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Now, why should the binding of these docu- !| But, Mr. President, in addition to other objec- That the Committee on Printing be directed to contract

with Doneleon & Armstrong for the compositioa ant prog. ments be given to Donelson & Armstrong? Why tions, I regard this part of the amendment as an should it viot be handed over to the Secretary of the indignity to the honorable Secretary of the literior. Ceusu-, a* the same are cia-sifted and arranged by the site Interior, to be contracted for in conformity with the ' I do not suppose for a moment, nor would I wish retary oi the Interior, on such terin as they may judge to provisions of the law of 1842? Or, if it is not let to be understood as intimating the idea that it was be reasonable, and that said Secretary be directed in case

tract with the lowest bidder, in conformity with the at out to the lowest bidder, why not hand over the at all intended by the mover; but suppose that this

entitledAn act making appropriations for the civil and dep returns to the Committee on Printing, and let i amendment should be adopted and that the resolu- i tomatic expenses of the Government for the year 1443 them make a contract for the binding with the dif- tion should pass the two Houses of Congress, in approved on the 18th day of May, in the said year, for the ferent proprietors of binding establishments, of conformity with the provisions of this amendment: much paper of such quality as he shall judge proper far the

said work; and, in like manner, to contrnet for the binding which there is a considerable number in this city? I desire to inquire of the Senate what sort of ex

of the said returns as priated in such style as he may deer We of the Committee on Printing bave had a hibition do we make of this subject upon the rec-i exprdient; provided that the parties to vach of the raid on little experience in making contracts with binding ords of the Government? Do we not commence tracts shall give sufficient security for the due performance establishments in the city of Washington. We by saying that we have no confidence in the Sec

of the same; agd such paper as delivered, and such work

as executed shall be subjeet to the superintendence and io made a contract but a short time since, and, I be- retary of the Interior? Do we not say that we lieve, a very prudent and judicious contract too. cannot confide to him the power of making this spoeling of the said Secretary, or such person as be mag It has been my good fortune to concur most fully, I contract? And, having said that, having said that Now here I propose that the Committee on and on all occasions, with the views and opinions we cannot trust the Secretary of the Interior with Printing-though I do not admit that this is proper of my honorable friends constituting a majority of the power of making this contract, the honorable to be done by any means, for I do not admit that that committee. Senator proposes that we should lake it into our

this is a branch of printing that is in any sense But the honorable Senator from North Carolina own hands, and that, when we come to the per i within the jurisdiction of the two Houses of Consays: I want to hand over to the " Union" office formance of it, we should further say, “we will gress--but if the Senate, by a majority, shall rethe binding of these documents, and place them let you see if there is any failure in the execution ject my proposition, I shall assume that it is the in a condition that they can job it out and extort of the contract in conformity with the stipula- sense of the Senate, as they have the power, and from the hard-working mechanics and artisans tions." Sir, I think this is a poor compliment to that it is proper for them, to direct the Committee of this city, who are engaged in this branch of li the Secretary of the Interior, to come from any on Printing to enter into this contract; and, yieldindustry; to give them an opportunity to extort a side of this Chamber. But I desire to propounding as I do with great cheerfulness to the opinion percentage from them. And we know they will for the consideration of my friend, the old inquiry of the niajority in this body, I then shall propose doit. Sir, I will never consent to any such scheme i ! wish to know what sort of printing this is ? is that the two Houses of Congress give to Donelson as this. As I have already remarked, the two l it Congressional printing, or is it departmental & Armstrong the composition and press-work. Houses of Congress have had some experience printing? I insisted the other day that it was That is a branch which pertains to their business. upon this subject. At the last Congress we made departmental printing; and if so, why is Con- They are engaged in printing. Let them have the a contract for the execution of the public printing, gress making any contract about it? If, on the composition and press-work, and I propose then mainly with Messrs. Belt & Trenholm, and with other hand, it is Congressional printing, why do that we shall furnish our own paper and do our these same gentlemen we made a contract for the we call on the Secretary of the Interior to inter- own bindmg. And how shall we furnish our owa execution of the binding of the two Houses of fere in the matter? At one moment the honorable paper and do our own binding? Not by authorCongress, although they were not practical book. Senator from North Carolina assumes that it is izing the Secretary of the Interior to let it out to binders, and although they had no bindery. And Congressional printing, and therefore he proposes some favorite, or to purchase the paper of some what did they do? They underlet the binding to that the contraet shall be negotiated, drawn up, | favorite at an extravagant price; but procure it, as be done by others, and as I have been credibly

in- and entered into by the standing Committees on all other paper is procured, from the lowest bidder, formed, they extorted a profit from the workmen Printing of both Houses of Congress. But, after and let out the binding to the lowest bidder. Well

, engaged in that business of some seven or eight we have drawn the contract, if it is Congressional then, I desire to inquire of the Senate whether thousand dollars. That is what will be done again, || printing, why not call upon A. B. Hamilton to this is not all that Donelson & Armstrong, and if this scheme of the honorable Senator from execute the contract? But the honorable Senator all their friends, ought to ask? I propose that North Carolina is adopted.

being perfectly aware that this could hardly be ) we shall give them a large job, to wit, the execu, Sir, I will not dwell upon this subject further. regarded as Congressional printing, and after hav- . tion of the composition and press-work; and I Whatever the majority of this honorable body ing said, as he proposes that we should say here, i propose that we shall furnish our own paper; or, may do with regard to the printing of this work, that the Secretary of the Interior should not be in other words, I am unwilling that Donelson & I have not the slightest apprehension they are about intrusted with the negotiation of the contract, Armstrong shall make a large profit on the paper. to yield their assent to the proposition to hand over he then proposes to put its execution into his Why should we squander the public money by to the proprietors of the Union” the binding of hands with large powers-the power of abating paying them a large profit on the paper? But if this work, which will certainly amount to a very from the price if there is not an exact conformity large sum of money: with the stipulations of the contract. Now 1 the supply of the paper, as I propose in this

we separate the composition and press-work from But there is another objection, Mr. President, | object to this in toto. l object to it not only as an amendment to do, then the Government will obto this amendment. It provides ihat the Joint indignity to the Secretary of the Interior, but also tain the paper at wholesale prices, and there will Committee on Printing be directed to contract with on the ground that, if we take this business into be no loss to the Government under the head of Donelson & Armstrong for the printing and bind- our hands at all, we should go through with the paper. ing of the returns of the census, on such terms as work; and I am for seeing to the execution of the But if we make a contract in the manner prothe committee may think reasonable and proper. I work; I am for attending to the performance of posed in the original resolution, and in the manner Then come some other provisions--namely, that our own contract; I am for investing the Commit- proposed by the honorable Senator from North the work shall be executed under the direction of tee on Printing with the power of deciding whether | Carolina in his amendment, that Donelson & the Secretary of the Interior, and be paid for from or not there is a conformity to the terms of the con- || Armstrong shall do the press-work and furnish the time to time, during its progress, by the head of tract. 1 object, however, in loto to having this paper, I say they will make enormous, or at least the Census Bureau, under the direction of the thing partly in the hands of the committee of the very large profits. I do not say they will cheat Secretary, with power in the Secretary to abate two Houses of Congress, and partly in the hands the Government, but they will

do as other men do from the amount stipulated, if the work, when of the Secretary of the Interior. I cannot, there who mean to be upright and honest. They will executed, shall prove deficient, or below the stund- fore, agree to any such proposition as this, nor purchase the paper at a lower rate than is contem. ard which may be agreed upon,

shall I agree to it, because the honorable mover plated, undoubtedly, by the committee, and will In the first place, then, with regard to these has seen fit to baptize it with the name of " com- | make a considerable percentage on the mere paper. clauses or provisions of the amendment of the hon- promise.” It is no compromise at all. It is rather But have we any assurance that the paper will not orable Senator from North Carolina, I have to say an exaggeration of the original proposition. I have be inferior to the standard: That has been our that they are totally unnecessary. Does the hon- to say to the Senate, however, that I am a compro- experience on that subject; and have we not rexorable Senator suppose, that if the Committee on mise mạn on all subjects; and I do no mean to exPrinting be directed to make this contract, the hibit myself bere as an extremist. Should my inferiority of the paper Sir, it is inevitable

; it

son to suppose that a profit will be made by the members of that committee will not insert in the amendment be rejected by a majority of this body, ever has been, and it ever will be so. contract proper stipulations and guarantees for the I am prepared to submit a real compromise, which due performance of the work? The amendment shall be something better, and which shall be truly the paper, and that it shall execute the binding of

I propose, then, that Government shall furnish really recurs to a matter which appertains exclu- an intermediate proposition. I have drawn up an this work, by letting it out to the lowest bidder; sively to the duties of the committee. You know annendment, which I hope will meet with the ap- and to let out by contract the mere composition well enough, sir, that in making the contract in probation of honorable Senators, constituting the and press-work to Donelson & Armstrong. Now, should insert in every other contract which the and liberal footing to give, in fact, to Donelson like the hanąle of a jug, all on one side; it is an Senate may direct us to make-stipulations and & Armstrong the privilege of executing this work, intermediate proposition, not a more extravagant guarantees, in order to insure

a due compliance but, at the same time, providing adequate securi- | proposition, as I insist that the amendment of the with the terms of the contract. Now I am not ties for the public interest; to prevent, in other honorable Senator from North Carolina is, than prepared to say, that these are the proper stipula- words, a most enormous expenditure of the public the original resolution. It is an intermediate prapa tions, or the proper guarantees. I am not prepared money, and the acquisition of enormous profits by i osition; and I must acknowledge, Mr. President

, to say, that they are by any means the best stipu- | the gentlemen whose names are introduced in this that I am anxious to introduce into the public set; lations and guarantees that can be made. What resolution; and"I ask the attention of the Senate to vice this rule of furnishing our own paper. 1 stipulations we should insert, what guarantees we it, so that Senators may have an opportunity or would farnish it for the Departments and for Conmatter which should come before the committee, regards to an intermediate proposition, with the from the difficulties and embarrassments in which and be inserted in the contract itself, and not in amendment proposed by the honorable Senator any resolution which this honorable body may from North Carolina. This is the amendment

we have been involved.

Now, I have no feelings on this subject whatpass. I propose:

ever. I shall content myself with doing what I


conceive to be my duty. The Senate having been my proposed amendment to his, in the first place, that the heads of the Departments acquire jurisdicpleased to assign me a situation on the Committee because it will place the committee under great'em. tion and control over the putting ont of contracts on Printing, I have been constrained to come before barrassments in making the contract. Why? for printing? Is that one of the Executive powthe Senate in relation to this subject.' I regret to Because it does not specify the number of copies ers of the Government? Is it the potion of the differ from other honorable members of this body, to be printed. I have been a shorter period of time honorable Senator, that it is vested in the head of but I have expressed my honest convictions in in public life than the honorable Senator, although the Department, and if we undertake to pass a this regard. I believe my original amendment is I trust I have rather cooled down and restrained law by which its destination is changed, we are right, and I humbly conceive it ought to be ndopt the passions of my nature, and used my brief ex- violating the constitutional rights of the Execued by a majority of this honorable body. How

perience to a more profitable extent than the Sena- tive? Surely, no man can suppose this. All the ever, if the judgment of the majority be other. ior from Connecticut; but I supposed that he authority that the heads of the Departments have wise, and if that amendment be rejected, then I would understand that I meant to do one thing at over this subject, is derived from acts of Congress. will come before the Senate with this compromise a time. The first object with nie, is to ascertain We conferred the power, such as it is, and we proposition; and I believe there are moderate whether the plan which my amendment proposes, have a right to take it back in whole or in part. members enough in this honorable body who do for the execution of this public printing, nieets the We have a right to provide, that all the printing nou desire any arrangement to be made with Don- | approbation of the Senate: If it does not, why for the Departments shall be done under the dis elson & Armstrong except what is a reasonable | cùmber it with a clause about the number of copies | rection of committees of our own body. The arranyement; who do not desire to hand over to to be printed? If the Senate are not disposed to whole subject is one absolutely under the jurisdicthem an enormous amount of profits in this man- print on that plan at all, it is idle to talk about the tion of Congress. I do not mean that it would be ner. I trust and believe there are honorable mem- number of copies. When we shall have ascer- decent or becoming for Congress to do so. “I do bers enough to be found in this body who will rained that the Senate will adope my proposed not mean that I would agree to do it. But peryield their assent to the intermediate measure plan of printing, I shall be prepared to relieve my

mit me to say,

that when the Senator uses the which I now propose. And I have to say further, honorable friend of the Committee on Printing word " usurpation," he uses language, in relation • that if it should assume the form which I have in- from the dreadful embarrassments to which he sup- to this subject, that has no meaning. dicated, although I believe it is wrong in principle poses the committee will be subjected.

The honorable Senator says that his amendment and bad in practice, yet I believe the result of it In the next place, the honorable Senator says is the best that can be proposed. No doulit he will be such that the people of the country will he objects to my amendment, because it offers an

thinks so.

I am not quite prepared to say that of have no occasion of complaint. I believe there indignity to the Secretary of the Interior. He my' amendment. But I think it is a pretiy good will be no very great amount of the public treasure very charitably supposes that perhaps I did not one. I think it is a respectable amendment. I squandered upon these gentlemen, who, ( doubt mean any indignity; that my heart was right, but think it might have been discussed in this Chamnoi, are very deservedly and very properly the chat I had not understanding to perceive that I was ber without any 'exhibition of warmth and excité. favorites of a majority of this honorable body. offering an insult to that gentleman. I beg to as

It relates to a 'business transaction. I With these 'reinarks, I yield the subject to the sure the Senator, that I not only consider myself | suppose we all have a right to use our judgment hands of the Senate, prepared to acquiesce in any incapable of offering an insult to anybody who about the best manner of doing the business. result to which the Senaie may come.

comes before this Senate-not only to the Secre- What is the Senator's proposition:' He says he Mr. BADGER. I had not the slightest expect- tary of the Interior, but to the carriers on of a has another amendment. Aye, sir, reject his presation that the amendment which l oilered would, public printing establishment, or bindery, or any- ent amendment, and he has one that he says will for a moment, cominand the assent and meet the ihing else for I hope the principle by which I im be the very thing, upon the principle of comproapprovation of the Senator from Connecticut. Il regulated is to treat men, in all classes of society, i mise; and he says the people of the United States had no wild and visionary ideas that that Senator with proper respect and decorum. I am not only will not have any reason to complain of it, alilough would be satisfied with anything which he did not as incapable as the Senator of offering an insult ke admis it is wrong in principle and bad in prachimself propose. I confess I did have some faint and an affront to a gentleman whom I esteem, but tice. That is a curious way of commending a hope that he would have departed from his usual I think myself as capable to distinguish when lan- | matter of compromise to the consideration of the practice of lashing himself into a rage upon any guage does import an affront. What is the affront Senate. The people of the United States will have exhibition in this body of an opinion different from which the honorable Senator says I have ventured, no right to complain of an amendment, which he that entertained by himself

. The hope was faint; || because I do not know the effect and purport of the himself admits io be wrong in principle and bad in still it existed. But, in that I have been unhap- language I have used in this amendment, to offer practice!" If they cannot complain of that, I pray pily disappointed.

to the Secretary of the Interior? It is, that I pro- l you,'sir, of what can they complain? Permit me The Senator concluded by a declaration that he pose to give to him an absolute control, witliout io say further, that when the Senator conimends has no feeling on this subject. How are

e we to

appeal, upon the fidelity with which this work is an amendment to the consideration of this body, judge whether he has or 'noi? Are all the external to be executed; that I have such an entire confi- || admitting that it is wrong in principle and bad in exhibitions of heat, and animation, and force, and idence in him, such a reliance upon his fairness, | practice, and yet says' the people of the United insinuation, put on? Would the Senator'have us intelligence, and honor, that I am willing to submit | States, whose money is to be used in carrying out understand that it was all acting, and that, while to him to say, without constituting any tribunal of and executing 'its purpose, have no right to comhe seems to be in a towering passion at the ex- appeal from him, whether these contractors' shall plain,'he estops himself from offering any compectation of some ruthless violence, somé atrocious have executed the work according to the agree-plaint against amendments offered by any other fraud, some deep and large plundering of the pub- ment, and by his mere word to strike down the Senator. If I thought the amendment which 'I lic Treasury, which are likely to be perpetrated on compensation agreed to be allowed them, to any have had the honor io propose was wrong in prin. the country, he is all the time perfectly cool, and extent he pleases. Is that an indignity? Does it ciple, or would prove bad in practice, I would feely nothing of what he exhibits in manner and imply any disrespect to the honorable Secretary? certainly instantly withdraw it. But I believe expresses in language?

I imagine the honorable Senator is the only man neither. The honorable Senator speaks of oppression and in this Chamber, or in the world, who could sup. What does the Senator propose? Why, says extortion, and yet he is perfectly cool. What is

he, we will give Donelson & Armstrong the print. there in the character of Messrs. Donelson & Let us trace this matter upon the point of indig. | ing and press-work; we will make a bargain, and Armstrong ihai entitles him to talk about "oppres-nity a little. What does the honorable Senator trust them to do that; but upon what pretense do sion and extortion?" If the Senator means what himself propose? What is the existing law with you give them the binding? 'He says they are not he said, how is that consistent with his subise- regard to the departmental printing? Does it give binders. He says, also, they are not practical quent declaration that he meant rio impenchment any discretion to the head of a Department? Is | printers; so that if the fact that they are not binders upon their character, and that he supposed them hie'not required to advertise for whaterer printing furnishes a sufficient 'reason why they should not to be worthy and good men? If the latter declá- and supplies he needs in his office? Is he not ava have the binding, the fact that they are not pracration be sincére, how can he justify himself in solutely compelled to give it to the lowest bidder tičal printers ought to prevent then having the aceusing men, whom he admits to be upright, of The only trust reposed in him is, that he will be printing. But my friend does not aver that. He interided oppression and extortion?

able to tell that $650 is less than $675. My amend-says that if they get the binding, they will give it But further: the honorable Senator seems to be ment proposes not to put him in that degrading out and exercise oppression and exíortion upon stimulated to almost a fury against myself; and position. I say that it is a degrading position, mechanics-practical binders. I have already rehaving, the other day, very strongly intimated and I would willingly, if I could, abolish the whole marked, as far as I thought necessary, upon the that the Senator from Indiana, (Mr. Bright',] system. But the amendment proposes that the use of languaye of that kind in this Chamber when who introduced the original resolution, had some committee of Congress shall make this contract; applied to persons convicted of no infamous crime, secret purpose to be engaged in plundering the and when the contract is made, we trust to the in- | and who are, therefore, entitled to be considered Treasury, he now intimates that I am disposed to telligence, fairness, and fidelity of the Secretary as decently honest, " indifferently honest,”as old go even further than that honorable and absent of the Interior to see that it is faithfully executed. Jack Falstaff" used to say. But the honorable Senator. Mr. President, I am, myself, generally Where is the inconsistency of this? The honor- Senator oughi to have furnished himself with the in the habit of supposing that I am operated upon able Senator says, that if this we Congressional facts in the case, before he passed such a decided by honest motives in what I do. What I propose, printing, we are violating our contract with the land dogmatic judginent. I suppose he is not aware l'avow. And feeling conscious of such a princi- persons who have stipulated to do the work for that Donelson & Armstrong have one of the most ple and motive of action in myself, I am not or

the two Houses of Congress. I admit it is not extensive binderies in the United States, and one dinarily in the habit of supposing that those who Congressional printing. It does not come within of the most accomplished practical binders in the diller from me must therefore necessarily be in- the terms of the contract for doing the Congres- United States. They are, therefore, as much prefluenced by bad motives, or must act through dis- sional printing. No man supposes it does. pared to do the binding as the printing. They do honest and insidious purposes and ends. After

Then, the next place, the honorable Senator not mean to do either with their own hands; but laging made these remarks, let me ask the atten- says it is departmental printing, and therefore it they have employees under their control competent tion of the Senate for a moment to see what it is is usurpation for the legislative body of this coun- to do both. that has stirred up this "tempest in a tea-pot,” on try to undertake to direct the manner in which the Then there is a difficulty with regard to the this occasion.

contract should be made and executed. Can he paper. The Senator says, upon this plan, it is The honorable Senator says that he objects to inform me by what part of the Constitution it is, il certain, it is inevitable that ihe Government will

pose so.

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be cheated in the quality of the paper; but upon cer of the Government. True, sir, every one may || during the recess of Congress, would the Senator his plan the Government will be sure not to be make a bad bargain. True, sir, all of us united | propose that the members of the Joint Committee cheated. Let us see. Suppose these men have together, wise, as we all know we are, collectively || should sit here, each drawing his per diem, for the made a contract; they have furnished a sample of and individually, may make a bad bargain. The purpose of supervising the execution of this printthe paper. I should be glad to be informed how Committee on Printing may be overreached. The ing? it necessarily follows that they must cheat the i Secretary of the Interior may be overreached. So I think that if this matter is properly considered, Secretary of the Interior, and that he cannot de- may every human being. But I feel a very strong. Senators will come to the conclusion, that if my termine whether the paper corresponds with the confidence that while my friend from Connecticut amendment is not the best in the world, it is a fair sample. He is to decide if the paper corresponds is on that committee, there will be no great amount and reasonable one. If there were any errors and with the sample. He has entire furisdiction over of overreaching practiced on the Government; and mistakes in it, I think my friend from Connecticut the subject. We must order paper to be obtained if I wanted any reason to make me additionally I might have pointed them out in good temper, and somewhere. Somebody or other, some human confident in the trust reposed in the committee, | not have treated me as if I was coming forward to being—we cannot invoke superhuman assist- the very fact that he has been designated a mem- aid and abet the honorable Senator from Indiana ance on this subject-must be called upon to de- ber of it, would furnish it.

in making a foray into the Treasury of the United termine whether the paper furnished corresponds Sir, exercising wliat I consider an unquestiona- States. I can assure my friend that I have no with the sample. Who is to do it? Shall it be ble jurisdiction of legislative power over this sub- such purpose in view. I want this work to be exdone by the Committee on Printing? I have the jeci; invading no Executive right; offering affronts | ecuted. I want it taken out of the lowest-bidder highest respect for every member of that commit- and insults to no one; I propose to amend this | system. I wish it to be well done, and done in a tee; but I cannot attribute infallibility to them. If! resolution so as to leave the Committee on Print- way in which it shall be honorable to the Governit is possible, if it is probable, or if it is certain, i idg to enter into this contract. For the reasons ment. I want the man who executes it to be well .that the Secretary of the Interior will be imposed | which I have stated, I think they can and will paid for it; acting upon the same rule here in reupon, I think it is not unreasonable or extravagant make a fair, just, and reasonable bargain. The gard to the public business that I trust I do in to suppose that even that committee mighi be honorable Senator from Connecticut seems to regard to my private transactions. To insure the made the subject of imposition.

think that large profits will be made out of the faithful execution of the work, I am willing to Mr. President, I have no feeling about this mat- Government. He said he would not say exorbi- trust to the extremely honorable gentleman who is ter. I felt nothing about it until I found myself tant profits. Well, this is a large work; and, for at the head of the Department of the Interior. Arraigned here by the Senator from Connecticut, my own part, I am willing to pay a large and lib. Mr. CASS. I desire to say a few words on this merely because I thought proper to differ from eral compensation to any body of contractors, or subject, and they shall be but a very few. The him as to the mode in which this contract ought any individual contractor, who will give it to us so necessity of public printing is felt by all. The to be made. I have said before to the Senate that executed as to be a credit to the country and worthy question before the Senate is, as to the mode. Shall I was influenced by two considerations on this of preservation. I have no desire whatever that we cffect it by a contract previously entered into, subject. One was a desire that this work should persons who do work of this kind for the Govern- | and wait its execution, or shall we take the means not be put out to the lowest bidder. Why? Be- ment should be otherwise than well paid. I be of effecting it ourselves, under the supervision of cause we have had ample experience in this Cham- | lieve there is no more striking exhibition of "penny the proper committee? Now, why not give an ber that nothing that is put out to the lowest bid- wise, pound folly," than in the attempt to obtain open contract, as it is called ? For very sufficient der is well executed. However unimportant—if from others work, or property, or service, for less reasons, founded on experience. In the first place, gentlemen think it unimportant-it may be, that than a fair and full remuneration. I should be you have no security in such a case as to the time, the ordinary documents here should be printed on extremely sorry if my friend from the Committee as I observed on another occasion, and the decenbad paper, with bad type, and when printed on on Printing would be disposed—I do not believe nial period may again come round before you get this

paper and tyre, villainously bound, I do he would—to make a hard and exacting bargain. your census printed. You will not get the Presithink'if Congress is going to make a large outlay | On the contrary, I do him the full credit to believe, il dent's message, probably, until the end of the ses. necessary to publish the results of the late census, that while he wants to do the Government all jus- | sion. We expend thousands and thousands of it concerns the honor of the nation that such a tice, he would be the last man on the committee dollars for printing the documents, whose interest document should be printed on the best material, who would be willing to do injustice to individ- || depends on their immediate use for the American in the best manner, and bound most effectually for uals.

people, and the subject of them sometimes passes preservation. This will not be like our ordinary Now, supposing the contract well made, my into oblivion before the documents appear. Now documents, which are kept at home and seen only | friend from Connecticut is exceedingly disturbed will we pursue such a system in regard to such an by our own people, most of them exciting but because my amendment proposes to supersede the important work as this? temporary interest, and soon passing into oblivion. | necessity of those precise, accurate, and cautious Again: all experience shows that you cannot But these census returns, when printed, are des- || provisions which the committee might think proper | depend upon the execution of the coniracts made tined to go over the whole earth. I, for one, as to put in the contract for its effectual execution. I with the lowest bidders. Propositions are made an American citizen and an American Senator, am have no doubt in the world that the committee will | exceedingly low-lower than parties can afford to not willing, occupying the position we do in the do their best; I have no doubt that their best will do them; and then they must do one of two things world, that we should stand degraded by a miser- be good. But inasmnch as I think the committee | -abandon the contract, or do the work in an imable presentation of a low, poor, ineffectual, and could devise no better plan than the one proposed proper manner, and with improper materials. If discreditable execution of this work.

in the amendment which I have submitted, I see the contracts are abandoned, and Congress is not One word as to what my amendment proposes. no reason why we should leave to the committee || in session, the work goes over to another session. The Committee on Printing are to contract with that which we can better do ourselves. And I am so it may be through the whole period. On the Messrs. Donelson & Armstrong for printing and very certain of one thing—that my honorable other hand, and as the Senator from North Caro. binding the census returns on such terms as the friend, the chairman of the committee, will be ex- lina correctly observed, this is one of that class of committee may think reasonable and proper. I tremely glad to be relieved from that responsibility, | documents which requires to be well done. If a suppose my friend from Connecticut cannot object as he would from any other responsibility not contractor enters into an improvident contract, his to that. He would not have the contract made on fairly and necessarily, imposed upon him in con- only other resource besides that which I have menterms unreasonable and improper. We have con- nection with this business. What is the proposal | Lioned, is to do the work badly, as a great deal of fidence in the intelligence and integrity of the mem- To leave to the Secretary of the Interior the super- our printing is done. I am sure every Senator must bers of the committee. We feel sure that they || vision of the execution of the work. There is, | be ashamed of the mode in which a great deal of will be able and willing to make a contract upon surely, no impropriety in that. This is a docu- our printing is executed. I presume there is no reasonable and proper terms. We are—at least ment compiled under his superintendence. It came | gentleman here who would have work for his own I am—willing to confide that jurisdiction to them. from his Department, and its supervision naturally private use done in the manner in which much of I formerly said to the Senate, that I should have falls to his Department. In that he will be aided our work is done here. felt myself bound to vote for relieving the com- by the head of the Census Bureau, who is familiar Then for these three very sufficient reasons, that mittee from this duty, if the honorable chairman with the whole work, and who has the strongest we may not have the work done at all that we may had persisted in his objection. That was on a possible interest in its faithful, correct, and per- have is delayed, or badly done, it is proposed that ground personal to the Senator. But when the | fectly accurate execution.

the committee should enter into a contract with some commitiee are willing to undertake it, I am willing Now, what is proposed better than this? The person or other, on reasonable and proper terms, to to trust them. What is the difficulty about their honorable Senator says that I propose first to let the execute this work within a proper time. Is this making a fair and reasonable contract in relation committee make the contract, and then not to allow anything very extraordinary under this Govern. to one part of this work as well as another? If them to complete the business. The reason for that ment? Is it one of those extraordinary proposithey can make a fair and reasonable contract for | is very obvious. The Committee on Printing can tions that occasioned a revolution in the mind of the printing and press-work, why can they not easily make a contract, and when the contract is every honest man, such as it appears to have oe: for the paper? I do not understand that there is settled there is no necessity for their further inter- | casioned in the mind of the honorable Senator any particular mystery about making a contract position. If this work is to be executed it will from Connecticut, and on which he has spent 80 for paper. If the size and quality of the paper is be going on for months. It will be in process of much virtuous indignation ? Certainly not. You stipulated for, and a sample is furnished, why can- execution during the recess of Congress. The do the same thing every day. If you pass an apnot the committee make a reasonable and proper supervision

musi be vigilant and incessant. You | propriation of one hundred thousand dollars for a contract for it as well as for press-work? I do not must, therefore, have somebody to execute it who || particular building, you leave it to the executive know any reason why they cannot. They can is required to be here, who is always ready to officer to expend it as he pleases, to make a conascertain what are the wholesale prices for paper | apply himself to the exercise of such functions. tract for the materials, and then have it put up by as well as the price for press-work. So with re- This the committee cannot do. If the printing is day's labor, or contract for both materials and gard to the binding. There is, therefore, no more to go on during the session, would the honorable labor. He may expend it just in that way which necessary reason why the Government should Senator propose that the members of the Joint he thinks the interests of the country require. suffer injustice in a contract to be made by this Committee on Printing should give up their time This

is done very frequently. Our statute-books committee, than there is in any other contract to to the daily supervision of the mode of the execu- are filled with just such cases. The same princi be made by any other committee, or by any offi- tion of the contract. If the printing is to go on Il ple is adopted in the Army–in the Navy-in

every department of Government. It is a discretion will be as safe in their hands as in the hands of differs very widely from me. I find in it matter you necessarily intrust sometimes to one officer any officer of the Government.

which is altogether unfit for publication. There and sometimes to another.

Mr. BORLAND. I am sorry to be compelled | is much matter here which was not contemplated, May we ask, why do we not leave this to the to trouble the Senate with any remarks on this intended, nor provided for by the law; such as the discretion of the executive officers? For the very subject, as I consumed a great deal of time when Superintendent of the Census had no authority to best of all reasons, because there is danger of the it was under consideration before. It is in every incorporate in the census returns, or present here work being not done at all, or badly done; and it way distasteful to me, and I approach it with great | in a plan of publication. He has exceeded his is a question whether three members of the Senate reluctance, on many accounts. I think the views | authority, and put in a large amount of matter and ihree members of the House of Representa- | which I suggested at the close of the debate on which the law did not authorize por provide for. tives, constituting the Joint Committee on Printing, this resolution when last discussed, some three Here we have a history of Maryland. Did the are not as competent to execute this duty as any weeks ago, apply to the subject as it is again pre- law provide for that? 'In the provision it made executive officer of the Government, be he high or sented to us." The proposition is, to do what we for employing a clerk to superintend the taking low. Will any man say they have not integrity are still unprepared to do. It is a proposition to of the census, did it contemplate the establishment enough to execute it faithfully and justly, as much print a work which is not before us, and the char- of an historical bureau and the appointment of a as any officer of the Government out of the walls of acter and extent of which we neither know nor historiographer of the United States? And even this Chamber? No one wouid advance such a understand. Now, can any Senator upon this supposing such had been the contemplation or preposterous idea. No man, with any respect for foor tell me what it is proposed to print? What provision of the law, has there been sufficient time his own feelings or the feelings of his colleagues, is the extent or character of the work? What to compile such a history as we would be justified would say that such is the case. I take it that number of pages, or what number of volumes will in publishing or, I would ask, and that, too, within the formation of this contract the duty is safely it make? Does any Senator know anything about out disrespect or disparagement to the particular lodged in these three members of the Senate and it? If so, I should be glad to hear. "For the last individual, has he the requisite qualifications to three members of the House of Representatives, three weeks, since the question was postponed, I write a history of all, or of any, of the States of particularly when they have so able and

so willing have examined it as closely and as thoroughly as this Union? Here we have a general historical a man as the Senator from Connecticut to watch I was able to do. I have investigated it in a spirit account of Maryland, occupying ten pages-and their proceedings; and I am confident that no officer of candor, and with a sincere desire to learn enough then a particular history of each county, making of the Government, from the President down to of it to guide my judgment for this occasion; but eight pages more-eighleen pages together, out of the lowest officer, (if you can apply the term "low" | I have been utterly unable to ascertain what, or ninety-six, or nearly one fifth of the whole book! to any officer of the Government,) is more able to how much, is proposed by the resolution to be Now, where is the basis of such a history? do this work.

printed. And I venture now to say, that if any Whence were the materials drawn, and by whom Messrs. Donelson & Armstrong are designated Senator will rise and state his opinions as to the collected? Who will vouch for their accuracy in the resolution. Why? Every one knows that extent of the work, or what part of it shall be And yet, if we publish them, as proposed, in an they are ready to go on with the work. They printed, there will be no two Senators here to official form, and send them out under our sanchave got the materials--they have got the presses. I agree with him.

tion and authority, we make ourselves responsible Therefore they are designated. What is required ? If, in its present form, and with the obstacles before the world for everything this young gentleSimply, that a proper and just contract should be I have stated in the way of its practical execution, man, who is called the Superintendent of Census, made with them by six members of Congress this resolution be adopted, we shall place our- may have thought proper to write or compile responsible to their respective Houses, and respon- selves in a position which I cannot better express | without authority of law. I, for one, am unwillsible to the country for their action. All I have my opinion of, than by an anecdote, which, if the ing to indorse such a history as this, which, in to say is, that if any member of this Senate will Senate will pardon me, I will relate: In past times, my opinion, without disparaging the intelligence rise up and say that this power is not safely lodged it is told, there existed, somewhere in my good old or impugning the motives of its author, I cannot in the hands of six such men, he has a much native State, Virginia, a convivial club, composed believe he was qualified to write or compile. lower opinion of a member of Congress and of his of some dozen or more of gentlemen, who were I wish now to call the attention of Senators to integrity than I have.

fond of wine and good living, and once a week, or another portion of this book; and it is one upon A word now with respect to another point which oftener, met each other around the social board, which I claim to speak with some freedom. I rewas very well met by the honorable Senator from the wine, perhaps, predominating at the entertain-| fer to what is headed “ Medical Statistics.of North Carolina. It is that this power of super- | ment. During the time of this association, the | this, there are some twenty-five pages in this book vision given to the Secretary of the Interior is all country was afflicted by a severe and protracted of ninety-six pages. True, in the census bill diright-is just precisely as it should be. I under-drought. No rain had fallen for many weeks. rection was given to ascertain the deaths, and the stand that the gentlemen who are named in the Great apprehension begun to be felt for the fate of causes of the deaths of individuals throughout the resolution as contractors are perfectly willing that the growing crops, and the general welfare of the United States, for the year preceding the 1st of there should be this supervision. They are per- community. At this time, a meeting of the club June, 1850. But did any one suppose at that fectly willing that they should be checked by a was held, and one of the members proposed, as a time-did any one understand, that it was to emhigh officer of the Government. It is preposterous means of propitiating the overruling providence, brace a compilation of medical statistics by the to talk about insulting an officer of the Govern- | that the club should so far moderate their indul deputy, marshals, and a treatise on the subject ment by requiring him to do this duty: If he gences as to abstain from drinking until it should || preceding the statistics by a young gentleman who should feel insulted by having such a duty im- || rain; and a formal resolution to that effect was is not known as a medical man, and who, so far posed on him by Congress, he has one clear adopted. But the drought continued. Several as I know, makes no pretension to be one? Did remedy, that is, to quit his office. But I know weeks rolled by, and several meetings of the club any one suspect that such a production as this very well the Secretary of the Interior is a man of) were held. The thirst of the earth was great, but was to be brought here? Here we have a treatise high character and a faithful officer, and he would not greater than that of the club. A fourth or a on the nicest questions in medical science, which be guilty of no such folly. He would execute fifth meeting was held, and yet the skies gave no have been mooted for ages by the profession; our law requiring him to superintend the expendi- | signs of relenting. At last, an old and influential here, also, tabular statements of disease, and dogture of one or two hundred thousand dollars, and member rose and gravely declared that his drought || matical discriminations between fevers, laid off in he would not consider it an insult to see that the || had become intolerable; and that as relief was in- rule and figure work, with the precision of a dework was properly done. Now how could the dispensable to him, as he supposed it was to his monstration in mathematics! Here, sir, we find Committee of Congress execute this duty of super- | associates, he would propose an expedient, by catarrhal, inflammatory, bilious, and congestive vision? How would they have the time to devote which it might be afforded to all; and he put it in | fevers, regularly separated and arranged; and even to it? It was very well said by the Senator from this form: "Resolved, That it rains." This was that nicest, and often most difficult, of all distincNorth Carolina, they cannot go every day and adopted by acclamation, and the club returned tions, (I mean the distinction between typhus and see how the contractor is getting along. I take joyously to their potations.

typhoid fever,) drawn with a boldness and a dogit that any contractor for such a work as this, The adoption of this resolution will, I think, | matism from which the ablest and most experiintending to execute the contract, would, from place the Senate somewhat in the position of this enced of our medical men would shrink. And all day to day, and as the work went on, submit it convivial club. It will be resolving, or at least this by a young gentleman who, it is to be preto the supervisory power. He would not wait assuming, that a state of things exists which, in sumed, cannot have the peculiar qualifications inuntil one half or three quarters of the work was fact, does not exist. It will be assuming that a dispensable to the performance of such a work, done, for fear it might be rejected; but he would certain amount and kind of information is before but selected altogether, it is understood, for his from day to day, and from time to time, as should us which, in fact, is not here. It will be assum- present position in view of his general intelligence, be necessary, exhibit his work and ascertain the ing, and legislating upon the assumption, that a and some aptitude in statistical studies. opinion of the supervisory officer upon it, and act provision of the census law has been complied But suppose, for the argument, that the law did accordingly. The committee cannot do that, es- with by an Executive Department of the Govern- | require him to collect all this mass of medical stapecially as the work will not be finished, I pre- ment, and certain matters therein required to be tistics, and even to write the preliminary treatise sume, until after the close of the session of Con- laid before us as the indispensable basis of our || with which he has favored us, is there any obligress. Are the committee to be kept here during action are actually before us, when no one will or gation upon us to print and publish it? I apprethe recess to attend to it, or will you commit it to can say that such is the fact--when, indeed, it is hend not. It is wholly within our discretion to a proper and responsible officer of the Government || not the fact. For one, I am unwilling to place exclude from the publication, or to retain, any in whose department this work originates? I in myself in that position. It is true, we have had portion of the matter presented to us. If, in our tended to say something more on the subject; but | brought before us a plan and arrangement of the opinion, any portion be valueless, (as I suppose I have already consumed time enough. I will say census returns for the State of Maryland, as a | every one will admit this to be,) it is not only our that in reviewing the whole matter, I can see no specimen of the whole work. Here is the book. right, but our duty to exclude and reject it. Pendreasonable objection-no sacrifice of publicinterests Have Senators examined it? Is this a specimen ing the census bill, and while the schedules were -no risk of duty that will be committed, by al- of the work which the Senate is willing shall be | under discussion here, I moved to strike out this lowing a committee of this body to make this con- | printed for each State? Will any Senator open one about diseases, and gave as a reason, that the tract, for I suppose the committee will make a just this book, look at it, and say he is willing to print | persons who would take the census, were incomand proper one on their own responsibility." It || a similar work for each of the States? If he is, he || petent to obtain or give reliable information on

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the subject. That column was retained, however, was a very unnecessary and senseless procedure, There is but one more suggestion I have to arid bere we have the result-more than one fourth or it is now proposed, by hurrying the adoption make, and I am done. And, in making it, I reitof the whole book-twenty-five out of ninety-six of this resolution, is an exceedingly imprudent and erate my opposition to the whole proceeding, but pages—made up of " medical statistics,”and a pre- improvident thing.

proceed upon the supposition, now become cerliminary aiscourse upon them, which, I venture The honorable Senator from Connecticut (Mr. ininty, that this resolution will be adopted in some to say that no intelligent man in or out of the SMITH) raised a question, and was responded to by form. It is the only proposition I expect to offer Senate, and no one deserving the name of physi- i the honorable Senator from North Carolina, (Mr. in the way of amendmeni. I will read it now for cinn anywhere, would rely upon as authority for Badger,) upon which I must say a word, as it the information of the Senate, and will offer it at a any purpose whatever. Surely, sir, no obligation involves the action of the Printing Committee. It proper time as an amendment to the resolution. rests upon us to print and publish anything like is, whether this is Co-gressional or departmental | It is this: that. Every consideration of propriety, it seems printing. The Senator from Connecticut says it Prorided, That the contract herein required to be made to me, forbids it.

is departmental printing, while the Senator from shall be submitted to, and shall receive the ratification of Here, sir, we have eighteen pages of history and North Carolina says it is Congressional printing. Congress, before it sliall be binding upon the panies. geology, and twenty-five pages of medicine, in a Mr. BADGER.' I say that it is Congressional The reason for this, I think, will be obvious, as book of ninety-six pages-nearly one half! I will printing, for Congress to do what it pleases with I feel sore it is a sound one. It is, that those memnot dwell longer upon this as indicating the char- it; but that it does not come under the contract bers of the Senate who seem so much disposed to acter of the work. Nor do I undertake to assert for Congressional printing

inpose this duty upon a committee may, when positively; that it is inaccurate in either history or Mr. BORLAND. I will state the opinion and the duty shall have been performed, have ihe privits medicine. But I do say, that we have no such action of the Printing Committee on that point. | ilege of sharing its responsibility with those who evidence of its accuracy, or its value, as to justify When this resolution was originally introduced will have done the labor. us in printing it at great expense, and sending it and sent to the committee, the contractor for the Mr. HAMLIN. Before this part of the census out to the world as an authoritative basis of im- printing for this Congress sent in a communication which has now been laid upon our tables was subportant calculations vitally atiecting the interest of claiming the census printing under his contract. mitted to us for our inspection, I deemed it premaour constituents.

Upon the question thus presented, the committee ture for the Senate to take any definite action on the Here, then, comes up the question, what por- decided, if not unanimously, very nearly so, that resolution now before us. We have had laid on tion of this work shali be printed? Is the Senate it was not such printing as the public printer could our desks that portion of the census which com. prepared to answer this question now? Or is it claim under his contract, for the single but suffi- | prises the State of Maryland; and with that before intended that the Printing Committee shall answer cient reason that it was expressly reserved by the us, I think we are as well prepared to act, and to it, by deciding wirat shall or what shall not be census bill for the future direction of Congress, act definitely in relation to the whole matter, as we prinied ? As I said, when this resolution was and the contract had been subsequently made un- can be at any subsequent time. under consideration before, I do not think the com- der the general law, in view of the existence of I think there has been another question mingled mittee qualified to make the contract us at first that express reservation in a special law. It was with this resolution which does not properly be proposed. Then far less qualified are they for this not, therefore, such printing, though certainly long to it. When it shall come properly before additional and complicated duty of deciding upon Congressional printing, as the contractor could the Senate, I shall concur, as I do most cheerfully the character of every part of the work.

claim; and for a similar reason, it certainly is not in nearly every word which has fallen from the I have submitted these remarks, in apport of departmental printing. To dispose of it now, lips of the chairman of the Committee on Printing. the position with which I set out, that we have not therefore, as Congress may determine, is but car- What shall be printed is not now the question. The before us facts enough to judge of the character of rying out the law of 1850, and is neither trench- simple question for us now to determine is: Who the whole work it is proposed to print, or to deter- ing upon the rights of the publie printer, nor shall do it? When that question shall have been mine how much of it ought to be printed. With usurping power which belongs to any one of the settled, I shall concur in nearly all the suggestions my present impressions, if called upon to say what Departments.

that have been made by the chairman of the Com. part of this book should be printer, I would at I will, in conclusion, briefly allude to the objec- | mittee on Printing. When the measures shall once throw away nearly one half of it, and thien tions I urged against this resolution, when it was have been matured-when the Senate shall have consider how much of the remainder wus worth first before the Senate. I thought then, and still I determined in what manner the work shall be done, preserving. Would the Senate agree with me in lethink, that it imposes duties upon the Committee I shall offer certain instructions directory to the that? Some Senators would, I am very sure; but on Printing which were not contemplated by the Committee on Printing, in relation to their duties, there are others, a majority, probably, who would Senate when the committee was originally organ- their powers, and in relation to what shall or shall not. How, then, is ii in be seuiled ? 'If not settled ized-duties for which they are not qualified, and not be printed. by the Senate in advance, and the resolution which they cannot fairly or properly be called In my judgment there is a great portion of this should go to the committee, would we be author- upon to perform. These objections, it seems to work, relating to medical statistics, that if conized to make the selection of the parts for publi- mie, are valid ones, and ought to be conclusive tained in it at all, may be compressed into a very cation, and exclude the rest? Or would we be against the adoption of the resolution. But, sir, few pages. I learn that from the Superintendent expected to print the whole-history, geology, as it seems to be the determination of this body to of the Census Bureau. There are other portions medicine, and all, in a lump, as it conies from the adopt the substance of the resolution in some form, which I think are inappropriately there, as I have Census Office?

and to impose those duties upon the committee, stated to the Senate upon another occasion. I will here remind the Senate of the circum- however repugnant to us they may be, I sup- There are also, in my judgment, deficiencies stances attending the preparation and passage of pose submission to the Senate's decree will be. which should be supplied.' Certainly there are the censuis bill. Those circumstances show that come our duty to be performed as best we may. deficiencies which will apply to the section of the Congress intended and determined that taking the And as this must be so, I submit still further to Union froin which I come. I think I may say to Seventh Census should be no hasty or uncon- the Senate if, when we are required to begin the all the New England Senators, and to some of the sidered work; but that every step in its progress, work, we ought not, in common fairness, to be Senators from other States, where the States are from beginning to end, should be so carefully taken allowed to finish it? I am opposed to having any divided into towns, that the whole census returns as to secure accuracy, and give value to the work. | portion of this work imposed upon me; but if I will be regarded as very nearly useless, unless we Accordingly, the first step taken was the appoint- am to be compelled to do it in part, I insist upon can have the census of our States presented by ment of a Census Board, composed of the high doing the whole of it. If I have to make the con- towns. This portion of the census before us, comExecutive officers of the Government, to prepare tract, I claim the privilege of seeing it properly prising the State of Maryland, is to be the sample, and submit a plan. Next, the Senate appointed a executed. If I am to be held responsible, as surely | and it contains only counties. Senators will recol

. select commitiee of the most experienced inembers ' I will, and ought to be, for the character of the lect that in some portions of the Union nearly all of this body, to consider and report. Then the contract, I ask nothing but what is fair when I the power of the State is vested in the municipal joint labors of this Board and this committee, were insist that I shall be allowed to protect myself in authorities of the towns, and, withont a tabular submitted to the Senate, and here, as you well that responsibility, throughout the work, by see- statement of the census of the towns, the returns know, underwent a protracted, careful, and thor- ing that it is properly done, as I contracted for it for those States would be useless. But, as I have ough discussion and revision. Having, after ma- to be done, and am best qualified to judge when it said, these are questions not now before us, terial modifications passed, here, it went through the is done. I say none of this in disrespect to the do not now propose to discuss them. After the ordeal of the other House.” The law, as it stands Secretary of the Interior; for I have no doubt he resolution shall have passed, or after some other upon the statute-book, is the result of all that labor. would have any work intrusted to him, well and méthod shall have been indicated by the Senate, That law directs when and how the census shall faithfully done; but I say it in simple justice to then I think it will be proper for the Senate to debe taken, and the subjects to be embraced in it, myself and the committee.

termine what shall and what shall not be printed. leaving nothing in thai respect to the discretion of The proposed amendment of the Senator from When that period shall arrive, if no one else will secretaries, clerks, or superintendents. And it di- | Connecticut (Mr. Smith) is to separate the con- assume the duty, I shall have certain practical rects, also, that, when the work of collecting the pre- tract for the printing from the purchase of the points to submit to the consideration of the Senscribed information should have been completed, | paper. I do not object to the object thus sought ate, and take its opinion upon them then the officer in charge should arrange and sub- io be accomplished; but I think it unnecessary as Several Senators desired that the Senate should mit it, with a plan for publication, to this session part of the resolution. If the committee be given now adjourn. of Congress. And for what purpose was this authority to contract for the work of having the Mr. GWIN. I know that there is an impatience provision for its presentation to us here, made in census printed, it will be entirely competent for to adjourn all round the Senate; but I wish to call ine law? Coupled with the other provision, that themi under that authority to make a separate con- the attention of the Senate to this fact: On next its printing should be left to our direction, shows tract for the paper. I am opposed to hampering Monday we shall have up the resolution of the clearly enough that it was thus reserved for our the committee with partial instructions. If they Senator from Rhode Island, (Mr. Clarke,l on revision, for the purpose of insuring its accuracy, are to be instructed, in part, as to how the con- which he is going to address the Senate; to be folas far as such a work would be made accurate, by tract shall be made, I ask that they shall be in lowed by the Senator from Michigan, (Mr. Cass, repeated and careful examination, not only by structed in every particular. If you require this on Tuesday; and to-morro w is private bill day. Executive officers, but by Congress itself. Now, work of them at all, let their discretion be com- The Senator from Illinois (Mr. Shields] has the sir, all this precaution, deemed wise at the time, mensurate with their responsibility.

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