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OF

UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE.

A REPRINT

OF THE LAST (1880) EDINBURGH AND LONDON EDITION

OF CHAMBERS'S ENCYCLOPÆDIA,

Walith Copious Additions by American Editore.

FIFTEEN VOLUMES,

VOLUME VIII.

NEW YORK:
AMERICAN BOOK EXCHANGE,

TRIBUNE BUILDING,

1880.

HARVARD
UNIVERSITY
WBRARY

COPYRIGHT, 1880.
AMERICAN BOOK EXCHANGE

NEW YORK

ELECTROTYPED FROM THE

COMPOSING ROOXS OF
S. W. GREEN'S SON,

NEW YORK

J. CAMPBELL,

PRINTER
16 Vandewater St., N. Y.

AMERICAN PUBLISHER'S NOTICE.

This work, although based upon Chambers's Encyclopædia, whose distinguished merit is widely known, differs from it in important respects. It could scarcely be expected that an Encyclopædia, edited and published for a foreign market, would give as much prominence to American topics as American readers might desire. To supply these and other deficiencies the American Editors have inserted about 15,000 titles, arranging the whole, including Chambers's Supplement, in a single alphabet. The total number of titles is now about 40,000. The additions give greater fullness in the departments of biography, geography, history, natural history, and general and applied science. Scrupulous care has been taken not to mutilate or modify the original text of the edition of 1880; no changes have been made except such verbal alterations as are required by the omission of the wood-cuts. The titles of articles from Chambers's Encyclopædia, either from the main work or from the Supplement, are printed in boldfaced type--AMERICA. The titles of the American additions, whether of new topics or of enlargements of the old, are printed in plain capitals-AMERICA. Should it appear that an article from the English work and its American continuation disagree in any points, the reader will readily refer the conflicting statements to their proper sources.

The labor of consultation will be much reduced by the catch-words in bold-faced type at the top of the page, being the first and last titles of the pages which face each other; and by the full title-words on the back of the volume, being the first and last titles contained therein.

The word ante refers to Chambers's Encyclopædia, as represented in this issue. Whenever the word (ante) follows a title in the American additions, it indicates that the article is an enlargement of one under the same title in Chambers's Encyclopædiausually to be found immediately preceding.

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