largest followreached in the affairs of a large Minne- ing in their convention was feared by sota life insurance company. Examiners the corporations, who threw votes to a had found mismanagement of a criminal less " dangerous man and nominated nature. On a statement by Insurance him. Though the nominee was not a Commissioner O'Brien, the officers of the corporation man, he was branded as such company were summoned to the capitol from the start, and the growing radical by the Governor himself. The tale of sentiment in the Republican party was their misconduct was related to them sullenly hostile to him. and their resignations demanded. They Johnson made another whirlwind camresigned, and a committee of Minneapolis paign. He eclipsed his previous record, business men, at the Governor's request, making 119 speeches in seven weeks, took charge of the concern. They and reaching 78 counties of the State. arranged a reorganization, under which As in the first campaign, he paid his fare the company has been restored to public for every mile traveled, and twice when
special trains were required he paid hand- trusts, employers' liability law, uniform somely for them. The entire tour was divorce law, the initiative and referenan ovation, and the outcome was hardly dum, and the registration of lobbyists. in doubt at any time, yet the result made Last summer a strike of sixteen thouthe most sanguine Johnson men gasp. sand foreign workmen in the iron mines He polled 168,480 votes to 96,162 for of northern Minnesota threatened trouCole, Republican-a plurality of 72,318. ble. They were a branch of the WestThe other Republican candidates were ern Federation of Miners—the Moyer elected by pluralities reaching as high as and Haywood League-and at the head 84,754 on attorney-general.
was Teofilo Petriella, an Italian Socialist Though the new Legislature was almost from Colorado. Mining officials and as strongly Republican as its predecessor, business men feared an outbreak by the and the Governor still refused to urge ignorant aliens. Strike leaders insisted legislation aside from the declarations that they would keep the peace, but felt of the biennial message, there was a that the situation was on a hair-trigger. difference. The measures bearing the Mining officials appealed to the Governor Governor's indorsement got a more con for military protection. siderate reception. Railway legislation Governor Johnson does not rush into could not be headed off, as both parties trouble because he likes it, but he dehad declared for it, and members had cided to get his information about the made campaign pledges to pass the re “ range ” at first hand.
He went there, form measures. Measures recommended stopping in Duluth on the way. He met and adopted were as follows :
the steel company officials, heard their A maximum schedule of freight rates.
report, and got their promise to avoid A two-cent passenger fare law.
trouble with the strikers. He hired from Abolition of railway passes and franks. them a special train which took him by Reciprocal demurrage law.
night to Hibbing, the headquarters of the Increased taxation for sleeping-car com strikers' organization. In the morning panies. Permanent Tax Commission with wide
he walked up the main street of Hibbing, powers.
and asked for the office of “Mr. Petriella.” Registry tax on real estate mortgages. A local newspaper man was the willing Uniform life insurance laws.
guide. The Governor introduced himAbolition of private banks. A“Mueller Law” to facilitate municipal
self to the strike leader, sat down with ownership
him, and had a heart-to-heart talk. Increased State drainage operations. Petriella made promises of peace, and Better salaries for the State University
the Governor gave him clearly to underfaculty.
stand that any disturbances would mean This made a good grist for a single sending the National Guard to the scene. session. The permanent Tax Commis- Then the local authorities and mine sion is a vastly important institution. superintendents were conferred with and Johnson named on this Commission one admonished. Republican, one Democrat, and one uni Two other towns were visited, and the versity professor-all men of ability and Governor met strikers, mine bosses, and special fitness. The announcement of local officials. At Eveleth they wanted a their names was met with a spontaneous speech. He told the crowd what he had burst of enthusiasm in each house of the come for, and urged everybody to keep Legislature. In less than a year they
He told them that the men had have justified their selection by adding a right to quit work, a right to organize, $112,000,000 to the assessed values of and to persuade others to quit work; iron properties.
but if any man wanted to work, no one The Governor had some other sugges had the right to prevent him, and the tions in that message that are of value State, if necessary, would protect men as showing his personal platform. They in their right to work. included the taxation of iron lands on a That night the Governor returned to royalty basis, a license tax on foreign St. Paul. Soon after some overzealous corporations, investigation of lumber deputies dispersed a meeting of strikers
in their own hall. The miners justly key to John A. Johnson's success is percomplained, and began marching in long, sonal charm, which gets and holds for ominous-looking columns. Governor him the regard of everybody. It is sig. Johnson issued a proclamation to all nificant that men never turn upon him concerned. It declared, first, the right and blame him for their political wrongs. of all persons to hold peaceable meetings They have a grievance against some of without interference, and with the pro- his lieutenants, but they want it undertection of public officials. It called on stood that Johnson is all right. They the strikers to cease marching in large want to like him, and it is because he bodies, as tending to disturb the public likes people. He is interested in all peace. It also warned them against that people do. Nothing human is alien trespass on private property, and declared to him.
to him. He enjoys so many things, as that any violation of these directions music, baseball, football, the theater, would result in the despatch of troops. travel, hunting, fishing, and, above all, There was no more trouble of any con- friends. He has a cordiality for all that sequence.
never seems affected. To shake hands It would have been easy to make a with him is to like him. mistake in such a crisis, as Governors It is the same with an audience. Their before have found to their sorrow, but first greeting is answered by a broad, Johnson made no false step. His han- friendly smile that radiates good fellowdling of men was masterly, and he used ship and thaws out any lingering chill. good common sense. He has never been He wins them before he opens his mouth. given credit for statesmanlike qualities. His speech is rapid, fluent, and often There is nothing mysterious or profound headlong like a cataract, not always eloabout him. He is even accused of being quent, but always convincing. He gives superficial. Yet his path in office is not the impression of a man much in earnest marked by failures. He seems to be without being a zealot. The mass of equal to each occasion as it arises. Un- the people feel a confidence in him that questionably he has developed in three is almost unshakable. years as Governor. His pubiic addresses Is Johnson radical ? Yes and no. He are no longer sophomoric. He has gained has a record as an advocate of many in poise and dignity. He is naturally measures, but, as a rule, the changes he adaptable to circumstances, and graces has favored have had to be put in force distinguished company as he used to by others. As Governor he has been a the levees and routs of St. Peter. The sort of spokesman for the people, prodeep lines in his face and forehead have claiming their belief in measures which grown deeper the while, and his whole have been worked out by legislatures, cast is more thoughtful. Yet there is no railway commissioners, or attorneys-gensuggestion of pretense at any time. . He eral. He has been radical in speech, is nothing if not genuine. He has been
He has been but more conservative and constructive endeavoring to grow with the broaden- in action. The conference for uniform ing of his horizon, and no one can say insurance laws was a constructive idea, how far the man's future development and as sponsor for the State's first permay reach.
manent Tax Commission he has beyond Without detracting from his mental any question taken the lead in a great attainments, it may be said that real reform.
BY G. H. BLAKESLEE HE Philippine Assembly marks' indifferent or else because they disTH an epoch in the government of approved of the plan of having an
dependencies. It is the first Assembly; but these were too few to time that a sovereign nation has ever affect seriously the result at the polls. granted a full share in legislation to any It can be stated with considerable assursubject people in the East. The experi- ance that the election was a fair expresment, which was laughed at by the older sion of the desires of the Filipino people Colonial Powers and distrusted by most at the time. Had the franchise been of the Americans in the islands, already more extended, it would, of course, have has been sufficiently successful to exceed increased the vote of the majority who the expectations of those who planned it. wish for an early recognition of independ
The elections for Assemblymen were ence, for the avowed supporters of the probably conducted fully as orderly and American policy are limited very largely as honestly as are those in the United to the small class which now has the States, yet it frequently has been stated suffrage. that they did not express the real feel- The election shows clearly that there ings of the Filipinos. As proof of this
As proof of this is no absorbing popular passion for imit is pointed out that a very small per mediate independence. Had this existed, cent of the people were sufficiently inter- the people would have been informed ested in them to take the trouble to regarding the shortening of the registraregister and vote.
tion period, for the law was posted in Such a statement is misleading, for the all the Provinces; all indifference would suffrage in the Philippines is stringently have disappeared; the thirty or forty nolimited. Those qualified must have held party candidates would have been forced some public office under the Spanish definitely to commit themselves, during Government, or be possessed of two the campaign, either for or against imhundred and fifty dollars' worth of prop- mediate independence; and at the polls erty, or pay taxes to the amount of thirty a vote of at least a hundred and fifty dollars-large sums for the Filipinos- thousand would have been cast. or be able to speak, read, and write The only thing which the election does either Spanish or English. In the elec
In the elec- prove positively is that the majority are tions which were held two years ago for unwilling to vote for Progresista, or Govlocal offices the total number of those ernment, candidates, and so indorse the who registered was 143,000, of whom policy of the American Administration, 130,000 voted. In the elections for the for they consider that it is too indefinite, Assembly 104,966 persons registered, and they fear that, if independence is and of these 100,493 voted-an unusu- not soon promised them absolutely, it ally large proportion. The chief reason,
may never be granted at all. probably, why these numbers were so The eighty Assemblymen who are now small is to be found in the fact that the meeting in the Marble Hall of the Ayunperiod for registration, which in 1905 tamiento at Manila are doubtless better was fifteen days, was this year limited to representatives of the Filipino people four. This was not thoroughly under than the members of American stood in the Provinces, so that a consid- State Legislatures of their American erable proportion of those who would constituents. As a class, they belong have registered were unable to do so. to the best families of the islands, are There were some, however, who did not educated, experienced, and well-to-do. register, either because they were too More than half of them are attorneys :