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priation of the sums necessary to carry into successful operation the measures in that report advised. .

We do not intend, in this report, to go over the ground so fully and ably occupied by the secretary,

but shall content ourselves with bringing to the notice of the legislature such matters as seem to us of immediate importance, and more properly within our province.

We cannot doubt, for a moment, that the act “to establish a board of education” was intended to evince, on the part of the legislature, a determination to do all that might seem necessary or expedient for the thorough and radical improvement of the system of public school education in this state.

The act was not the result of a temporary excitement, expending its force in the creation of a body whose duty is to inquire and report what ought to be done, without the expectation, on the part of those who passed the act, that their successors would do those things which the information thus obtained should show to be necessary, to make the system what the honor of the state, the welfare of the coming generations, and the stability of our free institutions require that it should be. On the contrary, we believe that act was produced by the settled conviction, forced upon the minds of all thinking men, that, in the numerous objects of material importance, which, from the peculiar position of this as a newlysettled and growing state, had engrossed our attention, an institution, which our forefathers justly considered as only second in importance to the institutions of religion, had been suffered to fall into decay, and had ceased to exert that happy influence upon the minds and hearts

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REPORT OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION.

6

priation of the sums necessary to carry into successful operation the measures in that report advised.

We do not intend, in this report, to go over the ground so fully and ably occupied by the secretary, but shall content ourselves with bringing to the notice of the legislature such matters as seem to us of immediate importance, and more properly within our province.

We cannot doubt, for a moment, that the act " to establish a board of education" was intended to eyince, on the part of the legislature, a determination to do all that might seem necessary or expedient for the thorough and radical improvement of the system of public school education in this state. The act was not the result of a temporary excitement

, expending its force in the creation of a body whose duty is to inquire and report what ought to be done, without the expectation, on the part of those who passed the act, that their successors would do those things which the information thus obtained should show to be necessary, to make the system what the honor of the state, the welfare of the coming generations, and the stability of our free institutions require that it should be. On the contrary, we believe that act was produced by the settled conviction, forced upon the minds of all thinking men, that, in the numerous objects of material importance, which, from the peculiar position of this as a newlysettled and growing state, had engrossed our attention, an institution, which our forefathers justly considered as only second in importance to the institutions of religion, had been suffered to fall into decay, and had ceased to exert that happy influence upon the minds and hearts

of the people which of right belonged to it, without
which all the elements of material prosperity were in
vain scattered in rich profusion around us; that while,
by our academies and colleges, the children of those
who, in the distribution of this world's goods, had re-
ceived a competency or an abundance, were obtaining
the incalculable advantages of a thorough education, the
children of the people,--those who were so soon to hold
in their hands the destiny of the country,—those on
whom the state must depend for its defense in war, its
prosperity in peace,-were suffered to grow up, if not in
absolute ignorance, yet with such slender means of im-
proving the mind and heart, that prudent men might
well tremble, when they thought how soon our destinies
must be committed to their hands. Under this convic-
tion the first step was taken, that, after a thorough inves-
tigation of the evils to be remedied, future legislatures
might apply the remedies where they should seem to be
most needed.

While we feel highly honored that so sublime a work has been assigned to us, we cannot but deeply feel the difficulty and the delicacy of the task of originating and suggesting measures to restore the institution committed to our care to its former vigor and efficiency. Having, however, accepted the offices to which we were elected, we cannot forget that we have thereby become the sworn trustees of the rights and destiny of those who now, indeed, cannot speak for themselves, but whom the fastcoming future will place in a position to call us to a strict account. Under the deep impression of this responsibility, we must plainly, though respectfully, state to the

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authorities of the state our opinion of the duties which now devolve upon them. The existence of this board, and, indeed, the whole system of public education, is in the hands of the legislature. They can by their breath destroy both. But, if they mean that the board shall continue and be efficient, and that the system shall cxist and be improved, they cannot do otherwise than enact those laws, and make those appropriations, without which any real and permanent improvement is impossible.

The first subject which demands the attention of the legislature is the appropriation of the permanent school fund in accordance with the spirit of the legislation by which it was created. This fund amounts now to nearly the sum of eighty-six thousand dollars. It has been for many years accumulating, during which time the state has had the use of it, without accounting for a cent of interest. Justice requires that the arrears of interest be accounted for. But, if the legislature are not prepared to do this now, let them at least put it at interest, and appropriate the future income to the improvement of common schools. This may be done by setting apart the amount in stock of the United States of which the state is owner. If, however, the state prefers to be itself the debtor of the schools, let them set aside annually an amount equal to the interest of this fund, and apply it to their benefit. The statute by which the fund was created provides, that the income shall be divided among the towns according to population. We believe that, for the present at least, the legislature would be complying with the spirit of the law, and confer a greater benefit on common schools, by applying this income to

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authorities of the state our opinion of the duties which now devolve upon them. The existence of this board, and, indeed, the whole system of public education, is in the hands of the legislature. They can by their breath destroy both. But, if they mean that the board shall continue and be efficient, and that the system shall cxist and be improved, they cannot do otherwise than enact those laws, and make those appropriations, without which any real and permanent improvement is impossible.

The first subject which demands the attention of the legislature is the appropriation of the permanent school fund in accordance with the spirit of the legislation by which it was created. This fund amounts now to nearly the sum of eighty-six thousand dollars. It has been for many years accumulating, during which time the state has had the use of it, without accounting for a cent of interest. Justice requires that the arrears of interest be accounted for. But, if the legislature are not prepared to do this now, let them at least put it at interest, and appropriate the future income to the improvement of common schools. This may be done by setting apart the amount in stock of the United States of which the state is owner. If, however, the state prefers to be itself the debtor of the schools, let them set aside annually an amount equal to the interest of this fund, and apply it to their benefit. The statute by which the fund was created provides, that the income shall be divided among the towns according to population. We believe that, for the present at least, the legislature would be complying with the spirit of the law, and confer a greater benefit on common schools, by applying this income to

the general improvement of the system ; unless they should be willing to apply it as at first intended, and make appropriations for general improvements from the other revenues of the state.

The only two new objects, for which we this year recommend appropriations, are for teachers' institutes, and for the promotion of education in the new settlements, particularly in plantations where the state is proprietor of the soil.

The subject of teachers' institutes has received the particular and thorough examination of the board, and we are unanimous in the opinion that their immediate establishment is indispensable to the beginning of the reform which the law under which we act contemplates. The details of the plan for these institutes, their object and necessity, are fully set forth in the report of the secretary. We shall not further dwell upon the subject, than most earnestly to recommend them to the patronage of the legislature. The appropriation asked, is two hundred dollars for each county, and the legislature may be assured that the amount appropriated will be expended with the strictest economy. The money necessary for their support may very properly be taken from the income of the permanent school fund.

No want is more severely felt throughout the state than that of well constructed school houses. The secretary will prepare a report upon this subject, accompanied with suitable plans. We recommend that this report when made, be printed and circulated as widely as possible, and that a number of copies be preserved for future distribution under the direction of the board.

The secretary will also communicate to the legisla

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ture, a system of registers and returns for towns, districts, and school teachers, with proper laws for insuring their use,

all which we recommend to the favorable consideration of the legislature.

Education in the new settlements is especially brought under our consideration. The hardy pioneers, who are reclaiming our wilderness and making it rich to us, not only in material products, but in men on whom in future the state will so much depend, labor under difficulties with regard to education, which make them very properly an object of anxiety to the legislature. Situated so far from those portions of the state where academies, high schools, and colleges have been established by the former bounty of the state and of individuals, they find it impossible with their limited means to induce competent teachers to go so far from their homes. Teachers' institutes are of great service in preparing those to teach who have already the requisite knowledge of the subjects to be taught, but here the preliminary process of preparing pupils for the institutes must be performed. Although we do not consider the establishment of academies in general as a matter for our consideration, we know at present of no better way to supply this want than by their aid. We therefore recommend that the state allow the establishment of two academies or high schools, in convenient places in the northern part of the state, and that they be aided by such grants from the state as have been made to academies in other sections, with the express provision that they be in part devoted to preparing teachers for the public schools.

In the new settlements, on lands owned in whole or in part by the state, it is but just that the state, as proprie

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