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show that the first-born is more frequently a really of any use whatever for that female than a male.'

purpose. There is, indeed, one point, Ans. But in the case of the Hebrews, according to the story in the Pentateuch, "(what-though he has not noticed it, which ever may be the case generally,) the first-born might help slightly to diminish it. In was much more frequently a male than a

some families the first-born may have female. We have the instances of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and Jacob's twelve died before the numbering; some, too, sons, (except Asher who had a daughter who were born about the time of the before going into Egypt, and she may have birth of Moses, may have been killed been his first-born child,) in each of which the first born was a male. Amram's first- by the order of Pharaoh. And, if all born, indeed, was a daughter, and Zelophehad those, who may have thus died, be had only daughters. As far, however, as we reckoned with the 22,273, the proporhave any data to guide us, we should be jus. tion of the remaining males, to be tified in assuming

that the number of the firstborn males far exceeded that of the females. placed under each of the first-born, But let us suppose that they were even equal will be somewhat altered.

Still, we in number, -that, in short, besides the 22,273 cannot suppose any unusual mortality first-born males, there were also 22,273 firstborn females. This, however, will not by of this kind, without checking, in the any means get rid of, or at all diminish, the same degree, the increase of the people. essential difficulty of the question now before Let us, howerer, reckon that one out us: it will only change the form of it. For, having now brought in the idea of the of four first-borns died, so that instead daughters, we must remember that, if there of 44,546 first-borns, male and female, were 900,000 [1,000,000) males, there must there would have been, if all had have been about as many females. And 44,546 first-born children among a population lived, about 60,000. But even this

1,800,000, would imply that each mother number of first-borns, for a populatior. had, on the average, forty-two children, as of 1,800,000, would imply that each before, but twenty-one sons and twenty-one mother had on the average thirty chil. daughters.

(v) Lastly, such of the first-born, as were dren, fifteen sons and fifteen daughters. themselves heads of families, were not reck- Besides which, the number of mothers oned at all as first-born, who had to be re- must have been the same as that of deemed, but only their sons.'

Ans. This is a pure assumption, and un- the first-borns, male and female, inwarranted by anything that is found in the cluding also any that had died. Hence Scripture. The command in N.iii.40 is this, there would have been only 60,000 * Number all the first-born of the males, from child-bearing women to 600,000 men, à month old and upward.' Hence, says KURTZ, very justly, 'if there had been any so that only about one man in ten had age, beyond which the numbering was not to a wife or children! go, [or, we may add, any class of persons, such as heads of families, who were to be ex

92. By this time, surely, great doubt cepted from it,] it would undoubtedly have must have arisen, in the minds of most been mentioned here. But there is nothing readers, as to the historical veracity of

Have we any reason to suppose that the first some considerable portions of the Penborn son of an Egyptian was exempt from tateuch. That doubt, I believe, will death, because he was the head of a family? be confirmed into certainty, when it is He was the first-born to his father, and therefore died, according to the story in Exodus, seen to follow, as a direct consequence

from the first-born of Pharaoh that sat on from the data of the Pentateuch itself, his throne, unto the first-born of the captive that there could not have been any that was in the dungeon,' so that there was such population as this, to come out of not a house where there was not one dead.' E.xii.29,30.

Egypt, -in other words, that the chilBesides, there is one fact, which seems dren of Israel, at the time of the by itself to imply that the 22,273 first-borns Exodus, if only we attend carefully to were intended to include all the first-born males of all ages, whether married men and the distinct statements of the narraheads of families or not, viz. this, that the tive, could not possibly have amounted 22,000 male Levites, of all ages and conditions, to two millions,—that, in fact, the *from a month old and upward,' whether heads of families or not, were substituted for whole body of warriors could not have 22,000 of the first-borns from a month old been two thousand. and upward,' the remaining 273 first-borns being redeemed with money, N.iii.39,45,46.

In order, however, to show this more

clearly, we must first premise a few 91. Thus not one of Kurtz's 'many considerations, which are set forth in ways' of relieving this difficulty is the following chapter.

of the kind.'


sister, to wife ; and she bare him Aaron and


And the years of the life of Amram

were a hundred thirty and seven years.' THE SOJOURNING IN EGYPT, AND THE

Now supposing that Kohath was EXODUS IN THE FOURTH GENERATION. only an infant, when brought down 93. THE SOJOURNING IN EGYPT.

by his father to Egypt with Jacob,

G.xlvi.11, and that he begat Amram Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty at the very end of his life, when 133 years.' E.xii.40.

years old, and that Amram, in like The question, which we have here to manner, begat Moses, when he was consider, is this,—To whatósojourning' 137 years old, still these two numbers do the above words refer? Do they added to 80 years, the age of Moses refer to that of Jacob and his descen- at the time of the Exodus, E.vii.7, dants in the land of Egypt only, or to would only amount to 350 years,

instead the entire sojourning of them and their of 430. forefathers, Abraham and Isaac, ‘in a 97. Once more, it is stated in the strange land,'both in Canaan and above passage, that 'Amram took him Egypt, from the time when the promise Jochebed, his father's sister,'— Kohath’s of old was given to Abraham, and he sister, and therefore, Levi's daughter, sojourned in the land of promise, as to wife.' And so also we read,in a strange country,' Heb.xi.9 ?

"The name of Amram's wife was Jochebed, 94. The verse above quoted, as it the daughter of Levi, whom (her mother) bare to stands in the E. V., does not decide the him in Egypt.' N.xxvi.59. question. But there is evidently some

Now Levi was one year older than thing unusual and awkward in the man-old (18), when he went down with

Judah, and was, therefore, 43 years ner, in which the phrase, 'who dwelt in Jacob into Egypt; and we Egypt,' enters into the above passage: above that he was 137 years old, when

are told And, in fact, the original words would be more naturally translated, (as in the he died. Levi, therefore, must have Vulgate, Chald., Syr., and Arab. Ver- lived, according to the story, 94 years sions)

in Egypt. Making here again the the sojourning of the children of Israel, Jochebed in the last year of his life,

extreme supposition of his begetting which they sojourned in Egypt,'but for the serious difficulties which she may have been an infant 94 years would thus arise.

after the migration of Jacob and his 95. In the first place, St. Paul, re

sons into Egypt. Hence it follows ferring to the covenant, that was

that, if the sojourn in Egypt was 430 confirmed before of God' 'unto Abra- years, Moses, who was 80 years old at says, –

the time of the Exodus, must have been *The Law, which was four hundred and born 350 years after the migration into thirty years after, cannot disannul it. Gal. Egypt, when his mother, even on the

above extravagant supposition, would It is plain, then, that St. Paul in this have been at the very least 256 years passage dates the beginning of the four old ! hundred and thirty years, not from the 98. It is plain, then, that the 430 years going down into Egypt, but from the are meant, as St. Paul understood, to time of the promise made to Abraham. be reckoned from the time of the call

96. Again, in–20, we have of Abraham, when he yet lived in the given the genealogy of Moses and land of Haran. Thus, reckoning 25. Aaron, as follows:

years from his leaving Haran, G.xii.4, "These are the names of the sons of Levi, to the birth of Isaac, xxi.5, -60 years to according to their generations, Gershon, and the birth of Jacob, xxv.26,—130 years Kohath, and Merari. And the years o the life to the migration into Egypt, xlvii.9,,,

And the sons of Kohath, Amram, and Izhar, we have 215 years of sojourning in the and Hebron, and Uzziel. And the years of the land of Canaan, leaving just the same life of Kohath were a hundred thirty and three length oi time, 215 years, for the sojourn years.' 'And Amram took him Jochebed, his father's in the land oj' Egypt.





We conclude, therefore, that the which the “Seed of Abraham' should translation in the English Bible of be sojourners in a strange land, rather E.xii.40, however awkwardly it reads, than to the oppression, which they is correct as it stands, if the Hebrero were to suffer during some part of that words themselves are correct, as they sojourning. They lived as 'pilgrims appear in all manuscript and printed and strangers' in the land of Canaan; copies of the Pentateuch.

and they were at times, no doubt, 99. The Septuagint and Samaritan much more uncomfortable among the Versions, however, insert a few words, people of that land, G.xxvi.15-21,xxxiv, which are either a gloss to make the than they were in Egypt during the meaning of the passage more plain, or seventy years while Joseph yet lived else are a translation of words, which|(103), and, we may suppose, for some existed in those copies of the Hebrew time after his death. Bible, that were used for those Vor- We believe, then, that the 400 years sions, though they are not found in our in the above passage are meant to date

The Vatican copy of the Septua- from the birth of Isaac, "Abraham's gint renders the passage thus: seed,' from which to the Exodus there

The sojourning of the children of Israel, may be reckoned, as in (98), 405, or, which they sojourned in Egypt and in the land in round numbers, 400, years. of Canaan, was 430 years.' The Alexandrian has,

101. THE EXODUS IN THE FOURTH The sojourning of the children of Israel, which they and their fathers sojourned in Egypt GENERATION. and in the land of Canaan, was 430 years. Again when it is said, G.xv.16, 'in' The Samaritan has,

the fourth generation they shall come “The sojourning of the children of Israel hither again, this seems to mean 'in and of their fathers, which they sojourned in the fourth generation,' reckoning from the land of Canaan and in the land of Egypt, the time when they should leave the was 430 years. In fact, during all those 430 years,

land of Canaan, and go down into Abraham and his seed were, according Egypt. Thus we find Moses and Aaron to the story, sojourning as strangers in the fourth generation from the mi

in the land of promise as in a strange gration, yiz. land,'—in a land which was not their

Jacob begat Levi, own,' but for the present 'the posses

Levi begat Kohath, sion of the Gentiles.'

Kohath begat Amram, 100. And this agrees also substan

Amram begat Aaron. tially with the promise in G.xv.13-16, Or, as Jacob was so aged at the time which is quoted by STEPHEN, Acts vii.6: of his descent into Egypt, and Moses

* Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a and Aaron also, at the time of the stranger, in a land that is not theirs, and shall | Exodus, were advanced in life beyond serve them, and they shall afflict them, four the military age, we may reckon from they shall serve, will I judge ; and afterwards those, as Levi, who went down into they shall come out with great substance. Egypt in the prime of life; and then And thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; the generation of Joshua, Eleazar, &c., thou shalt be buried in a good old age. But in the prime of life, will be the fourth again ; for the iniquity of the Amorites is not generation.

102. Accordingly, if we examine the At first sight, indeed, it would seem different genealogies of remarkable men, from the above that Abraham's de- which are given in various places of scendants were to be afflicted for 400 the Pentateuch, we shall find that, as a. years, in one land, such as Egypt, by rule, the contemporaries of Moses and one nation. But it is certain that they Aaron are descendants in the third, were not afflicted, according to the and those of Joshua and Eleazar in story, during all the time of their so- the fourth, generation, from some one journ in Egypt. And hence it appears of the sons, or adult grandsons, of that the time here specified, 400 years, Jacob, who went down with him into is meant to refer to the time during Egypt. Thus we have:

yet full.'

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1st Gen. 2nd. Gen. 3rd Gen.

4in Gn. 5th Gen. Levi · Kohath Amram Moses,18,20 Levi Kohath Amram Aaron,18,20 Levi . Kohath Uzziel Mishael

Levi. Kohath Uzziel Elzaphan

Levi . Kohath Izhar

Reuben .
. Pallu
Eliab Dathan

Reuben. Pallu Eliab Abiram

N.xxvi. 7-9.
Carmi Achan

Pharez Hezron Segub Jair

iCh.ii.21,22. Levi. Kohath Amram Aaron

Eleazar Phinehas,25. Pharez Hezron Ram Amminadab Elisheba Pharez Hezron Ram Amminadab Nahshon

Ruth iv.18,19. Pharez . Hezron Caleb Hur

Uri Bezaleel iCh.ii.18-20. 103. Again, we are told that the vi.37,38, Achan, ii.4,6,7, Nahshon, ii.9,10, children of Machir the son of Manasseh,

Bezalcel, ii.18,20, Jair, ii.21,22. were brought up upon Joseph's knees,

It is strange, then, that in this single in

stance of Joshua there should be so remarkG.I.23. Hence, as Joseph was 39 years able a variation from the general rule. old, when Jacob came down to Égypt

106. Let us now, however, examine (18, note), and died at the age of 110, more closely this statement in the book. G.1.22, having lived, therefore, 71 years of Chronicles. after that event, we may assume that

Since Joseph 'saw Ephraim's children of Machir's son, Gilead, was born about the third generation,' G.1.23, Telah, one of 70 years after the migration, and we these, may have been born about seventy years read of his grandson, Zelophehad,

after the migration into Egypt (103).

We have no express statement of the age of whose daughters came to Moses for Joshua at the time of the Exodus.

But we land, at the end of the wanderings, and may suppose it to have been about the same who died in the wilderness, N.xxvii.1-3.

as that of Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, with

whom he is so often coupled ; and Caleb was 104. It is true that in 1Ch.vij.20-27

forty years old, when sent to spy the land at we have one remarkable exception to the the end of the first year after the Exodus, above rule, where we find the genealogy

Jo.xiv.7. We may, therefore, adopt the esti

mate of JOSEPHUS, Ant.V.i.29, who reckons of Joshua given as follows:

that the age of Joshua was forty-five at the "And the sons of Ephraim,-Shuthelah, and

time of the Exodus. This will agree well Bered his son, and Tahath his son, and Eladah with the fact, that, shortly after leaving his son, and Tahath his son, and Zabad his son, Egypt, while still young enough to be the and Shuthelah his son, and Ezer, and Elead,

minister' or servant of Moses, E.xxiv.13, whom the men of Gath, that were born in that he was old enough also to command the host land, slew, because they came down to take of Israel when fighting with Amalek, E.xvii. away their cattle. And Ephraim their father mourned many days, and his brethren came Hence, since the Exodus took place 215 years to comfort him. And when he went in unto at most after the migration into Egypt, there his wife, she conceived and bare a son, and

must have intervened between the birth of he called his name Beriah, because it went Telah and that of Joshua 215-70-45, that is, evil with his house. And his daughter was 100 years; so that, according to the Chronicler, Sherah, who built Beth-horon the nether, and there must have been six complete generathe upper, and Uzzen-Sherah. And Rephah tions in 100 years, which is hardly credible. his son, and Resheph, and Telah his son, and Again, according to the Chronicler, EliTahan his son, Laadan his son, Ammihud his shama, the son of Ammihud,' was the grandson, Elishama his son, Nun his son, Jehoshuah father of Joshua. But · Elishama, the son of his son.'

Ammihud,' was himself the captain of the Here then, apparently, Joshua is host of Ephraim, N.ii.18, about a year after given in the ninth generation from

his grandson, Joshua, had commanded the

whole Hebrew force which fought with AmaEphraim, or the tenth from Joseph. lek, E.xvii.8–16, which also is hardly credible. 105. Upon this I would first remark

107. But in truth, the account of as follows:

Joshua's descent in 1Ch.vii appears to (i) This is an exception to the rule, which be very perplexed and contradictory. prevails universally in the Pentateuch.

(ii) We are not here concerned with the Thus, in v.24, we are told that Ephraim's books of Chronicles, (which, as all commenta- | daughter built three villages in the land of tors will admit, were certainly composed after Canaan. If we suppose this to mean that the the Captivity,) but with the narrative in the descendants of Ephraim's daughter, after the Pentateuch and book of Joshua, and must conquest in the time of Joshua, did this, yet abide by the data which they furnish.

in v.22,23, we have this strange fact stated, (iii) The book of Chronicles itself exhibits that Ephraim himself, after the slaughter by the rule of the Pentateuch in all other cases, the men of Gath of his descendants in the as in that of Moses and Aaron, vi.1-3, Korah, 1 seventh generation, mourned many days,' and,


then married again, and had a son, Beriah, Canaan, but two hundred and fifteen years who was the ancestor of Joshua!

only after Jacob removed into Egypt. KITTO remarks upon this point, Hist. of the Jews, p.146 :

And he says of Moses, Ant.II.ix.6:'It is impossible that Ephraim should have

Abraham was his ancestor of the seventh been then alive to mourn over the seventh gene

generation. ration of his descendants. Read · Zabad' for And of Joseph, Against Apion,i.33:* Ephraim,' and all becomes intelligible.'

He died four generations before Moses, which This is, of course, mere conjecture, and it four generations make almost 170 years. does not by any means dispose of the difficulty: for, by this correction, as a little consideration So, too, Archd. Pratt observes, Sciwill show, Joshua will be made a descendant ence and Scripture, &c. p.78:in the seventeenth generation from Joseph, to associate with Eleazar in the fourth generation his seed were to return to Canaan. But 430, or

It was to be in the fourth generation that from Levi. BERTHEAU suggests that the whole passage generations, and therefore must include some

even 400, years is very much longer than four in v.20, and Bered his son, and Tahath his thing besides the bondage in Egypt, viz. the son, and Eladah his son,' may be parenthetical, sojourning in Canaan. This prediction regard. carrying on the line of the first Shuthelah, so that, omitting this parenthesis, the words filled. Moses and Aaron were sons of Jochebed,

ing the 'fourth generation' was literally fulwould run, and the sons of Ephraim-Shu- who was the daughter of Levi, N.xxvi.59, & thelah, and Ezer, and Elead,' &c., in which text which incidentally confirms the correctcase Ezer and Elead, for whom Ephraim ness of our general outline. Eleazar, the mourned, would be the sons of Ephraim, Priest, the son of Aaron, was, therefore, of elder brothers of Beriah, and younger brothers the fourth generation from Jacob. of the first Shuthelah, instead of the second. But why is not this important son of Ephraim,

110. From this it will appear that Beriah, the ancestor of so illustrious a per- it is impossible that there should have son as Joshua, mentioned in the list of the been such a number of the people of sons of Ephraim which is given in the Penta- Israel in Egypt, at the time of the teuch itself, N.xxvi.35? 108. Upon the whole we are justified warriors in the prime of life, represent

Exodus, as to have furnished 600,000 in dismissing this statement in the book of Chronicles, about the genealogy of ing, at least, two millions of persons, Joshua, as in its present form uncer

of all ages and sexes,- that is to say, tain or erroneous, and as being of no

it is impossible, if we will take the data consequence at all in reference to the of the Pentateucħ itself in their plain question before us, since it is found in natural meaning, and not force into à book written more than a thousand them a meaning of our own. years after the time of the Exodus,

CHAPTER XI. and it stands alone even in that book, directly at variance with so many tes- THE NUMBER OF ISRAELITES AT THE timonies from the Pentateuch and from

TIME OF THE EXODUS. the book of Chronicles itself, all tending 111. In the first place, it must be obto a different conclusion.

served, as already noted, that we no109. We believe, then, that the story,

where read of any very large families as told in the Pentateuch, intends it among the children of Jacob or their

descendants to the time of the Exodus. to be understood(i) that the children of Israel came

We may suppose, in order to have the out of Egypt about 215 years after population as large as possible, that they went down thither in the time very few died prematurely, and that of Jacob,

those, who were born, almost all lived (ii) that they came out in the fourth and multiplied. But we have no reageneration from the adults in the prime which

son whatever, looking only at the data of life, who went down with Jacob.

furnished by the Pentateuch But the reader is requested to ob- itself, to assume that they had families serve that the second of these conclu- materially larger than those of the sions does not in any way depend upon G.xlvi that Reuben had 4 sons, Simeon

present day. Thus we are told in the correctness of the former.

And this is the view of JOSEPHUS, 6, Levi 3, Judah 5, Issachar 4, Zebulun Ant.II.xv.2:

3, Gad 7, Asher 4, Joseph 2, Benjamin

And the list They left Egypt four hundred and thirty 10, Dan 1, Naphtali 4. years after our forefather Abraham came into of families at the end of the Exodus,

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