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affected by proposed amendments, shall be inserted on the journals.—12 March, 1792.

33. The proceedings of the Senate, when not acting as in committee of the whole, shall be entered on the journal as concisely as possible, care being taken to detail a true and accurate account of the proceedings; but every vote of the Senate shall be entered on the journal, and a brief statement of the contents of each petition, memorial, or paper, presented to the Senate, shall also be inserted on the journal.—19 May, 1789; 12 March 1792 ; 14 February, 1828.

34. The following standing committees shall be appointed at the commencement of each session, with leave to report by bill or otherwise—5 March, 1857:

A Committee on Foreign Relations, to consist of seven members.—10 December, 1816; 5 March, 1857.

A Committee on Finance, to consist of seven members.—10 December, 1816; 5 March, 1857.

A Committee on Appropriations, to consist of seven members. -6 March, 1867.

A Committee on Commerce, to consist of seven members.— 10 December, 1816; 7 December, 1825; 5 March, 1857.

A Committee on Munufactures, to consist of five members.10 February, 1864.

A Committee on Agriculture, to consist of five members. — 6 March, 1863.

A Committee on Military Affairs and the Militia, to consist of seven members.—10 December, 1816; 5 March, 1857.

A Committee on Naval Affairs, to consist of seven members.10 December, 1816; 5 March, 1857.

A Committee on the Judiciary, to consist of seven members.10 December, 1816; 5 March, 1857.

A Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads, to consist of seven members.—10 December, 1816; 5 March 1857.

A Committee on Public Lands, to consist of seven members. 10 December, 1816; 5 March, 1857.

A Committee on Private Land Claims, to consist of five members.—27 December, 1826; 5 March, 1857.

A Committee on Indian Affairs, to consist of seven members. 3 January, 1820; 5 March 1857.

A Committee on Pensions, to consist of seven members.-10 December, 1816; 5 March, 1857.

A Committee on Revolutionary Claims, to consist of five members.--28 December, 1832 ; 5 March, 1857.

A Committee on Claims, to consist of seven menibers. 10 December, 1816; 5 March, 1857.

A Committee on the District of Columbia, to consist of seven members.—10 December, 1816; 5 March, 1857.

A Committee on Patents and the Patent Office, to consist of five members.--7 September, 1837; 5 March, 1857.

A Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds, to consist of five members, who shall have power also to act jointly with the same committee of the House of Representatives.--16 December, 1819; 19 December, 1837; 28 May, 1850; 5 March, 1857.

A Committee on Territories, to consist of seven members.25 March, 1844; 5 March, 1857.

A Committee on the Pacific Railroad, to consist of nine members.-22 December, 1863.

A Committee on Mines and Mining, to consist of seven menbers.—8 March, 1865.

A Committee to Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate, to consist of three members, to whom shall be referred all resolutions directing the payment of money out of the contingent fund of the Senate, or creating a charge on the same.—4 November, 1807; 7 April, 1853; 5 March, 1857.

A Committee on Printing, to consist of three members, to whom shall be referred every question on the printing of documents, reports, or other matter transmitted by either of the executive departments, and all memorials, petitions, accompanying documents, together with all other matter, the printing of which shall be moved, excepting bills originating in Congress, resolutions offered by any senator, communications from the legislatures, or conventions lawfully called of the respective States, and motions to print by order of the standing committees of the Senate; motions to print additional numbers shall likewise be referred to said committee; and when the report shall be in favor of printing additional numbers, it shall be accompanied by an estimate of the probable cost; the said committee shall also supervise and direct the procuring of maps and drawings accompanying documents ordered to be printed.—15 December, 1841; 18 December, 1850; 22 Junuary, 1855; 5 March, 1857.

A Committee on Engrossed Bills, to consist of three members, whose duty it shall be to examine all bills, amendments, resolutions, or motions, before they go out of the possession of the Senate; and shall deliver the same to the Secretary of the Senate, who shall enter upon the journal that the same have been correctly engrossed.-3 January, 1820.

A Committee on Enrolled Bills, to consist of three members.6 August, 1789; 5 March, 1857.

35. In the appointment of the standing committees, the Senate will proceed, by ballot, severally to appoint the chairman of each committee, and, then, by one ballot, the other members necessary to complete the same; and a majority of the whole number of votes given shall be necessary to the choice of a chairman of a standing committee. All other committees shall be appointed by ballot; and a plurality of votes shall make a choice. When any subject or matter shall have been referred to a committee, any other subject or matter of a similar nature may, on motion, be referred to such committee.—3 January, 1820; 8 December, 1826; 14 February, 1828.

36. When motions are made for reference of the same subject to a select committee and to a standing committee, the question on reference to the standing committee shall be first put.—14 February, 1828.

NOTE.—January 19, 1848. The Senate decided that, in filling a vacancy on

a committee caused by the resignation of a chairman, by the President of the Senate, it shall be only to fill up the number on the committee.

37. When nominations shall be made in writing by the President of the United States to the Senate, a future day shall be assigned, unless the Senate unanimously direct otherwise, for taking them into consideration. Nominations neither approved nor rejected during the session at which they are made shall not be acted upon at any succeeding session without being again made by the President. When the President of the United States shall meet the Senate in the Senate chamber, the President of the Senate shall have a chair on the floor, be considered as the head of the Senate, and his chair shall be assigned to the President of the United States. When the Senate shall be convened by the President of the United States to any other place, the President of the Senate and senators shall attend at the place appointed. The Secretary of the Senate shall also attend to take the minutes of the Senate.—21 August, 1789; 18 February,

1843. 38. Whenever a treaty shall be laid before the Senate for ratification, it shall be read a first time for information only; when no motion to reject, ratify, or modify the whole, or any part, shall be received. Its second reading shall be for consideration and on a subsequent day; when it shall be taken up as in Committee of the Whole, and every one shall be free to move a question on any particular article, in this form: “Will the Senate udvise and consent to the ratification of this article ?or to propose amendments thereto, either by inserting or leaving out words; in which last case the question shall be, "Shall these words stand as part of the article ?And in every of the said cases, the concurrence of two-thirds of the senators present shall be requisite to decide affirmatively. And when through the whole, the proceedings shall be stated to the House, and questions shall be again severally put thereon for confirmation, or new ones proposed, requiring, in like manner, a concurrence of twothirds, for whatever is retained or inserted; the vote so confirmed shall by the House, or a committee thereof, be reduced into the form of a ratification, with or without modifications, as may have been decided ; and shall be proposed on a subsequent day, when every one shall again be free to move amendments, either by inserting or leaving out words; in which last case, the question shall be, Shall these words stand as part of the resolution ?And in both cases, the concurrence of two-thirds shall be requisite to carry the affirmative, as well as on the final question to advise and consent to the ratification in the form agreed to.6 January, 1801.

39. All confidential communications, made by the President of the United States to the Senate, shall be by the members thereof kept secret, and all treaties which may be laid before the Senate shall also be kept secret, until the Senate shall, by their resolution, take off the injunction of secrecy.-22 December, 1800; 3 January, 1820.

40. All information or remarks touching or concerning the character or qualifications of any person nominated by the President to office shall be kept a secret.-3 January, 1820.

41. When acting on confidential or executive business, the Senate shall be cleared of all persons except the Secretary, the principal or executive clerk, the Sergeant-at-arms, and Doorkeeper, and the assistant doorkeeper.—3 January, 1820.

42. The legislative proceedings, the executive proceedings, and the confidential legislative proceedings of the Senate shall be kept in separate and distinct books.19 May, 1789; 15 April, 1828.

43. The President of the United States shall, from time to time, be furnished with an authenticated transcript of the executive records of the Senate; and all nominations approved or definitely acted on by the Senate shall be returned by the Secretary on the next day after such action is had, unless otherwise ordered by the Senate; but no further extract from the executive journal shall be furnished, except by special order; and no paper, except original treaties, transmitted to the Senate by the President of the United States, or any executive officer, shall be returned or delivered from the office of the Secretary without an

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