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EMBRACING POLITICAL, CIVIL, MILITARY, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS; PUBLIC DOCU-
MENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERATURE,
SCIENCE. AGRICULTURE, AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY

CONERA

VIRGO,

VOLUME IV.

1819

NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON & COMPANY, 443 & 445 BROADWAY.

1 8 6 6.

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ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1865, by

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District

of New York.

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34

PREFACE.

The flattering reception by the public of the previous volumes of this work, with the numerous testimonials of eminent individuals, has been such as to induce the publishers to believe that they have been successful in furnishing a truthful and valuable record of the great events of each year of the work. The same efforts have been made as heretofore, with increased earnestness, to secure the completeness and accuracy of the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA, and to preserve it free from every mark of partisanship.

The events of the year 1864 have been more varied than those of any prerious one during the war. The contest was carried on with an earnest purpose to make it, at once, decisive and final; and the reconstruction of States was commenced in the most thorough manner. Emancipation became a subject of State action, and was incorporated as a principle in the fundamental law of several of the States. In other parts of the world, although no extensive war has been waged, the discussions of principles and the agitation of the minds of men have been no less intense than in former

years. Among the numerous questions discussed in the United States were those respecting the relations of the insurrectionary States to the Union; the principles on which the reconstruction should be effected; the powers of the Federal Government; the amendment to the Constitution; the equality and rights of the colored men; the encroachments of military authority; the terms of peace; the exciting topics involved in a Presidential election; and the relations of for

! eign governments arising upon numerous international questions.

A detailed statement of the vast military and naval operations in this country is continued, which presents the movements of the armies day by day, and step by step, illustrated with complete topographical maps of the field, and the objects of those movements and their consequences; also the efforts of the humane through the Sanitary, Christian and Union Commissions to relieve the hardships of the soldiers and to aid refugees from the South.

The details of the internal affairs of the country embrace the replenishing of the armies North and South; the number and condition of the troops;

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