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a ship or vessel, or from an owner or consignee of goods, wares and mer- On masters of chandise, if the person so swearing or affirming, shall swear or affirm vessels or others falsely, such person shall, on indictment and conviction thereof, be a false oath. punished by fine or imprisonment, or both, in the discretion of the court before whom the conviction shall be had, so as the fine shall not exceed one thousand dollars, and the term of imprisonment shall not exceed twelve months. Sec. 36. And be it further enacted, That all penalties accruing by

Mode of proany breach of this act, shall be sued for and recovered with costs of secuting and resuit, in the name of the United States, in any court proper to try the ties and for. same, by the collector of the district where the same accrued, and not feitures. otherwise, unless in cases of penalty relating to an officer of the customs; and such collector shall be, and hereby is authorized and directed to sue for and prosecute the same to ect, and to distribute and pay the sum recovered, after first deducting all necessary costs and charges, according to law. And all ships or vessels, goods, wares and merchandise, which shall become forfeit by virtue of this act, shall be seized, libelled and prosecuted as aforesaid, in the proper court having cognizance thereof; and the court shall cause fourteen days, notice to be given of such seizure and libel, by causing the substance of such libel, with the order of the court thereon, setting forth the time and place appointed for trial, to be inserted in some public newspaper, nearest the place of seizure, and also by posting up the same in the most public manner for the space of fourteen days, at or near the place of trial; and proclamation shall be made in such manner as the court shall direct; and if no person shall appear to claim such ship or vessel, goods, wares or merchandise, the same shall be adjudged to be forfeited; but if any person shall appear before such judgment of forfeiture, and claim any such ship or vessel, goods, wares or merchandise, and shall give bond to defend the prosecution thereof, and to respond the cost in case he shall not support his claim, the court shall proceed to hear and determine the cause according to law; and upon the prayer of any claimant to the court, that any ship or vessel, goods, wares or merchandises so seized and prosecuted, or any part thereof should be delivered to such claimant, it shall be lawful for the court to appoint three proper persons to appraise such ship or vessel, goods, wares or merchandise, who shall be sworn in open court for the faithful discharge of their duty; and such appraisement shall be made at the expense of the party on whose prayer it is granted; and on the return of such appraisement, if the claimant shall, with one or more sureties, to be approved of by the court, execute a bond in the usual form, to the United States, for the payment of a sum equal to the sum at which the ship or vessel, goods, wares or merchandise so prayed to be delivered, be appraised, the court shall by rule order such ship or vessel, goods, wares or merchandise, to be delivered to the said claimant, and the said bond shall be lodged with the proper officer of the court; and if judgment shall pass in favour of the claimant, the court shall cause the said bond to be cancelled; but if judgment shall pass against the claimant, as to the whole or any part of such ship or vessel, goods, wares or merchandise, and the claimant shall not within twenty days thereafter pay into the court the amount of the appraised value of such ship or vessel, goods, wares or merchandise so condemned, with the costs, the bond shall be put in suit. And when any prosecution shall be commenced on account of the seizure of any ship or vessel, goods, wares or merchandise, and judgment shall be given for the claimant or claimants; if it shall appear to the court before whom such prosecution shall be tried, that there was a reasonable cause of seizure, the same court shall cause a proper certificate or entry to be made thereof, and in such case the claimant shall not be entitled to costs, nor shall the person who made the seizure, or the prosecutor be

liable to action, judgment or suit, on account of such seizure or prosecution. Provided, That the ship or vessel, goods, wares or merchan

dise be after judgment forthwith returned to such claimant or claimants, Limitation. his or their agents. And provided, That no action or prosecution shall

be maintained in any case under this act, unless the same shall have been commenced within three years next after the penalty or forfeiture

was incurred. Vessels or Sec. 37. And be it further enacted, That all ships, vessels, goods, goods con

wares or merchandise, which shall be condemned by virtue of this act, demned by vir. tue of this act,

shall be sold by the proper officer of the court in which such condemhow to be sold, nation shall be had, to the highest bidder at public auction, by order of and by whom.

such court, and at such place as the court may appoint, giving at least fifteen days notice (except in case of perishable goods) in one or more of the public newspapers of the place where such sale shall be, or if no paper is published in such place, in one or more of the papers published

in the nearest place thereto. Appropriation Sec. 38. And be it further enacted, That all penalties, fines and of fines, penal. forfeitures, recovered by virtue of this act (and not otherwise approprities, and for. feitures. ated), shall, after deducting all proper costs and charges, be disposed

of as follows: One moiety shall be for the use of the United States, and paid into the treasury thereof; the other moiety shall be divided into three equal parts, and paid to the collector, naval officer and surveyor of the district wherein the same shall have been incurred; and in such districts where only two of the aforesaid officers shall have been established, the said moiety shall be equally divided between them; and in such districts where only one of the aforesaid officers shall have been established, the said moiety shall be given to such officer : Provided nevertheless, That in all cases where such penalties, fines and forfeitures shall be recovered in pursuance of information given to such collector, by any person, other than the said naval officer and surveyor, the one half of such moiety shall be given to the informer, and the remainder thereof shall be disposed of between the collector, naval officer and surveyor, in manner and form as above limited and ex

pressed. Rhode Island And whereas, The States of Rhode Island and Providence Plantaand N. Carolina. Act of Sept.

tions, and North Carolina, have not as yet ratified the present Constitu16, 1789, ch. 15, tion of the United States, by reason whereof this act doth not extend

to the collecting of duties within either of the said two States, and it is ActOf Feb. thereby become necessary that the following provision with respect to 8, 1790, ch. 1.

goods, wares or merchandise imported from either of the said two States

should for the present take place :(a) Goods imported from, subject

Sec. 39. Be it therefore further enacted, That all goods, wares and to same duties merchandise not of their own growth or manufacture, which shall be as from foreign imported from either of the said two States of Rhode Island and Provicountries,

dence Plantations, or North Carolina, into any other port or place within 1790, ch. 1. the limits of the United States, as settled by the late treaty of peace,

shall be subject to the like duties, seizures and forfeitures, as goods, wares or merchandise imported from any State or country without the said

limits. Dutiable goods Sec. 40. And be it further enacted, That no goods, wares or mer. growth, brought chandise of foreign growth or manufacture, subject to the payment of to the U. States, duties, shall be brought into the United States, in any other manner except by sea, than by sea, nor in any ship or vessel less than thirty tons burthen, exvessels, subject cept within the district of Louisville, and except also in such vessels as to forfeiture. are now actually on their voyages; nor shall be landed, or unladen, at

any other place than is by this act directed, under the penalty of seizure

sec. 2.

(a) North Carolina adopted the Constitution by a convention called in November 1789. Rhode Island, by a convention held in May 1790, assented to the Constitution.

and forfeiture, of all such vessels, goods, wares or merchandise, brought in, landed, or unladen in any other manner. And all goods, wares and merchandise brought into the United States by land, contrary to this act, shall be forfeited, together with the carriages, horses, and oxen, that shall be employed in conveying the same.

APPROVED, July 31, 1789.

STATUTE I. CHAP. VI.-An Act for settling the Accounts between the United States and Aug. 5, 1789.

individual States.(a) Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the

Vacancies in

the board of President of the United States be, and he hereby is empowered to

commissioners, nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to how to be supappoint such person or persons as he may think proper for supplying plied. any vacancy that now is, or may hereafter take place in the Board of Commissioners, established by an ordinance of the late Congress, of the seventh of May, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, to carry into effect the said ordinance and resolutions of Congress, for the settlement of accounts between the United States and individual States.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the said Board of Commis- Clerks to be sioners be, and they hereby are empowered to appoint a chief clerk, appointed, and such other clerks as the duties of their office may require; and that the pay of the said chief clerk be six hundred dollars per annum,

their salaries. and of each other clerk four hundred dollars per annum.

APPROVED, August 5, 1789.

STATUTE I.

CHAP. VII.--
An Act to establish an Excecutive Department, to be denominated Aug. 7, 1789.

the Department of War.(b)
SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa- 1798, ch, 35.
tives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That there

(a) See act of August 5, 1790, chap. 38. (6) An Ordinance for ascertaining the Powers and Duties of the Secretary at War, hit 7 277*. Be it ordained by the United States in Congress assembled, That the powers and duty of the Secretary in , at War shall be as follows, to wit: To examine into the present state of the war department, the returns and present state of the troops, ordnance, arms, ammunition, clothing and supplies of the troops of these States, and report the same to Congress : to keep exact and regular returns of all the forces of these States, and of all the military stores, equipments and supplies in the magazines of the United States, or in other places for their use; and to receive into his care, from the officers in whose posses. sion they may be, all such as are not in actual service : to form estimates of all such stores, equipments and supplies as may be requisite for the military service, and for keeping up competent magazines, and to report the same to the commissioners of the treasury of the United States, that measures may be taken in due time for procuring the same: to prepare estimates for paying and recruiting the troops of these United States : to carry into effect all ordinances and resolves of Congress for raising and equipo ping troops for the service of the United States, and for inspecting the said troops; and to direct the arrangement, destination and operation of such troops as are or may be in service, subject to the orders of Congress or of the committee of the States in the recess of Congress: to make out, seal and coun. tersign the commissions of all such military officers as shall be employed in the service of the United States : to take order for the transportation, safe keeping and distributing the necessary supplies for such troops and garrisons as may be kept up by the United States. He shall appoint and remove at pleasure all persons employed under him, and shall be responsible for their conduct in office; all which appoint. ments shall be immediately certified to Congress, and such certificate, or the substance thereof, registered in a book to be kept for that purpose in the office of the secretary of Congress. He shall keep a public and convenient office in the place where Congress shall reside. He shall, at least once a year, visit all the magazines and deposits of public stores, and report the state of them with proper arrangements to Congress; and shall twice a year, or oftener if thereto required, settle the accounts of his department. That as well the Secretary at War as his assistants or clerks, before they shall enter on the duties of their office, shall respectively take and subscribe an oath or affirmation of fidelity to the United States, and for the faithful execution of the trust reposed in them; and which oaths or affirmations shall be adminis. tered by the secretary of Congress, and a certificate thereof filed in his office. The oath of fidelity shall be in the words following: “Í, A. B. appointed to the office of

do acknowledge that Vol. I.-7

Secretary for shall be an executive department to be denominated the Department of the department War,(a) and that there shall be a principal officer therein, to be called

the Secretary for the Department of War, who shall perform and execute such duties as shall from time to time be enjoined on, or entrusted to him by the President of the United States, agreeably to the Constitution, relative to military commissions, or to the land or naval forces,

ships, or warlike stores of the United States, or to such other matters 1798, ch. 36, respecting military or naval affairs, as the President of the United States C. 6.

shall assign to the said department, or relative to the granting of lands to persons entitled thereto, for military services rendered to the United States, or relative to Indian affairs; and furthermore, that the said principal officer shall conduct the business of the said department in such manner, as the President of the United States shall from time to time

order or instruct. Principal Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That there shall be in the said clerk, his duty. department an inferior officer, to be appointed by the said principal

officer, to be employed therein as he shall deem proper, and to be called the chief clerk in the department of war, and who, whenever the said principal officer shall be removed from office by the President of the United States, or in any other case of vacancy, shall, during such vacancy, have the charge and custody of all records, books and papers,

appertaining to the said department. Oath of office. Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That the said principal officer,

and every other person to be appointed or employed in the said department, shall, before he enters on the execution of his office or employment, take an oath or affirmation well and faithfully to execute the trust

commited to him. Secretary to Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That the Secretary for the departtake charge of ment of war, to be appointed in consequence of this act, shall forthwith war department. after his appointment, be entitled to have the custody and charge of all

records, books and papers in the office of Secretary for the department of war, heretofore established by the United States in Congress assembled.(6)

APPROVED, August 7, 1789.

STATUTE I.

Aug. 7, 1789. CHAP. VIII.-An Act to provide for the Government of the Territory North

west of the river Ohio. 1800, ch. 41.

Whereas in order that the ordinance of the United States in Congress 1802, ch. 40. assembled, for the government of the territory north-west of the river I do owe faith and true allegiance to the United States of America; and I do swear (or affirm) that I will, to the utmost of my power, support, maintain and defend the said United States in their freedom, sovereignty and independence, against all opposition whatsoever.” And the oath of office shall be in the words following: “I, A. B. appointed to the office of

do swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully, truly and impartially execute the office of

to which I am so appointed, according to the best of my skill and judgment; and that I will not disclose or reveal any thing that shall come to my knowledge in the execution of the said office, or from the confidence I may thereby acquire, which in my own judgment or by the injunction of my superiors ought to be kept secret.” That the form of the oath of fidelity heretofore prescribed by Congress, and all former resolutions of Congress relative to the department of war, be, and they are hereby repealed. Done by the United States in Congress assembled, the twenty-seventh day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-five, and of our sovereignty and independence the ninth.

RICHARD HENRY LEE, President. CHARLES THOMSON, Secretary. (a) The Secretary at War, as the legitimate organ of the President, under a general authority from him, may exercise the power, and make the allowance to officers having a separate command. Parker v. The United States, 1 Peters, 296.

(6) By “ an act to establish an executive department to be denominated the Department of the Navy, passed April 30, 1798, chap. 35, the navy department was established, and by the 5th section of that act so much of the act of August 7, 1789, as vested any of the powers given to the department over the navy, by the act of April 30, 1798, were repealed.

Obio may continue to have full effect, it is requisite that certain provi- Act of April sions should be made, so as to adapt the same to the present Constitu- 30, 1802, ch. 10. tion of the United States.(a)

(a) An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States north-west of the river Ohio.

Be it ordained by the United States in Congress assembled, That the said territory, for the purposes of temporary government, be one district; subject, however, to be divided into two districts, as future cir. cumstances may, in the opinion of Congress, make it expedient.

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That the estates both of resident and non-resident proprie. tors in the said territory, dying intestate, shall descend to, and be distributed among their children, and the descendants of a deceased child in equal parts; the descendants of a deceased child or grandchild, to take the share of their deceased parent in equal parts among them: And where there shall be no children or descendants, then in equal parts to the next of kin, in equal degree; and among collaterals, the children of a deceased brother or sister of the intestate, shall have in equal parts among them their deceased parents' share; and there shall in no case be a distinction between kindred of the whole and half blood; saving in all cases to the widow of the intestate, her third part of the real estate for life, and one third part of the personal estate; and this law relative to descents and dower, shall remain in full force until altered by the legislature of the district. —And until the governor and judges shall adopt laws as hereinafter mentioned, estates in the said territory may be devised or bequeathed by wills in writing, signed and sealed by him or her, in whom the estate may be (being of full age) and attested by three witnesses ;—and real estates may be conveyed by lease and release, or bargain and sale, signed, sealed and delivered by the person, being of full age, in whom the estate may be, and attested by two witnesses, provided such wills be duly proved, and such conveyances be acknowledged, or the execu. tion thereof duly proved, and be recorded within one year after proper magistrates, courts and registers shall be appointed for that purpose; and personal property may be transferred by delivery; saving, however, to the French and Canadian inhabitants, and other settlers of the Kaskaskies, St. Vincent's, and the neighbouring villages, who have heretofore professed themselves citizens of Virginia, their laws and customs now in force among them, relative to the descent and conveyance of property.

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, that there shall be appointed from time to time, by Congress, a governor, whose commission shall continue in force for the term of three years, unless sooner revoked by Congress: he shall reside in the district, and have a freehold estate therein, in one thousand acres of land, while in the exercise of his office.

There shall be appointed from time to time by Congress, a secretary, whose commission shall continue in force for four years, unless sooner revoked ;' he shall reside in the district, and have a freehold estate therein, in five hundred acres of land, while in the exercise of his office: it shall be his duty to keep and preserve the acts and laws passed by the legislature, and the public records of the district, and the proceedings of the governor in his executive department; and transmit authentic copies of such acts and proceedings, every six months, to the secretary of Congress: There shall also be appointed a court to consist of three judges, any two of whom to form a court, who shall have a common law jurisdic. tion, and reside in the district, and have each therein a freehold estate in five hundred acres of land, while in the exercise of their offices; and their commissions shall continue in force during good be. haviour.

The governor and judges, or a majority of them, shall adopt and publish in the district, such laws of the original States, criminal and civil, as may be necessary, and best suited to the circumstances of the district, and report them to Congress, from time to time, which laws shall be in force in the district until the organization of the general assembly therein, unless disapproved of by Congress; but after. wards the legislature shall have authority to alter them as they shall think fit.

The governor for the time being, shall be commander-in-chief of the militia, appoint and commission all officers in the same, below the rank of general officers; all general officers shall be appointed and commissioned by Congress.

Previous to the organization of the general assembly, the governor shall appoint such magistrates and other civil officers, in each county or township, as he shall find necessary for the preservation of the peace and good order in the same: After the general assembly shall be organized, the powers and duties of magistrates and other civil officers shall be regulated and defined by the said assembly; but all magis. trates and other civil officers, not herein otherwise directed, shall during the continuance of this temporary government, be appointed by the governor.

For the prevention of crimes and injuries, the laws to be adopted or made shall have force in all parts of the district, and for the execution of process, criminal and civil, the governor shall make proper divisions thereof_and he shall proceed from time to time, as circumstances may require, to lay out the parts of the district in which the Indian titles shall have been extinguished, into counties and townships, subject, however, to such alterations as may thereafter be made by the legislature.

So soon as there shall be five thousand free male inhabitants, of full age, in the district, upon giving proof thereof to the governor, they shall receive authority, with time and place, to elect representatives from their counties or townships, to represent them in the general assembly ; provided that for every five hundred free male inhabitants, there shall be one representative, and so on progressively with the number of free male inhabitants shall the right of representation increase, until the number of represen. tatives shall amount to twenty-five; after which the number and proportion of representatives shall be regulated by the legislatore: provided that no person be eligible or qualified to act as a representative, unless he shall have been a citizen of one of the United States three years, and be a resident in the district, or unless he shall have resided in the district three years; and in either case, shall likewise hold in his own right, in fee simple, two hundred acres of land within the same: provided also, that a free. hold in fifty acres of land in the district, having been a citizen of one of the States, and being resident in the district, or the like freehold and two years residence in the district shall be necessary to qualify a man as an elector of a representative.

The representatives thus elected, shall serve for the term of tw years; and in case of the death of a representative, or removal from office, the governor shall issue a writ to the county or township, for which he was a member, to elect another in his stead, to serve for the residue of the term.

The general assembly, or legislature, shall consist of the governor, legislative council, and a house of

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