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I wonder if you would care to comment on this, and if you have been able to work your setup so that you can sit back and reflect. I thought this would be a good point on which to end the hearing.

Secretary Rusk. I would strongly support what Mr. Acheson said on that point, and I would underline it in relation to our present situation, because I do believe that we are on the front edge of very important changes in the world situation.

It is too early yet to know just how those changes will develop, and in which directions, but the situation is in flux. The problem in front of us now is to find the right line, the sophisticated line, the informed line with naivete and illusion on the one side, and failure to see the possibilities of major changes to the advantage of the free world on the other.

This is a time for thinking and it is hard to get time to think. It is especially hard for the Secretary of State, because in addition to all of the statutory and normal duties that he has, he has a good many representational duties that we haven't mentioned here today. It is a constant struggle.

Senator JACKSON. Fine. And we will hold this hearing record open for a number of other executive branch memorandums which are being submitted at our request as additions to the testimony.

We certainly want to express on behalf of all of the members of the committee our appreciation for your coming here today, and for giving us your comments and your judgment on various matters. Secretary Rusk. Thank you. It has been very helpful to me.

(Whereupon, at 12 noon, the subcommittee recessed, to reconvene at the call of the Chair.)


(Prepared in the Office of the Honorable U. Alexis Johnson, Deputy Under

Secretary of State for Political Affairs)


The Department of State has substantially strengthened its capabilities in the politico-military field

during the past 3 years

. The Secretary and the other senior officials of the Department have been provided with centralized staff support and functional expertise for dealing with the increasingly wide range of international problems that involve military factors and considerations. At the same time, the geographical and functional bureaus of the Department have strengthened their own staffing and sharpened their own interests in this field.

The Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs is the senior departmental official with primary staff responsibility for poltico-military affairs. He is the focal point for the Department's dealings with the Department of Defense. In May 1961, to assist him in this area, a Politico-Military Affairs staff headed by a Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Politico-Military Affairs (G/HM) was established as a part of the office of the Deputy Under Secretary. As Secretary Rusk characterized the function in his testimony before the Senate Subcommittee on National Policy Machinery in August 1961, the Politico-Military Affairs staff is to— assist the supervisory level of the State Department in the management and conduct of all the Department's relations with the Department of Defense, including the Military Establishment. It is intended to provide leadership on such matters within the State Department, and thereby enable it to fulfill more effectively its role of providing timely political guidance to other governmental agencies on politico-military matters.

The requirement for G/PM and the nature of its role have been stated more recently in the following terms:

Operating in such a setting, the Department needed a unit that could look at politico-military problems on a worldwide basis, assure that regional variations and interrelations had been taken into account, and provide a central point of Pocus and coordination, as required for the politico-military activities being carried on by the geographical bureaus of the Department. Such a unit would not replace regional politico-military staffs but rather strengthen and tie together Cheir related activities.

There was also a requirement for some State Department unit to review the total U.S. defense effort and the major lines of policy being pursued by the Defense Department in terms of their overall foreign policy implications, and to bring these implications to the attention of the Defense Department where appropriate. In a situation where so many important problems involved the State and Defense Departments, it was also felt that it would be convenient to

* U.S. Senate, Committee on Government Operations, Subcommittee on National Policy Lachinery, "Organizing for National Security," vol. 1, hearings, Aug. 24, 1961, p. 1282.


have one obvious point of contact within

he Department well known to al elements of the Department of Defense."

The Deputy Assistant Secretary Politico-Military Affairs has organized his staff along three major lines of activity. Ăn operations group deals with those military problems that have immediate action consequences or foreign policy implications or foreign policy actions that have military implications and therefore demand coordination and close collaboration with the Defense Department on a current basis. A combined policy staff is concerned with politico-military problems of a policy, planning, and strategic nature. Military aspects of atomic energy and aerospace represent another major area of responsibility. The Deputy Assistant Secretary also has a Special Assistant for Soviet Bloc Politico-Military Affairs. In addition, (/PM has policy guidance and coordinating responsibilities for the Department of State in the fields of emergency preparedness and foreign disaster relief.

On July 1, 1963, the Office of Munitions Control was transferred from the Bureau of Economic Affairs to the jurisdiction of the Deputy Assistant Secretary. The responsibilities of this Office in the licensing of military sales to foreign countries and in monitoring exchange of military information with them are closely related to the activities of the Politico-Military Affairs staff, and this closer relationship seemed desirable.

While the presence of a special stati provides the management supervisory level of the Department, for the first time, with substantial staff support on politico-military problems, the Deputy Assistant Secretary and his staff by no means represent the totality of the State Department's capabilities in this field. The Department has been involved in politico-military affairs since the end of World War

Each of the Assistant Secretaries heading the geographical bureaus has officers or staffs charged with full-time responsibilities in this field, and there are, furthermore, few desk officers in these bureaus who do not at one time or another deal with questions of military assistance and training, base rights, overflights of U.S. military aircraft, and visits of U.S. military units or personnel.

In March 1962, as part of an effort to strengthen the Department in the field of Atlantic Community affairs, the position of Deputy Assistant Secretary was established with that responsibility, and the Office of Regional Affairs (RA) in the Bureau of European Affairs was divided into two units, an Office of Atlantic Political-Economic Affairs (RPE) and an Office of Atlantic Political-Military Affairs (RPM). The latter office provides the primary organizational support in the Department of State for U.S. participation in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The complex organizational structure of NATO and the intimate interrelations of political and military-strategic problems that characterize its functioning make RPM an extremely busy and important office. The staff of RPM has a close working relationship with G/PM.

In the Inter-American, Near Eastern and South Asian, Far Eastern, and African Affairs Bureaus, there are regional offices that deal with problems that cut across country and subregional lines. Each

2 "The Politico-Military Affairs Staff : Its Organization and Its Duties," Department of State Newsletter, No. 30 (October 1963), p. 24. This article provides a detailed description of the organization and functioning of G/PM.

of these offices has a number of officers who devote all or most of their time to such problems as regional security arrangements, military assistance, threats of Communist-inspired insurgency, and related internal security matters.

The Policy Planning Council has a long-standing interest in politiI co-military problems. In the period before 1961, when the National

Security Council machinery was more elaborate than it is at present, the Policy Planning Staff (as it was then called) played a primary role in backstopping the Department of State's participation in the work of the Council. The Planning Council continues to be actively engaged in politico-military problems as an aspect of its long-term planning in the foreign policy field, and its members work with G/PM officers on the politico-military facets of their planning tasks.

In other words, while the Department of State has a number of units to meet a variety of politico-military needs and requirements, these units do not work in isolation from one another. With the support of the Politico-Military Affairs staff, the Deputy. Under Secretary coordinates and provides leadership to the politico-military efforts of the geographical and functional bureaus and the Policy Planning Council and works closely with the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and relevant geographical and functional units in the Agency for International Development. In addition to the usual working contacts, G/PM officers meet formally once a week with representatives of the politico-military staffs of the Department's geographical bureaus.

A significant portion of the day-to-day politico-military work of the Department is still done in the several regional bureaus. G/PM's significance lies in the fact that it has provided to the component units of the Department of State a central point of functional expertise, leadership, and coordination in this field.


These expanded organizational capabilities have enabled the Department of State to provide clearer guidance and more effective policy direction to those military programs and activities that help ímplement U.S. foreign policy, for example, stationing of U.S. forces abroad and other military operations overseas, military-strategic planning, and military assistance, training, and equipment sales. At least as noteworthy has been the increasing recognition within the Department that the overall military posture and capabilities of the United States significantly affect the strength and flexibility of its foreign policy and, therefore, that the Department of State must concern itself in a serious and continuing fashion with the military policy decisions that determine what those capabilities will be. The central position of the Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, supported by the Politico-Military Affairs staff, has enabled him to provide active and positive leadership in these efforts and to mobilize the full politico-military resources of the Department for these purposes.

One example of this relatively new politico-military role is the participation of the Department of State, for the past 3 years, in the Defense Department's annual planning and budget exercise. The Secretary of Defense has now made this a 5-year projection of

strategy and force structure, which is reviewed annually. The relevant documents embody the Defense Department's plans for the future, and the force levels, worldwide force dispositions, and weapons systems development envisaged in them. The Department of State reviews and analyzes these plans and projections from the standpoint of their foreign policy implications and thus permits the Secretary of State to provide appropriate guidance in this field to the Secretary of De fense and advice to the President.

Another field of military activity with which the Department of State now concerns itself on a systematic, continuing basis is deploy. ment of U.S. forces overseas. Because of the relationship between the stationing of large numbers of U.S. troops abroad and the balanceof-payments problem, this has become a particularly sensitive issue during the past year. It is further complicated by the continuing changes in military technology that require or make possible adjustments in the positioning of U.S. forces as between foreign and U.S. bases.

Any redeployments of U.S. forces from oversea bases, or deployments to them, that represent more than the normal rotation of units or individuals are now reviewed as a matter of course by the Department of State to assess likely foreign policy implications. Special interagency coordinating mechanisms have been established, under the chairmanship of the Deputy. Assistant Secretary for PoliticoMilitary Affairs, to assure effective governmental attention to this complicated problem area. Within the Department of State, G/PM has worked closely with the geographical bureaus whose areas would be affected by proposed redeployments of forces.

There has also been greatly increased collaboration with the Defense Department on a broad range of military contingency planning efforts, special studies, and joint task forces. Major politico-strategic problems in Europe and elsewhere have been the subject of joint review. The Berlin task force is probably the best example of joint contingency planning, but there are others. Cuba and Vietnam have also been approached on an interagency task force basis.

The Cuban crisis of October 1962, and the detailed implementation of the Nassau agreements after December 1962, were marked by the closest State-Defense collaboration in policy development, planning, and execution. In the case of the Nassau agreements, special inter agency machinery was established under Department of State chair. manship, with the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Politico-Military Affairs heading the effort, for coordination of the detailed and complicated activities involved in translating those agreements into national action. Other areas of the Department played an extensive part in this effort, including the Bureau of European Affairs and the Policy Planning Council.

The Department of State has been active in dealing with politicomilitary problems at both the nuclear and insurgency-subversion ends of the military spectrum. Under the leadership of the Deputy Under Secretary for Political Affairs and his G/PM staff, the Department has attempted to put the problem of Communist subversion and insurgency in its broader polítical and socio-economic context, to develop increased recognition among the U.S. agencies involved that Communist inspired or supported insurgency is not only or even primarily

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