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WAR DEPARTMENT RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE

DISPLAY OF SIGNALS ON, AND THE OPERATION OF, ALL CRAFT and Accessories Working on Wrecks, Engaged in Dredging, Surveying, or Other Work of Improvement, and the Use and Navigation of the Waters in the Vicinity, in the Great Lakes and Their Connecting and Tributary Waters as far East as Montreal, the Red River of the North, and the Rivers Whose Waters Flow into the Gulf of Mexico, and their Tributaries

THE LAW

Section 7 of the river and harbor act of August 8, 1917, provides as follows:

That it shall be the duty of the Secretary of War to prescribe such regulations for the use, administration, and navigation of the navigable waters of the United States as in his judgment the public necessity may require for the protection of life and property, or of operations of the United States in channel improvement, covering all matters not specifically delegated by law to some other executive department. Such regulations shall be posted, in conspicuous and appropriate places, for the information of the public; and every person and every corporation which shall violate such regulations shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and, on conviction thereof in any district court of the United States within whose territorial jurisdiction such offense may have been committed, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding $500, or by imprisonment (in the case of a natural person) not exceeding six months, in the discre tion of the court.

In pursuance of the above-quoted law, the following regulations are hereby prescribed to govern the display of signals on, and the operation of, all craft and accessories working on wrecks, engaged in dredging, surveying, or other work of improvement, and the use and navigation of the waters in the vicinity, in the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as Montreal, the Red River of the North, and the rivers whose waters flow into the Gulf of Mexico, and their tributaries. The designation "floating plant” as used herein includes dredges, derrick boats, snag boats, drill boats, pile drivers, maneuver boats, hydraulic graders, and survey boats. By night the towing vessel shall display the regular side lights, but in lieu of the regular white towing lights shall display four lights in a vertical position not less than 3 feet nor more than 6 feet apart, the upper and lower of such lights to be white, and the two middle lights to be red, all of such lights to be of the same character as is now prescribed for the regular towing lights! 2. Rule for steamers, derrick boats, lighters, or other types of vessels made

THE REGULATIONS

1. Rule for signals to be displayed by a towing vessel when towing a sub

merged or partly submerged object upon a hawser when no signals are displayed upon the object which is towed. The vessel having the submerged object in tow shall display by day, where they can best be seen, two shapes, one above the other, not less than 6 feet apart, the lower shape to be carried not less than 10 feet above the deck houses. The shapes shall be in the form of a double frustrum of a cone, base to base, not less than 2 feet in diameter at the center nor less than 8 inches at the ends of the cones, and to be not less than 4 feet lengthwise from end to end, the upper shape to be painted in alternate horizontal stripes of black and white, 8 inches in width, and the lower shape to be painted a solid bright red.

fast alongside a wreck, or moored over a wreck which is on the bottom

or partly submerged, or which may be drifting. Steamers, derrick boats, lighters, or other types of vessels made fast alongside a wreck, or moored over a wreck which is on the bottom or partly submerged, or which may be drifting, shall display by day two shapes of the same character and dimensions and displayed in the same manner as required by the foregoing rule, except that both the shapes shall be painted a solid bright red; but where more than one vessel is working under the above conditions the shapes need be displayed only from one vessel on each side of the wreck from which it can best be seen from all directions.

By night this situation shall be indicated by the display of a white light from the bow and stern of each outside vessel or lighter not less than 6 feet above the deck, and in addition thereto there shall be displayed in a position where they may best be seen from all directions two red lights carried in a vertical line not less than 3 feet nor more than 6 feet apart, and not less than 15 feet above the deck. 3. Rule for dredges which are held in stationary position by moorings or spuds.

Dredges which are held in stationary position by moorings or spuds shall display by day two red balls not less than 2 feet in diameter and carried in a vertical line not less than 3 feet nor more than 6 feet apart and at least 15 feet above the deck house and in such a position where they can best be seen from all directions. By night they shall display a white light at each corner, not less than 6 feet above the deck, and in addition thereto there shall be displayed in a position where they may best be seen from all directions two red lights carried in a vertical line not less than 3 feet nor more than 6 feet apart and not less than 15 feet above the deck. When scows are moored alongside a dredge in the foregoing situation they shall display a white light on each outboard corner not less than 6 feet above the deck. 4. Rule for self-propelling suction dredges underway with their suctions on

the bottom. Self-propelling suction dredges underway with their suction on the bottom shall display by day the same signals as are used to desig. nate any steamer not under control; that is to say, two black balls not less than 2 feet in diameter and carried not less than 15 feet above the deck house and where they may best be seen from all directions.

By night they shall carry, in addition to the regular running lights, two red lights of the same character as the masthead light, in the same vertical plane and underneath the masthead light, the red lights to be not less than 3 feet nor more than 6 feet apart and the upper red light to be not less than 4 feet and not more than 6 feet below the white masthead light, and on or near the stern two red buoys by throwing a suitable beam of light from said plant on the buoys until the approaching vessel has passed, or the buoys may be lighted by red lights, visible in all directions of the same size and character as specified'in rule 5 above: Provided, That the foregoing provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to the following waters of New York Harbor and adjacent waters; namely, the East River, the North River (Battery to Spuyten Duyvil), the Harlem River, and the New York and New Jersey Channels (from the Upper Bay through the Kill Van Kull, Newark Bay, Arthur Kill, and Raritan Bay to the Lower Bay). 12. Obstruction of channel by floating plant.

Channels shall not be unnecessarily obstructed by any dredge or other floating plant. While vessels are passing such plant, all lines running therefrom across the channel on the passing side, which may interfere with or obstruct navigation, shall be slacked to the bottom of the channel. 13. Protection of marks placed for the guidance of floating plant.

Vessels shall not run over anchor buoys, or buoys, stakes, or other marks placed for the guidance of floating plant working in channels; and shall not anchor on the ranges of buoys, stakes, or other marks placed for the guidance of such plant.

NOTE.-—If it is necessary to prohibit or limit the anchorage or movement of vessels within certain areas in order to facilitate the work of improvement, application should be made through official channels for establishment by the Secretary of War of special or temporary regulations for this purpose. 14. Clearing of channels.

When special or temporary regulations have not been prescribed and action under these rules and regulations will not afford clear passage, floating plant in narrow channels shall, upon notice, move out of the way of vessels a sufficient distance to allow them a clear passage. Vessels desiring passage shall, however, give the master of the floating plant ample notice in advance of the time they expect

to pass.

15. Revocation of conflicting regulations.

All regulations or parts of regulations in conflict with these regulations are hereby revoked.

Approved, May 19, 1928. .

HURRICANE, STORM, AND SMALL-CRAFT WARNING SIGNALS

(U. S. Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau)

Hurricane, or whole-gale warning.-Two square flags, red with black centers one above the other, indicate the approach of a tropical hurricane, or of one of the extremely severe and dangerous storms which occasionally occur.

Warning.-Two red pennants indicate that a storm is expected.

Small-craft warning.–A red pennant indicates that moderately strong winds that will interfere with the safe operation of small craft are expected.

Because of the war situation, the Weather Bureau has discontinued storm warning displays by lanterns at night and has resorted to use of flags only, which will remain hoisted during the period of display. Wind directions are not indicated in these displays.

RESUSCITATION

When a person has been rendered unconscious by fumigation gas, by electric shock, drowning, or any other cause, and breathing ceases or becomes very shallow, artificial respiration should be begun at once. Proceed as follows:

1. Lay the patient on his belly, one arm extended directly overhead, the other arm bent at elbow, and with the face turned outward and resting on hand or forearm, so that the nose and mouth are free for breathing.

2. Kneel straddling the patient's thighs with your knees placed at such a distance below his hip bones as will allow you to reach his waist easily. Place the palms of the hands on the small of his back with fingers resting on his ribs, the little finger just touching the lowest rib, with the thumb and fingers in a natural position, and the tips of the fingers just out of sight.

3. With arms held straight, swing forward slowly, so that the weight of your body is gradually brought to bear upon the patient. Your shoulder should be directly over the heel of your hand at the end of the forward swing. Do not bend your elbows. This operation should take about 2 seconds.

4. Now immediately swing backward so as to remove the pressure completely.

5. After 2 seconds swing forward again. Thus repeat deliberately 12 to 15 times a minute the double movement of compression and release, a complete respiration in 4 or 5 seconds.

6. Continue artificial respiration without interruption until natural breathing is restored, 4 hours or longer if necessary, or until a physician declares the patient is dead.

7. As soon as this artificial respiration has been started, and while it is being continued, an assistant should loosen any tight clothing about the patient's neck, chest, or waist. Keep the patient warm. Do not give any liquids whatever by mouth until the patient is fully conscious.

8. To avoid strain on the heart when the patient revives, he should be kept lying down and not allowed to stand or sit up. If the doctor has not arrived by the time the patient has revived, the patient should be given some stimulant, such as 1 teaspoonful of aromatic spirts of ammonia in a small glass of water or a hot drink of coffee or tea, etc. The patient should be kept warm.

9. Resuscitation should be carried on at the nearest possible point to the place where the patient received his injuries. He should not be moved from this point until he is breathing normally of his own volition, and then moved only in a lying position. Should it be necessary, due to extreme weather conditions, etc., to move the patient before he is breathing normally, resuscitation should be carried on during the time that he is being moved.

10. A brief return of natural respiration is not a certain indication for stopping the resuscitation. Not infrequently the patient, after

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UNITED STATES COAST GUARD

a temporary recovery of respiration, stops breathing again. The patient must be watched, and, if natural breathing stops, artificial respiration should be resumed at once.

11. In carrying out resuscitation, it may be necessary to change the operator. This change must be made without losing the rhythm of respiration. By this procedure, no confusion results at the time of change of operator, and a regular rhythm is kept up. The treatment must not be given up until at least 4 hours of steady, unremitting resuscitation have been tried, unless, of course, the patient commences to breathe strongly and naturally of his own volition.

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