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the important measures and debates in Congress; the acts of State Legislatures and results of elections; the finances of the Federal Government and of that of the insurrectionary States, and the important public measures of the latter; the discussions relative to peace, and the efforts to obtain it; the commerce of the country and the regulations for commercial intercourse with the South-and all these important occurrences comprised in the history of the nation.

The interesting events relating to foreign nations in all parts of the world are presented; also the famous encyclical letter of the Pope, the manner of its reception, and the questions raised thereby.

In mechanical industry considerable progress has been made, especially in the department of military implements; and inventions and improvements have been numerous also in other departments.

The applications of science to useful purposes have been pursued with much diligence, and interesting results are described.

Geographical explorations have been very actively continued in all quarters of the globe, and the discoveries which have followed are very carefully and fully presented.

The unusual enterprise which has been awakened by successfully refining and converting to various uses the article of Petroleum, has caused not less astonishment than the unbounded wealth which it is likely to yield to the country. The history of this branch of industry, including an investigation of all the scientific questions relating to Petroleum, has not been overlooked.

The record of Literature is not less important than in any previous year. By a reference to that title its most interesting features may be seen.

A notice of the principal religious denominations of the country states their branches, membership, views on civil affairs, and the progress of their distinctive opinions.

In no year has the number of distinguished men who closed their career been so large. A brief tribute has been paid to their memory.

All important documents, messages, orders, despatches, and letters from official persons, have been inserted entire. .

State officers, committees of legislative and other public bodies, principals of public institutions, whether benevolent, educational, reformatory, scientific, etc., will confer a favor by sending their printed reports and documents to the Publishers.

THE

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA.

A AFRICA. The whole of North Africa was, the reduction of the personal tax from 72 to 20 daring some months of the year 1864, in an piastres, and the nomination, in the provinces, extraordinary fermentation, which was sup- of Caids (native governors), instead of Mameposed to spring, in part, from the fanaticallukes. The insurrection was, however, far preaching and the influence of the Mohamme- from being completely subdued. While fourdan priests. On the 8th of April an insurrec- teen of the tribes were stated to have made tion broke out among the Arabian tribes in their submission, forty others were said to Algeria against the French, which assumed continue in insurrection. One chief who very large dimensions. The natives were un- signed the conditions of peace, was obliged to able to obtain any lasting successes, but at take refuge in Tunis, and several other chiefs the close of the year quiet was not wholly who had manifested a wish for peace were restored. (See France.) Simultaneously, å killed. Most of the tribes demanded the disviolent outbreak occurred in Tunis. A body of missal of the Kasnadar. The French and cavalry, which, under the command of Gen. Italian admirals despatched ships

of war to Si-Far-Hat, was sent out to collect taxes, was watch the coast and to protect French and murdered by the discontented tribes. The in- Italian subjects. The French admiral having siirrection spread rapidly over a large portion learned that the Turkish flag had been substiof the Tunisian territory. The cause of the tuted for that of Tunis, wrote a circular note, discontent was the doubling of the highly un- on the 26th of June, protesting against manipopular personal tax which at the beginning festations disavowed even by the Ottoman of the year 1864 was raised from 36 to 73 Government, and declaring that France would piastres, and the unpopularity of the courts countenance no intervention in the established which had been introduced in 1860. The in- order of the regency. Toward the close of surgents, numbering from 15,000 to 20,000, took the year the insurrection began again to expossession of the towns Kef-Kadgia, Kairvan, tend. The Arabs, who had submitted, threw and others, and threatened the coast towns off their allegiance to the Bey and surrounded Monastir and Susa. The Bey of Tunis, Sidi- the camp of Gen. Ruthen. On the 15th of Mohammed El Sadak, on May 1, consented December, Prince Alij set out with a body of to the demanded abolition of the courts, troops for his relief. but the insurgents, whose chief leader was The Government of Morocco seems to be Ali Ben Gahum, insisted on more concessions, disposed to favor reforms. Sir Moses Monteespecially on the dismissal of the Kasnadar fiore, who paid a visit to the Sultan of Mo

linister), Sidi Mustafa. This, however, the rocco for the purpose of obtaining toleration Bey steadily refused to grant, and the insur- and protection for the persecuted Jews of the rection continued. In July the Arabs marched empire, was entirely successful. A threatening again in force upon Tunis, and when they difficulty with France, arising out of the asarrived within two leagues the army of the sassination of a French subject, was promptly Bey surrendered. On the 28th of July the adjusted. The four principals charged with minister of the Bey officially informed the the deed were arrested, and the governor who French consul-general of the pacification of assisted the flight of the criminals, was disthe regency under the following conditions: missed and also arrested. The granting of an amnesty without reserve, Of all the native governments of Africa

VOL, IV.-1 A

Egypt is by far the most progressive. The com- States of the North and Northwest. The long merce of Alexandria is increasing immensely, drought of June and July, which it was at one and the Viceroy says he hopes to see the time time supposed would greatly diminish and perwhen the commerce of that city will demand haps destroy the corn and potato crops, proved of him his palace at Raset-tin for the purpose of less injurious than was feared. The corn crop building docks and warehouses. The difficulty was everywhere much larger than in 1863, between the Pasha and the Suez Canal Com- when it was about three-fourths an average pany was submitted to the arbitration of the crop, but was not quite equal to that of 1862, Emperor of France, whose decision was adopted though much nearer to it than was at first exby both parties. At the annual general meet- pected. Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, ing of the shareholders of the Suez Canal Maryland, Kentucky, Michigan, Indiana, MisCompany it was stated by M. de Lesseps, the souri, Kansas, and Nebraska Territory, re

President of the Company, that the principal ported materially reduced crops of corn as canal would be completed in 1867. The compared with the crop of 1862, while Rhode

Egyptian Government also took vigorous meas- Island, Iowa, Minnesota, and West Virginia ures for the prevention of the extensive slave were largely beyond even that year of plenty trading expeditions on the White Nile. A in their production, and Connecticut Delaslight misunderstanding between the American ware, Illinois and Wisconsin were fully equal consul and the Egyptian Government was soon to it. In potatoes there was a diminution of removed.

about 2,700,000 bushels from the crop of 1863, King Theodore of Abyssinia, who was for- and of about 16,320,000 bushels from the crop merly looked upon as a patron of Protestant of 1862. The heaviest reduction was in the missions, treated some of the missionaries with Northwestern States, Michigan, Indiana, Illithe most severe cruelties. The king, also, nois, Missouri, Wisconsin, Iowa, Kansas, and through the British consul at Massoowah, the Nebraska reporting not over three-fourths of port of Abyssinia on the African coast, sent & crop, as compared with 1862. Maine, New proposals of marriage to Queen Victoria of Hampshire, New York, and Ohio yielded nearEngland, and when the consul declined to ly as large quantities as in 1862; and Vermont, transmit this offer to England he was im- Massachusetts, Connecticut, and West Virginia prisoned at Guada, King Theodore's capital. exceeded the production of that year. At the close of the year the English had not The wheat crop was less in quantity by yet succeeded obtaining the release of the 17,262,000 bushels than that of 1862, and by imprisoned consul.

about 13,000,000 than that of 1863, but its The doubts concerning the death of King quality is greatly superior to that of 1863. Radama of Madagascar continued in the Island, The rye crop varied but a few thousand bushand manifestations and movements in his fa- els from that of 1863, but was about 700,000 vor were several times renewed. On the 18th bushels less than in 1862. Oats were 6,500,000 of May an attack was made upon the palace, bushels in excess of 1862, and 7,000,000 bushbut repulsed, and eighteen of the ringleaders els in excess of 1863. Barley was about put to death. The prime minister having, 2,500,000 bushels less than the crops of 1862 while intoxicated, insulted the queen, was de- and 1863, which were nearly alike in amount. posed from his office. His successor ordered Buckwheat was fully up to the production of the expulsion of several foreigners who for 1862, and 3,000,000 of bushels in excess of fifteen years had been in the service of the that of 1863. Potatoes, as we have already Government. The progress of the Christian stated, were below the amount produced in missions in the capital and the surrounding 1863, fully one-seventh less than the crop of country was, however, uninterrupted.

1862. The hay crop was slightly below the On the Gold Coast the English were again crop of 1863, and about 3,000,000 of tons beengaged in a war with the King of Ashantee, low that of 1862. The tobacco crop was main which the British troops suffered very se- terially less than in 1863, the principal falling verely from the climate.

off being in Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland, The King of Dahomey made war opon Abbe- and being due to the disturbed condition of okuta, but was repulsed with immense losses those States, and partly perhaps also to the in killed and prisoners.

drought. The hop crop, which is confined In the English colonies a considerable sensa- mainly to a section of central New York, and tion was produced by the deposition of Bishop a portion of New England, was materially less Colenso of Natal, at a synod of the Angli- than in previous years, owing to the “ blight" can bishops of South Africa. (See ANGLIOAN which entirely destroyed the product of many CHUROH.)

yards and deteriorated the quality of others. AGRICULTURE. While the war has in- In 1862 the crop was about 80,000 bales of 200 terfered with production in some of the border pounds each; in 1863, 65,000 bales, a considStates, and notably in Kentucky, Missouri, erable portion of it inferior in quality; and in Maryjazd, and Virginia, and has rendered it 1864 only_45,000 bales, much of it of poor impossible to obtain any full statistics from quality. The crop of flax and flaxseed is nearthe States in insurrection, the year has been ly 25 per cent. in advance of that of the preone of agricultural prosperity in most of the vious year, and is mainly the result of the greater breadth sown. Sorghum has also in- horses, mules, and swine has slightly decreased creased in quantity in Illinois, the crop being from the great demand of the war; the numone-quarter more than in 1862. The amount ber of working cattle and cows has remained of cotton raised in the States north of the nearly stationary from the same cause, but the Ohio River is nearly 40 per cent. greater than number of sheep has increased 9,242,119. The in 1862. There has been a serious falling off clip of wool for the year, it is thought, will in the quantity of root crops in all the States not fall much short of 100,000,000 pounds, except Vermont, Connecticut, Delaware, Illi- while the consumption is about 150,000,000 nois, and West Virginia. The entire diminu- pounds. The climate of California is found tion of these crops is about 15 per cent. In well adapted to wool growing, and the sheep the Eastern and Middle States the yield of are sheared twice a year there. The fall clip, apples, peaches, and pears was large, the the growth of the summer months, is short, markets being for a time glutted with peaches; dry, and brittle, and of inferior quality, answerbut in the Western and Northwestern States ing to the low-priced India wools. Kansas the great frosts of the winter of 1863–4 de- and Nebraska, Central Illinois, and Texas are stroyed a large proportion of the fruit trees, also excellent climates for wool growing, and and there was a scarcity of peaches and apples. the present price of wool has greatly developed The stock of apples in the market was so the production of that staple. greatly reduced by exportation and the short- The production of molasses and sugar from ness of the crop, that in January, 1865, ap- the sorghum has increased during the year. ples of ordinary quality brought from $5.50 The syrup or molasses is now refined on a large to $8 per barrel at wholesale. The grape scale at Chicago and Cincinnati, and the result crop was fully up to the average, and larger is very satisfactory; the unpleasant taste which quantities than usual were absorbed in the had proved a serious objection to its use being manufacture of wine. This has become a spe- removed by the refining process, and a syrup ciality at several points on the Hudson River, resulting which differs but little from the best on the islands in and near Sandusky Bay, sugar-house syrups of Stuarts, Woolsey, and Lake Erie, in the vicinity of Cincinnati, Ohio, other refiners. There seems to be a difficulty along the Missouri and Osage Rivers in Mis- in making sugar from most of the sorghum souri, and in California. The production of molasses, probably from the fact that the cane wine in California has reached an extent and is seldom perfectly matured when crushed. excellence which enables the wine-growers of Small quantities of fair sugar have been prothat State to enter into successful competition duced, but for the most part it is used only in with the great vineyards of Europe, and it is the form of molasses or syrup. Within the rapidly increasing.

past two years the attempt has been made on There has been a heavy reduction in the a large scale in Illinois to cultivate the sugarnumber of swine fattened for market during beet for the production of sugar. It is yet too the year, owing mainly to the scarcity of corn early to pronounce definitely on the success of in 1863–'4. This reduction amounts probably the enterprise, but it promises fairly. Four to nearly 40 per cent. The receipt of live hogs hundred and eighty thousand tons, one-sixth in New York in 1862 was 1,098,712; in 1863, of all the sugar used in the world, is now pro1,096,773; in 1864, only 657,092. The falling duced from the sugar-beet, mainly in France off in the exports of pork from New York as and its colonies, and there seems no good compared with those of 1863, was 60,000 bar- reason why we should not produce it as sucrels, or one-third; of cut meats

, 88,000,000 cessfully as other nations. The amount of supounds, or very nearly one-half; and of lard, gar produced from the maple shows a consider77,000,000 pounds, or about two-thirds. In able increase over previous years, the season Cincinnati and Chicago the amount of pork having been a favorable one, and the high packed was larger than in 1863, but this was prices of sugars creating an unusual demand at the expense of the smaller packing points. for it. The number of hogs packed in the packing Of leguminous plants (peas and beans) the season of 1863–4 was 3,389,427. The season crop is somewhat less than in 1863, the falling of 1864'5 is not yet (January, 1865) closed, off being mainly in peas, the bean crop being but it is estimated that the number packed nearly or quite an average one. This crop has will be not far from 2,500,000. The number greatly increased in importance from the large of swine in stock in 1864 in the loyal States, army demand for it. The production of butter is estimated by the Commissioner of Agricul- and cheese is nearly identical with that of 1863, ture to have been 16,140,712, a reduction of but owing to the increased export demand and nearly a million since 1859. Of other farm the depreciation of the currency, remarkably stock, the number, according to his careful and high prices have ruled for all dairy products. reliable estimates, were as follows: Horses, The following tables give the production of 4,049,142; mules, 280,847; bulls and working the principal staple agricultural products in cattle, 7,965,439; cows, 6,066,748; sheep, 24,- each of the loyal States and Territories in 1864, 346,391. The only considerable increase in as compared with the returns of 1862 and 1863. live stock since 1859 (the year reported in the They are from the valuable bi-monthly reports Census of 1860) is in sheep. The number of of the Agricultural Department:

TABLE SHOWING THE AMOUNTS OF THE PRINCIPAL CROPS OF 1864, IN BUSHETS &c., AS ESTIMATED FROM THE RETURNS OF CORRESPONDENTS, COMPARED WITH THE CROPS OF 1869 AND 1808. WHEAT.

EYE.
BARLEY.

OATS.
STATES.

1862.

1863. 1864. 1862. 1863. 1864. 1862. 1863. 1864. 1862. 1863. 1864. Maine. 850,815 215,734

167,194 184,389 165,951 128,612 1,002,636 1,002,636 668,424 3,738.423 8,364,581 2,102,994 New Hampshire.

818,954 255,163 251,518 162,083 145,880 109,873 141,287 127,159 96,278 1,495,865 1,845,829 1,095,891 Vermont.

502,981 452,683 497,951 130,976 180,976 140,798 94,102 94,102 94,102 4,889,506 3,950,556 8,611,938 Massachusetts

129,765 129,765 128,143 388,085 888,085 418,957 168,613 151,752 149,584 1,475,094 1,827,585 1,194,827 Rhode Island.

1,413 1,413

1,413 33,911 33,911 87,802 61,241 46,117 41,506 263,990 208,192 182,873
Connecticut

59,901
59,901

71,881 618,762 618,762 721,889 20,813 20,813 18,732 1,603,986 1,764,329
New York....
18,021,650

2,011,384
13,021,650 10,918,615 5,385,268 5,885,268 5,205,759 4,892,778 4,882, 778 8,710,911 43,968,916 43,968,916 35,724,746
New Jersey..

1,808,128 1,808,128 1,582,113 1,499,497 1,499,497 1,424,523 83,220 29,098 29,098 5,446,958 4,902,268 6,785,647
Pennsylvania

15,654,255 15,654,255 12,528,404 6,843,427 6,843,427 6,848,427 636,859 578,174 630,491 34,283,986 84,233,936 87,657,329 Maryland.

6,553,480 7,208,828 6,487,946 608,901 648,011 529, 744 21,887 19,699 26,591 4,524,912 4,072,421 5,429,894 Delaware.

1,217,254 1,217,254 1,054,954 84,011 87,412 41,153 4,254 5,105 4,595 1,808, 637 1,570,364 1,884,437 Kentucky

5,546,108 5,546,108 3,882 275 791,447 791,447 654,014 203,014 302,014 256,718 8,562,772 80,796,032

8,562,772
Ohio
28,742,963

4,346,826
20,407,603 1,079,040 863,232 704,974 1,512,525 1,899,086 1,685,630 10,930,935 12,024,028 14,428,833
Michigan.

14,963,735 13,966,153 13,966,153 494,197 494,197 434,894 407,885 407,885 838,388 5,480,797 6,480,797 4,810,136
Indiana..

20,292,160 20,292,160 22,821,376 444,695 411,343 397,632 345,767 811, 191 839,198 5,028,755 6,631,630 60$4,798 Illinois..

82,213,500 31,408,163 33,871,178 981,322 888,190 850,071 1,175,651 1,205,042 1,144,790 17,892,200 19,681,420 24,273,751 Missouri..

8,170,690 2,808,621 8,281,514 393,262 219,947 237,542 '171,377 '171,877 162,809 2,660,653 2,128,622 2,128,522 Wisconsin

20,765,781 20,842,859 14,168,317 1,066,241 1,012,929 810,343 905,823 950,589 674,919 18,271,124 14,598,236 12,043,638

10,541,506 12,649,807 12,649,807 111,266 122,392 119,383 544,989 599,432 584 446 7,055,583 7,761,141 9,813,869 Minnesota

2,927,749 2,634,975 2,634,975 155,823 179,791 161,974 156,412 156,412 148,592 2,934,067 2,053,848 2,259,232 Kangas...

202,232 262,953 201,598 4,718 5.184 4,061 4,958 5,448 5,901 96,892 116,270 146,500 Nebraska Territory. 150,000 180,600 126,000 2,000

1,600 2,480

5,446
4,630
159,954

267,989 223,284
Total.

181,188,089 179,404,036 160,695,823 21,289,451 20,782,782 19,872,975 12,488,022 11,467,155 / 10,716,328 171,463,405 178,800,575 176,690,064
CORN.

TOBACCO.
BUCKWHEAT.

POTATOES.
STATES.

1862.

1863. 1864. 1862. 1863. 1864. 1862. 1863. 1864. 1862. 1863. 1864. Maine 1,855,285 1,855,285 1,410,017

7,000

452,693 407,424 850,837 7,437,053 6,693,348 7,189,151 New Hampshire. 1,668,285 1,835,113 1,834,629

50,000 64,000 98,995 98,995 87,447 4,187,704 8,810,163 3,842,154 Vermont 1,585,020 1,743,522 1,585,020

40,000 59,000 233,906 288,906

210,516 5,148,581 8,603,972 5,920,810 Massachusetts

2,465,215 2,465,215 2,280,324 4,041,497 5,200,000 6,760,000 123,802 123,302 110,972 3,201,901 2,881,711 3,884,878 Rhode Island. 458,912 413,021 474,208

1,680 1,848 8,871 3,871 3,097 543,855 435,084 525,727 Connecticut.

2,059,635 2,059,835 2,059,835 7,550,166 7,500,166 9,900,218 334,032 300,629 887,477 1,833,148 2,016,462 1,838,148 New York..

24,078,257 24,073,257 22,628,862 7,205,727 10,088,017 12,912,662 5,976,305 5,878,675 5,677,490 83,059,235 29,758,393 29,753,812 New Jersey: 10,023,836 11,025,669 8,464,262

194,830 179,755 1052,863 947,577 '921,256 4,693,151 4,693,151 8,989,179 Pennsylvania

80,721,821 80,721,821 28,391,685 3,976,982 5,567,774 6,124,551 6,686,431 5,794,907 7,577,955 14,609,835 14,609,335 12,661,424 Maryland...

14,444,922 14,444,922 10,509,248 40,601,179 48,721,415 83,292,968 242,672 218,405 189,285 1,517,184 1,218,707 1,061,994 Delaware

8,892,337 3,892,337 3,892,387 12,123 15,618 14,057 18,899 18,399 16,641 877,931 802,345

48,032,725
Kentucky

327,540
52,835,997 42,828,706

113,912,938 56,956,469 14,187 14,187 14,187 1,181,739 1,449,188 1,255,921
Ohio

71,792,253 57,438,802 68,202,641 25,528,972 28,081,869 29,017,931 1,181,947 827,364 1,300,141 5,128,756 4,103,005 4,615,881 Michigan.. 15,190,187 10,633,097 11,088,801 (160,825 207,061 248,473 900,652 630,457 828,453 5,264, 733

4,788,260 8,422,078 Indiana.

02,855,454 54,602,273 74,284,363 9,057,665 10,416,314 8,767,065 867,797 183,898 272,171 4,857,271 8,485,617 2,904,847 Illinois,

188,856,185 83,013,681 188,856,185 9,452,807 20,897,537 18,867,722 431,836 258,802 280,870 6,444,404 5,155,523 4,511,083 Missouri

54,679, 118 43,743,295 86,635,011 28,609,948 26,340,505 13,697,063 136,719 95,703 72,461 1,493,519 1,493,519 776,630 Wisconsin.

10,087,058 8,069,642 10,087,053 109,493 153,189 148,083 84,527 59,170 78,259 4,810,631 4,856,569 3,582,068

49,340,893 84,538,276 55,261,240 875,502 800,402 890,522 276,524 155,914 276,524 8,600,686 2,880,549 2,520,481 Minnesota.

8,983,426 2,756,898 4,647,329 48,187 43,324 84,659 84,096 20,758 81,714 2,703,926 2,433,584 2,163,141

6,814,601 8,518,251 4,678,081 21, 228 26,831 22,043 44,158 27,966 24,288 854,960 425,952 '184,480 Nebraska Territory. 1,846,785 1,292,750 1,366,622

1,900 1,140 12,329

6,146

169,762 124,884 106,102 Total.. 586,226,805 451,967,959 630,581,403 186,761, 746 267,267,920 197,468,829 18,708,145 15,806,455 18,700,540 113,284,614 100,168,670 96,256,888

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