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a reproach too often and too indis- bishop, surrounded by priests bearing criminately leveled by foreigners at our flaming candles, who at the last word painters. Indeed, a certain set of young simultaneously cast them on the floor men, in particular, Mr. Bellows, Mr. Luks, and trod out the flame as though they and Mr. Henri, now go to the opposite were human souls snuffed out in eternal extreme; they deliberately and consci- night. But the weapon was too freentiously paint the ugly wherever it quently used, and this constituted one of occurs; holding that only so can they the many causes for the Protestant Refdelineate life as it really is. This idea ormation. In Scotland, for instance, if is also accentuated in the department of a poor husbandman failed to pay his landscape. Nature is now being treated tithes, he was excommunicated. In Gernot only in some but in all of her moods; many, for the contumacy of some citiMr. Ochtman's austere “ December" or zens, a whole city was excommunicated, Mr. Redfield's impressive “ March "will as in the case of Nuremberg. In Engserve as example. The quality increas- land and Italy Papal excommunications ingly apparent, however, is the atmos- had already provoked immortal protests. pheric—that something which makes Wyclif declared, “No man can be exone “breathe " the picture, that fidelity communicated who does not excommunito primal tones, that exact iridescence cate himself;" and Savonarola wrote, of color which, as seen in the canvases in protesting against his own of a Claude Monet, spells the final word munication : “We ought to obey our in landscape painting thus far. In Superior in far as he holds the American art, if Mr. Childe Hassam place of God. But he does not hold has not Monet's peculiar power of the place of God, and he is not our Suimagination, he is equally interesting to perior, when he commands what is conthe student, for he reveals precisely how trary to God.” In the struggle for Italian а nervous American appreciates the unity, half a century ago, though Cardiquivering vitality of the physical world. nal Antonelli, Secretary of State to Pius

IX., declared that the greater excom

munication had not been put into force According to the New since the Middle Ages, and would not What is Greater

York Sun's special be used against the revolutionary PiedExcommunication ?

despatch, Pius X., in montese who had brought about the loss his campaign against Modernism, has of the Province of Romagna to the States pronounced the Greater Excommunica- of the Church, the Pope did launch that tion against all in any way concerned in excommunication against all who had the production or reading of the Italian promoted or abetted that separation. liberal monthly review, Il Rinnova- A decade later, Pius IX. similarly anathmento. Excommunication, as practiced ematized all who had taken part in by the Roman Catholic Church, may be the downfall of the Papacy's temporal either temporary or perpetual, partial or power.

Such a decree now strikes, if total. Total or greater excommunica we may believe the Sun's despatch, not tion involves the loss not only of the only the proprietors and editors, but the sacraments but also of the society and whole staff of printers and others emfellowship of the faithful in this world ployed in producing the Rinnovamento, and the next, and makes the offender, as as well as its every contributor, subfar as the Church has the power, an out- scriber, and reader. The Rinnovamento law. The greater excommunication was is not antagonistic to religion, but oppronounced by the Council of Nicæa poses the Vatican's present policy, as against the Arians, and in the Middle other protesting Modernists have done. Ages by the Council of Trent against The sentence was communicated on all heretics. Throughout the Middle Christmas Eve to the directors of the Ages excommunication was used with review by Cardinal Ferrari, Archbishop tremendous emotional effect both on of Milan, who, so says the despatch, heretics and believers. The awful words

also ordered to publish the were solemnly read at evening by the edict from the pulpit of his cathedral,

was

whence, it is stated, no similar manifesto been finished nor had any indictment has ever before resounded. The decree been formulated. A request that the corwill certainly sadden many Roman Cath- respondent be allowed to interview Mr. olic Liberals who, like Signor Fogazzaro, Tchaykovsky was at first refused; but the author of “ The Saint,” have felt that later it was intimated that the almost they could combine loyalty to their unheard-of privilege might be granted. Church with liberty of learning. It is a satisfaction to note, however, that their sadness does not overcome their sense

A correspondent of

Church and State either of justice or of their right to be

the New York Sun

in France heard. According to the despatch, the

has recently given a proprietors of the Rinnovamento have very interesting résumé of conditions in replied to the Papal fulmination by an the Roman Catholic Church, as he sees announcement of their intention to con them, after two years' separation from tinue a firm but respectful resistance to the State. When that separation took the Vatican's policy, which, they declare, place, many Catholics feared that it might is crushing the liberty of research em result in the disorganization of the bodied in the aim of their review. It Church in France; others believed that may seem to them and to us as if the it would be followed by a reawakening of punishment were disproportionate to the faith among the members of that Church, crime. In reality, however, Pius X.'s In the judgment of the correspondent, action shows a keen appreciation of the neither the fears nor the anticipations Rinnovamento's real influence. The have been entirely realized. The Church, fact that he would not discharge his high- he says, has gained independence in powered gun at a mosquito is the clear- ecclesiastical appointments and more est possible recognition of his adver- freedom in the exercise of its religious saries' strength.

ministry, and it has suffered a serious loss of property and finds itself deprived

of legal status, since the State no longer Under the caption takes legal cognizance of its existence. Assurances of a

Revolutionists and There has been no outburst of religious Fair Trial

Patriots" The Outlook fervor, but a large number of bishops last week described the efforts made in report that their dioceses have lost noththis country to secure the release or at ing by the separation, from the religious least open trial of Nicolas Tchaykovsky point of view, and that progress has and Catherine Breshkovsky. An Assobeen observed in various directions since ciated Press despatch from St. Petersburg the separation went into effect. It was now reports that the Russian Premier, feared, among other things, that the Mr. Stolypin, has received the American number of candidates for the priesthood petition, to which now some five thousand would be diminished. As a matter of names have been affixed. It is gratify- fact, in some dioceses it has actually ing to add that Mr. Stolypin, after per increased. Many bishops are pressing sonal inquiry into these cases, authorized the necessity of concentrating in importhe Associated Press correspondent to tant parishes in order to make them say from him that “the American public missionary centers, freed from adminis

rest assured that everything will trative interference and from the propabe done to avoid delay in the inquiry, gation of political ideas. The priests, and to give M. Tchaykovsky a fair trial according to some reports, are taking on before a competent court as

66

can

more and more the character of evangelpossible.” Russian and American ideas ists, and devoting themselves to social as to what constitutes a fair trial differ, duties. My ideal," says a leading but we hope that this utterance may be ecclesiastic, “is this: that the priest liberally construed. Mr. Stolypin re should be the teacher, the public benegretted his inability to reveal the details factor, rendering to his fellow-citizens all of•the accusation against the prisoner, as the moral and material service in his the preliminary investigation had not yet power, and devoting himself to them

soon as

often sung,

unconditionally with entire unselfish- two years of separation, the Sun's correness.” Another ecclesiastic puts his spondent declares the results seem to finger unerringly on one of the most indicate that the process of reorganizadisastrous blunders of the past when tion is well on its way, but that its proghe says, “We must abandon our isola- ress must be slow, and that persevering tion, get again in touch with the nation, efforts will be required to bring order appear among our contemporaries as and solidity into the church organizauseful factors, be not the men of a tion. It is significant of the Pope's religious party, but the men of all, the anxiety to help in the movement of remen of God."

organization that the number of French cardinals has been increased from five

to eight. According to this correReorganization

spondent, the two necessary tasks awaiting the Church are the A New Year's Homily development of religious teaching, and the spirit of association. The Church The praises of memory have been is now obliged to substitute its own

But to be able to forget organizations for that which the State what should be forgotten is as advanformerly furnished. In many dioceses tageous as to be able to remember what a double organization has been ar should be remembered. We praise a ranged, one administrative, taking the good forgettery. place of the former administrators of Forget your enmities. Forget the church property, the other of propa- wrongs that have been done you, the ganda, taking the place of Catholic com insults that have been offered you, the mittees on religious activity, the former injuries you have suffered. Or remember having as their first duty the financial them only to seek out some occasion for administration, the latter the founding of helping him who has wronged you. You schools and mission work through the have vowed that he shall never have an press and by lectures. An admirable opportunity to insult you again. Right. step has been taken in the direction of One way is to avoid him ; the other way publicity, and almost everywhere the is to make him your friend. Church is receiving and giving openly, Forget your faults and failures. Or and according laymen a large share remember them only to learn the lesson in the management of collections and they have to teach, the frailty or folly or the uses to which they are put. “Since wickedness of spirit which they should the public is called upon to pay the disclose to you—the vanity that weakens, expenses,” writes Monsignor Ricard, “it the pride that hardens, the greed that is clear that it may consider it has the corrupts. Let your past be not a ball right to know the budget of receipts and and chain tied to your ankle to keep you expenses.” Reports from many quarters back, but a journal to tell you what road show that the receipts collected by these you have traveled. Then, looking back improvised organizations are sufficient only long enough to see where you are for the annual maintenance of worship. and what your course should be, forget A broader participation in the life of the the things that are behind and press Church on the part of laymen appears forward. to be one of the features of the present Forget not your sorrows. You cannot condition ; and another promising fea- forget them. You do not wish to forget ture of that condition is the apparent them. But forget their bitterness. Fordetermination of the bishops not to form get the despairing, failing battle against a Catholic party.

That idea the Sun them. Forget the doubts of God's goodcorrespondent characterizes as “chimer ness and life's value which they awakical and dangerous," and declares that ened in you. Remember the alleviait is no longer to be feared. It has been tions, the consolations, the love of the rejected by a majority of authoritative loved one in the past, the sympathy of Catholics and by the bishops. After friends in the present, the comfort of

God's presence in all. Call to remem- supplied with water, this village and its brance your songs in the night.

surrounding farm lands are to be flooded. To remember the enmities of the year From this lake, and from one to be formed is to cultivate the spirit of hate ; to re- in the other basin, water is to be conmember the sins of the year is to indulge veyed in an aqueduct which will extend in the bitterness of remorse ; to remem- southward, piercing the Shawangunk ber the unavailing struggles against Mountains, crossing the level country to approaching sorrow in the year is to the Highlands of the Hudson, climbing continue the struggle after the issue has half-way up Storm King above West been determined.

Point, diving hundreds of feet beneath Only a little of our life is spent in the the bed of the Hudson River, and then present. Most of it is spent in memories winding for fifty miles or more down to of the past orin anticipations of the future. the thirsty city. In order to make the You can make these memories sorrowful lake of West Shokan, an enormous dam or joyful, these anticipations fears or of stone and earthwork must be built. hopes. You can make your New Year This is already named the Ashokan a happy New Year by forgetting the Dam. The whole enterprise requires enmities and remembering the friend- daring, skill, and well-adjusted co-operaships, forgetting the failures and remem- tion on the part of the engineering force. bering the successes, forgetting the de- An engineering force that is characterfeats and remembering the victories, ized by daring must be composed of men forgetting the bitterness in sorrow and with enthusiasm for their enterprise ; remembering its consolations.

one that is characterized by skill must The Outlook wishes you a Happy be composed of men of education ; one New Year.

that is characterized by co-operation must be composed of men inspired with an esprit de corps. The Board of Water

Mayor McClellan and Supply in charge of the planning and

the Aqueduct

construction of this aqueduct has created

such a force. By exercising rare judgMayor McClellan, of the city of New ment in selecting men, and by imparting York, is the official head of one of the to them a spirit of confidence and pride greatest public works, if not the greatest in their work, the Board has put at the ever undertaken by a single municipality. service of New York City an engineering This enterprise, which he has organized organization which in character and so auspiciously, is in danger of serious competency has probably never been if not irreparable injury.

equaled. In contrast to many undertakings To indicate how genuine is the enthuwhich have brought upon American siasm of the force a single instance must municipal government the reproach of suffice. One of the subordinate engiinefficiency and corruption, the engineer- neers, a man of varied experience in ing organization which has been created hydraulic work, had contributed certain for the purpose of constructing the great plans that improved very materially the Catskill Aqueduct has been conspicuous design of the aqueduct. After the work as an example of efficiency and public was under way he received from a private service. In the midst of the Catskill company the offer of a position not only Mountains there are two huge natural paying twice the salary he was receiving basins. At the bottom of one of these but also affording opportunities for most lies the charming little village of West interesting professional experience. He Shokan. On almost every side rise some declined and stuck to his post, not merely of the highest peaks of the Catskill out of a sense of duty, but also because range. Pleasant farm lands, many of of his faith in the work he was doing them with substantial and well-propor- and a quiet pride in the whole project. tioned old houses, stretch out from the To indicate how much expert knowledge village toward the wooded heights. has been put to the service of the city it That New York City may be amply must suffice here simply to refer to the

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