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from an average of 2 days for Paris to 11 days for Wellington, New Zealand. The couriers carry annually over 1 million pounds of classified materials for all U.S. Government departments and agencies.

G. The Department of Defense operates what is known as the Armed Forces Courier Service (ARFCOS). Although ARFCOS does provide part of its total service to oversea locations, it is designed to provide protection for DOD materials between military installations and bases. Its couriers do not enjoy diplomatic immunity but enter and exit U.S. bases in foreign countries under provisions of treaties or agreements worked out with the host governments. ARFCOS facilities are used extensively by the Department of State; in fact, all Department of State transatlantic and transpacific materials are transported by ARFCOS. Upon arrival at military installations abroad, however, all classified material destined for onward transportation is transferred to the regional office of the Diplomatic Courier Service.

H. In the main headquarters of the Department, a staff of approximately 100 maintains a 6-day-per-week, 16-hour-per-day mail operation. Sunday and holiday coverage for essential services is also provided. These personnel are engaged not only with the preparation, dispatch, and receipt of the official diplomatic pouches; they are also responsible for the dispatch and receipt of all mail for the Department and for the internal delivery within and among the Department's Washington elements. This is accomplished through the operation of 9 mailrooms providing central service on each floor of the building and through the operation of a pneumatic tube system which now has 52 active stations operated by personnel assigned to other organizational units. The floor mailroom operations per se are augmented by an 18* man messenger service which fans mail out to customer-operated message centers within the Department and which effects deliveries to other principal addressees and distributees including the White House and the Pentagon. During a typical day, this domestic function will sort and distribute approximately 90,000 separate pieces of mail. By şi and large, it is considered that the mail service in Washington and the oversea Diplomatic Courier and Pouch services function satisfactorily.

I. The telephone is used more and more widely in the conduct of official business within the United States, in oversea areas, and between the United States and Foreign Service posts. Service within the United States is commercially provided." Economies, especially in long-distance calls, are being achieved from participation in and use of the centralized facilities of the General Services Administration's Federal Telecommunications System.

J. A further and pressing problem is the operation of Embassy telephone facilities. Over 200 posts have their own systems, a majority of which are owned outright. Many are antiquated or severely limited by the technical skills available locally. Subpar service by U.S. standards is general and severe restrictions in facilities are widely encountered. For example, Monrovia, capital of Liberia, has a population of approximately 80,000 but the local telephone system can accommodate only 1,500 subscribers. In all but two oversea areas the Department has no telephone specialists.

K. The Department authorizes the use of telegrams when timeliness of delivery and action are important. Each of 268 oversea

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posts—Embassies, Legations, Missions, Consulates General, Consulates, and Special Offices can be reached telegraphically. The efficiency of the service varies from minutes to days depending upon the post concerned and the facilities it uses. As in the case of the courier system, the Department of State provides service to many Government departments and agencies. Telegrams fall into a number of categories. Official traffic which is unclassified can be transmitted as soon as necessary numbering and control procedures have been accomplished. Official classified traffic must be encoded or enciphered prior to transmission in order to insure the secrecy of the information in transit between the originator and the addressee or addressees.

L. The transmission of telegrams is accomplished through U.S. Government or through commercial facilities. Approximately onequarter of posts of all levels (most of which are Embassies) have access to U.S. Government terminals. These are highly reliable since they do not depend basically upon the momentary attitudes and actions of local government officials in the country concerned. Many provide real economies to the U.S. Government in contrast to costs of equivalent service through commercial means. Over 200 posts are dependent upon commerical transmission facilities. Of these, approximately 50 have high traffic volumes or require hours of service which make economical or efficient the leasing of channels. The remainder, including Moscow, are dependent upon commercial telegram filing similar to familiar private or commercial methods common in the United States. All commercial facilities are subject to local government controls. In addition, hours of operation in many places are quite limited even under normal conditions. In Africa, for example, our Embassies at Fort Lamy, Bangui, Libreville, Lome, and Luanda are totally dependent upon commercial telegraph facilities which are completely closed during the night. In Fort Lamy, for instance, the only available transmission facilities are closed from Sunday noon until Monday morning and no telegram, regardless of importance, can be sent. Under abnormal conditions, such as local political crises, it is common for commercial facilities to be closed down or to be subjected to censorship. The recent troubles in Zanzibar and Libreville are examples. În each instance, normal communications between the Department and the post were first cut and then reestablished although at first for plain language messages only.

M. Equipment used overseas for transmitting telegrams and/or preparing them for transmission is largely subject to the same age problems as is true of coding systems. Much of it must be replaced as no longer economical to maintain. In fact, the manufacturer has terminated production of spare parts for one series on which many posts are now dependent. In addition, with traffic volumes consist ently increasing, it is important to increase the speed of equipment operation—the Department is currently planning to upgrade from 40 to 60 to 100 words per minute and to utilize machines in lieu of consistently increased staffs at major communications concentration points. In the main communications center in Washington, limited automation was installed in July 1960 for handling outgoing tele grams. The machine involved is capable of accepting multiple-addressed messages, selecting appropriate channels, holding in storage if any are busy and providing certain data for billing purposes. In

the fall of 1963, a computer controlled system was installed in the Paris Embassy to replace an earlier manually controlled machine. This system performs most functions automatically, controlling 24 individual correspondent circuits. Through it the traffic for most of Europe and much destined for the Near East and Africa passesvolumes which would otherwise necessitate manual processing by greatly expanded staffs. Requirements for increased speed of handling larger volumes of telegrams make it mandatory to update and further automate the Washington communications center utilizing computer techniques. Action to that end has been initiated with implementation dependent upon availability of funds.

N. The organization and management of Department of State communications was completely altered early in the calendar year 1963 with the creation of an Office of Communications. Assigned to it were the personnel and functions of superseded Cryptography Staff and the Diplomatic Communications Service. The new Office is responsible for planning and directing the worldwide electrical communications system, telegraphic and voice, and for the courier, mail, and diplomatic pouch operations domestically and overseas. To permit it to respond to increased emphasis on modernizing the Department's system, additional technical personnel are needed at all levels, for assignment overseas and to the Department itself. New equipment and systems are much more complex and demand higher levels of technical skills than those in use at present.

0. The Department of State is participating as one of the principal Operating Agencies in the National Communications System (Federal Register, Aug. 28, 1963). Its long-haul system is a part of the national system and its terminal facilities in Washington and at oversea posts are key elements in the execution of top-level national policy actions. One senior staff officer has been designated as a full-time representative at the NCS Headquarters. The present and prospective workload points to additional full-time staff. Required flushing out of these needs is dependent upon availability of positions and personnel possessing the required level of technical competence. The future budgeting of NCS requirements is perhaps the most important problem which requires resolution.

P. In summary, during the post-World War II period, the Department has not been able to apply adequate funds to keep its communications system abreast of increasing needs and new technical advances. As equipment aged without replacement and telegram volumes grew, the system became increasingly sensitive to overloading. In the fall of 1962 the full pressure of the Cuban crisis overwhelmed the technical capabilities then available leading to the initiation of basic and sweeping improvement in planning and action. A start has been made; much more remains to be done. Ultimate success is dependent upon availability of funds for the purchase of equipment and facilities and positions and funds for necessary personnel to manage, maintain, and operate it at acceptable levels of speed, economy, and reliability.





The text of the Agreement between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Exchanges in the Scientific, Technical, Educational, Cultural, and Other Fields in 1964–1965, which was signed at noon (4:00 A.M., E.S.T.) on February 22, 1964 in Moscow, is contained in the following pages.

Foy D. Kohler, American Ambassador to the U.S.S.R., signed for the United States. S. K. Romanovsky, Chairman of the State Committee for Cultural Relations with Foreign countries, signed for the U.S.S.R. AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE

UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS ON EXCHANGES IN THE SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL, EDUCATIONAL, CULTURAL, AND OTHER FIELDS IN 1964-1965 By agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, delegations headed on the United States side by Foy D. Kohler, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the United States of America to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and on the Soviet side by S. K. Romanovsky, Chairman of the State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. for Cultural Relations with Foreign countries, conducted negotiations in Moscow from January 7 to February 22, 1964, with regard to exchanges between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in the scientific, technical, educational, cultural and other fields in 1964–1965. Attaching great importance to the continuance and development of exchanges in the above-mentioned fields, the United States and the Soviet Union have agreed to provide during 1964–1965 for the exchanges which are set forth in the following Sections of the present Agreement, in the hope that these exchanges will contribute significantly to the strengthening of cooperation and mutual understanding between the peoples and to the betterment of relations between the two countries.



(1) The exchanges and visits provided for herein shall be subject to the Constitution and applicable laws and regulations in force in the respective countries.

(2) Both Parties, desirous of having the exchanges and visits between them take place under favorable conditions and without delay, agree that:

(a) The programs, lengths of stay, dates of arrival, financial and transportation arrangements and other details of the exchanges and visits provided for in this Agreement, except as otherwise herein stated, shall be agreed upon, as a rule, not less than thirty days in advance through diplomatic channels or between appropriate organizations requested by the Parties to carry out these exchanges ;

(0) Applications for visas for members of delegations, groups or individuals shall be submitted, as a rule, not less than twenty days before the estimated time of departure;

(c) Each of the Parties, at its discretion, shall have the right to include in delegations interpreters or members of its Embassy, who shall be considered as within the agreed total membership of such delegations;

(d) Unless otherwise provided for in this Agreement, and except where other specific arrangements have been mutually agreed upon, visiting dele

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