Taxation and Taxes in the United States Under the Internal Revenue System, 1791-1895: An Historical Sketch of the Organization, Development, and Later Modification of Direct and Excise Taxation Under the Constitution

T.Y. Crowell, 1896 - 293 páginas

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Página 234 - State, county, school, and municipal taxes paid within the year, not including those assessed against local benefits; fourth, losses actually sustained during the year, incurred in trade or arising from fires, storms, or shipwreck, and not compensated for by insurance or otherwise...
Página 290 - ... oleomargarine," namely : All substances heretofore known as oleomargarine, oleo, oleomargarine-oil, butterine, lardine, suine, and neutral ; all mixtures and compounds of oleomargarine, oleo, oleomargarine-oil, butterine, lardine, suine, and neutral ; all lard extracts and tallow extracts ; and all mixtures and compounds of tallow, beef fat, suet, lard, lard oil...
Página 234 - ... money and the value of all personal property acquired by gift or inheritance...
Página 290 - ... all mixtures and compounds of tallow, beef-fat, suet, lard, lard-oil, vegetable-oil annotto, and other coloring matter, intestinal fat. and offal fat made in imitation or semblance of butter, or when so made, calculated or intended to be sold as butter or for butter.
Página 28 - He suggests that the boundary line between direct and indirect taxes be settled by "a species of arbitration," and that direct taxes be held to be only " capitation or poll taxes, and taxes on lands and buildings, and general assessments, whether 'on the whole property of individuals or on their whole real or personal estate. All else must, of necessity, be considered as indirect taxes.
Página 249 - ... The tax imposed by sections twenty-seven to thirtyseven, inclusive, of the act of 1894, so far as it falls on the income of real estate and of personal property, being a direct tax within the meaning of the Constitution, and, therefore, unconstitutional and void because not apportioned according to representation, all those sections, constituting one entire scheme of taxation, are necessarily invalid.
Página 247 - ... according to the Constitution. The Constitution does not say that no direct tax shall be laid by apportionment on any other property than land; on the contrary, it forbids all unapportioned direct taxes; and we know of no warrant for excepting personal property from the exercise of the power, or any reason why an apportioned direct tax cannot be laid and assessed, as Mr. Gallatin said in his report when Secretary of the Treasury in 1812, "upon the same objects of taxation on which the direct...
Página 290 - Banks, etc., on amount of notes of any person, State bank or State banking association, used for circulation and paid out 10 per cent. Banks, etc., bankers, or associations, on amount of notes of any town, city, or municipal corporation, paid out by them 10 per cent.
Página 288 - That on all wines, liquors, or compounds known or denominated as wine, and made in imitation of -sparkling wine or champagne, but not made from grapes grown in the United States, and on all liquors, not made from grapes, currants, rhubarb, or berries grown in the United States, but produced by being rectified or mixed with distilled spirits or by the infusion of any matter in spirits, to be sold as wine, or as a substitute for wine...
Página 36 - Every tax ought to be so contrived as both to take out and to keep out of the pockets of the people as Little as possible, over and above what it brings into the public treasury of the state.

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