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the General Government. The salaries of the secretaries were $7,000 per annum and those of their assistants, or subsecretaries, $4,000.

The customs service, established first in the province of Santiago shortly after the conclusion of the active campaign in 1898, had during the year 1899, been organized in all ports of the island, under the very able and efficient administration of Col. Tasker H. Bliss. This service was practically under the charge of American officials, most of them officers in the Army, with civil assistants selected from the customs service of the United States, and many thoroughly efficient Cubans who had experience in the former customs service of the island. Colonel Bliss, in addition to being the head of the service of the island, was in direct personal charge of the custom-house at Habana.

The funds of the island, derived from customs, internal revenue, postal, and miscellaneous receipts, were deposited with the North American Trust Company, to the credit of the treasurer of the island, Maj. E. F. Ladd. Gen. Alexander Rodríguez, now mayor of Habana, was assistant treasurer.

The quarantine service had been organized by and was in charge of the Marine-Hospital Service of the United States. Officers of this service were stationed in the larger ports, while at many of the smaller ports Cuban physicians were employed. Dr. H. R. Carter was in general charge of the administration of this service throughout the island and in direct charge at Habana.

Postal service. This department of the public service was in a general way under the control of the Postmaster-General, and almost wholly independent of the government of the island. The immediate head of the Post-Office Department was designated as the directorgeneral of posts. This position was held by E. G. Rathbone, esq.

Telegraph and public telephone lines. These were in charge of the Signal Corps of the Army, under the control of the chief signal officer of the division, Col. H. H. C. Dunwoody, having as assistants the officers of the Signal Corps stationed throughout the island. Extensive work had been already completed in this department, and a good telegraph service established between most of the important towns throughout the island.

Captains of ports.-Lieut. Commander Lucien Young, U. S. N., was captain of the port of Habana, and exercised general supervision over all the captains of ports of the island. At all ports except Habana the collectors of customs acted as captains of the port.

Police supervision of the rural districts was exercised by the rural guard of the various provinces. This guard was directly under the command of the various department commanders, but also acted at times under the instructions of the civil governors of the provinces. It was on the whole an excellent force of men, composed of former officers and men of the Cuban army, and was organized in each province of the island, excepting Matanzas, in which province the municipalities had their own mounted police in the rural districts. Officers and men of the rural guard were all carefully selected. They furnished their own horses, and in many instances their uniforms and equipments.

Charities and hospitals.-These institutions were mostly under the charge of the commanding generals of the different departments, each commander estimating for and looking after those of his own department. This was also true of prisons in all that pertained to their main

tenance and sanitation. Sanitary work in all of the large cities, especially in garrisoned towns, was entirely under the military officers, and throughout the island it was under their general charge.

The auditor for the island was a civilian, Mr. W. P. Watson, and the system of accounting and auditing was similar to that of the United States Treasury Department.

The island was divided at the time into four military departments: Department of Santiago and Puerto Principe, including the provinces of the same names and comprising about 57 per cent of the whole island; the Department of Matanzas and Santa Clara, including these provinces; the Department of Habana and Pinar del Rio, including the province of Pinar del Rio and all of Habana Province, excepting the city of Habana, and the municipalities of Guanabacoa, Regla, and Santa Maria del Rosario. These municipalities were embraced in the Department of Habana. Each department was under the command of a general officer. These general officers were charged with the usual military control and administration of the forces under their command, under the rules and regulations of the Army governing in the United States. They were also in charge of public works to a certain extent, and, as above stated, had general supervision of charities, hospitals, jails, etc. They were also charged with a general supervision of the administration of the civil government.

The various department commanders obtained funds for public works, charities, etc., from the funds of the General Government, on estimates approved by the military governor.

Provincial civil administration. The provincial civil administration was provided for in each province by a civil governor, appointed by the governor-general of the island. The civil governor was the head of the civil administration of the province and reported to the secretary of state and government. He was charged with the general supervision of municipal administration in his province, approved the municipal budgets, had control of public meetings, parades, etc., and also, under the then existing law, had general supervision of public order. In short, it was through these officials that the governor-general exercised civil control over the municipalities. Civil governors were also charged with the granting of mining and timber permits and had intervention in granting permits for public works of a general character. The municipalities were governed practically by the alcalde, or mayor, and a board of councilmen appointed by the governor-general, or by his authority.

The administration of justice in each province was vested in an audiencia, or superior court, sitting constantly in the capital of the province, and consisting of five or more judges, a fiscal, or prosecuting officer, and various subordinate court officials, secretaries, deputies, etc. Each province was divided into judicial districts presided over by judges of first instance and instruction, with jurisdiction to try certain civil cases and to inquire into and commit for trial either before the audiencia or municipal judge any criminal case. Alcaldes and civil governors could also impose fines and order arrests, under certain conditions. Each province also had its representatives of the departments of public works, agriculture, finance, and public instruction.

The gentlemen who occupied the positions of secretaries to my predecessor tendered their resignations, which were accepted.

These were the conditions existing at the time I was assigned as

military governor of Cuba. The country was, generally speaking, tranquil. There were in certain sections small groups of bandits. General conditions were improving throughout the island. A large tobacco crop and a small sugar crop were in prospect.

A new school law, somewhat rudimentary in character, but believed sufficiently complete for immediate needs, had been published in order to permit the preliminary establishment of schools, the efficient operation of which would cost several hundred thousand dollars per month. The schools were practically without school furniture, and the amount of supplies and material was very small.

The crowded condition of the jails, filled with untried prisoners, indicated only too clearly an inefficient administration of justice. Generally speaking, jails and hospitals were all in need of refitting and repairs. In the department of public works a systematic and welldefined plan of operation was needed, in order that the main lines of communication might be opened with as little delay as possible. The immense amount of work called for in the important departments of justice and public instruction necessitated their separation. This was done and two distinct departments formed.

Señor Luis Estévez y Romero was appointed secretary of justice, an office which he accepted with the understanding that he should be permitted to retire in April or May, as it was impossible for him to longer continue in office on account of private matters of importance which required his presence abroad. Señor Juan Bautista Hernández Barreiro, professor of Roman law in the University of Habana, a gentleman of distinguished attainments, was appointed secretary of public instruction, and at once proceeded to arrange that department. Public works was also designated as a separate department and separated from agriculture, industry, and commerce. Señor José Ramón Villalón, a civil engineer of excellent ability, a graduate of Lehigh, was appointed chief of the department, with the official designation of secretary of public works. General Rius Rivera was placed at the head of the department of agriculture, commerce, and industries. Señor Enrique José Varona was appointed secretary of finance. Señor Diego Tamayo was appointed secretary of state and government. The salaries of the new secretaries were fixed at $6,000 per annum.

The light-house service was organized and placed under the charge of Señor Mario Menocal, a civil engineer of good standing, and the work of this important department at once taken up. Señor Menocal, however, was unable to continue in office on account of important private business, and was succeeded by his assistant, Señor E. J. Balbin.


The department of state and government has been conducted, as have all the departments, under the general supervision of the military governor of the island, but under the direct supervision of the secretary of state and government, Señor Diego Tamayo, a gentleman of marked ability, formerly a member of the central committee of the autonomist party, later a conservative member of the revolutionary party. He was not an active participant in the field, but represented the government in various posts of responsibility at home and abroad. Señor Tamayo was formerly president of the Academy of Sciences. His services in this department have been efficiently and loyally rendered.

Under the secretary of state and government are the six civil governors of the different provinces of the island, and under them, and responsible to the secretary of state and government through them, are the various alcaldes of the 128 municipalities of the island.

The municipalities of the 4 western provinces are more numerous than necessary. Their excessive number adds greatly to the expense of the General Government, and is justified by no corresponding benefit to the general management and conduct of public affairs. In the two eastern provinces, Santiago and Puerto Principe, which include 57 per cent of the total area of the island, including the Isle of Pines, there are but 22 municipalities-17 in the province of Santiago and 5 in the province of Puerto Principe. The municipalities of these two provinces are equally efficient in protecting public interests and are much more economically administered than those of the provinces of the west, a great amount being saved in the monthly salaries of municipal officials of various classes.

The present division of these provinces into municipalities is the old one. În the 4 western provinces, however, a very different state of affairs exists. These provinces include within their limits 43 per cent of the total area of the island, and they are divided into 106 municipalities. A great many of these municipalities were created subsequent to the war of 1869-1878, and the purpose of their establishment was to form as many groups as possible representing the central government.

The present government of the island is gradually abolishing many of these small municipalities, the existence of which is not justified by any necessity and entails a great and unnecessary burden of taxation. It is believed that at least 40 of these small municipalities can be con solidated with other larger townships to great advantage. The alcaldes and officials, of course, always protest. It means the loss of the little mantle of authority with which they have been clothed and the small salaries which they have received. It It is very important that this work should be accomplished under the military government, as later it will be difficult for the government which may succeed the present one to carry out radical measures of this character.

There has been another feature of municipal existence and municipal administration which had to be met rather vigorously, viz, the municipal police. All municipalities desire large police forces. I suppose that this desire for a large armed police force follows naturally the long occupation of the island by military garrisons, which were always more or less strong and much in evidence. Few policemen, however, are required in any Cuban town. During two and a half years in the island I have seen very few serious disturbances in the streets. The fact that the people are apprehensive has been recognized by the appointment of the municipal police throughout the island, a force which, with the sole exception of that of Habana, has been paid by the State. Recent orders call for a gradual reduction of State aid, which commences with 25 per cent reduction to the municipal police January 1, 1901, followed by a progressive reduction, terminating with the withdrawal of all assistance July 1, 1901.

Municipal sanitation in all towns not garrisoned is under direct charge of the municipalities. It was at first unimportant, but there are on every hand signs of a healthy spirit looking toward good sanitary work. Especially is this noticeable in those towns which were formerly garrisoned by our troops, and where extensive sanitary work in

the way of street cleaning and cleaning out cesspools, etc., was maintained during the period of occupation by the garrisons. Since the withdrawal of the troops nearly all these towns have attempted to take up and maintain the former sanitary measures, and in many instances have appealed to the general government to assist them. This assistance has been given whenever it was believed that the municipality was absolutely unable to supply the necessary funds. It may be stated as a general proposition that one great effect of the military occupation has been a widespread and more or less sincere interest in sanitary work, an interest which I believe will continue and increase. I remember only too well the many and strenuous objections which the good people of Santiago and surrounding towns made to the drastic and radical sanitary measures of the Americans. These objections became less and less numerous, and long ago the burden of complaint against the hardship of the measures was changed to the regular filing of complaints by citizens of nuisances existing in the form of unsanitary places, and requests for vigorous intervention on the part of the sanitary department. The same is true all over the island.'

Municipal officers before July 1, 1900, when those elected at the municipal elections of June 16, 1900, took charge, were all appointed by the governor-general of the island, either directly or upon the recommendation of his military and civil subordinates. As a class, these men were honest and well meaning, and a large proportion of them proved to be competent. They were much hampered in the performance of their official duties by the prevalence of old customs and ideas, which had resulted in an almost entire destruction of public spirit and interest in good government. For twenty-five years previous inattention to municipal duties and responsibilities had characterized nearly all the municipalities of Cuba. There had always been a tendency to an abnormally large personnel and entirely disproportionate outlay for official salaries in comparison with expenditures for public improvements. The military government has made every effort to select suitable men. The only men at that time, however, who were willing to accept office were, as a rule, men from the revolutionary army, many of whom, while efficient in the field, were not fitted or qualified for the discharge of civil duties or the upbuilding and reorganizing of the shattered municipalities over which they were selected to preside. In some instances the result of this lack of executive ability was painfully apparent, but many of the gentlemen appointed rendered valuable and important service in the reestablishment of the municipal and provincial governments. The civil governors were: Señor Demetrio Castillo, of Santiago, who had held the position of civil advisor to the military governor of the province since shortly after the surrender of Santiago; Señor Lope Recio, Puerto Príncipe; Señor José Miguel Gómez, Santa Clara; Señor Pedro González Betancourt, Matanzas: Señor Emilio Núñez, Habana, and Señor Guillermo Dolz, Pinar del Río. Of these gentlemen, three are American citizens, viz, Señores Castillo, Dolz, and Núñez. Five were general officers in the Cuban army and the sixth, Señor Dolz, was an officer in the medical department, United States Volunteers. These gentlemen were all thoroughly loyal to the interests of the island, and rendered important and valuable services during the period covering the reestablishment of civil government.

All municipalities were in debt and without revenue sufficient for their maintenance, necessitating monthly allotments from the revenues

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