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very much the administration of justice. The courts are gradually becoming more efficient, and trials are more prompt.

Funds for the maintenance of the prisons are furnished by the state on estimates regularly prepared and submitted to the local representative of the department of finance. Salaries are promptly paid, as well as expenses for supplies and material. In short, the prison department is rapidly becoming a well-organized and well-conducted branch of the government.

Cuba needs a modern prison for long-term prisoners. This should be situated in the country near Habana and should be constructed upon modern plans. The policy of the institution should be to recognize good conduct and to make every effort to render the system correctional as well as punitive. Lack of funds has up to the present prevented this enterprise being undertaken.


When we came to the island no institutions worthy of the name of correctional schools existed. There was only one so-called correctional establishment. This amounted to little more than an ill-kept, filthy institution, full of boys of all characters, some of them thoroughly vicious; others, boys who had fallen into bad habits simply through neglect or loss of parents, and boys confined without any obvious reason. The children made one of the saddest pictures which the island presented. They were living without proper surroundings and under conditions which induced abnormal habits and immorality. There was nothing whatever in it which was correctional. The influences were demoralizing and bad. It was situated in Habana and known as the San José Correctional School. The condition of these boys was such that they were transferred to Reina Battery (in January, 1900), and an effort was made to place them under better influences. The battery had been used as a barrack by our troops and furnished with some simple sanitary arrangements. There was plenty of light and air. The boys were retained here for several months, then transferred to Guanajay, where they are now established in an almost ideal location, under conditions favorable to correction and reformation. Guanajay is a new military post, on elevated ground. The buildings are new barrack buildings, of good type, well lighted and well ventilated, with modern sanitary arrangements and ample land for agricultural and other purposes. This institution was organized by Maj. E. St. John Greble and placed under the charge of Mr. Gregory, formerly of the Whittier Reform School in California. Mr. Gregory died of yellow fever shortly after coming to the island, but during the short time that he had the school in charge a great advance was made. At present the school is under the charge of Capt. Robert Crawford, a retired officer of the Navy, who has had extensive experience in work of this character. Industrial and mechanical training has been introduced and the boys grouped and separated in accordance with the purposes of the institution. The progress being made is very encouraging, and there is every reason to believe that at Guanajay we shall soon have a model correctional and reform school for boys, one where they will not only be under good influences, but where they will also acquire some useful trade and a fair elementary education.

Another institution for boys-an industrial school-is being built at Santiago de las Vegas. Land has been purchased, and the large Spanish barrack buildings in that town are gradually being converted into a model industrial and agricultural school. This work is extensive in character and will require an outlay of over $150,000, but when completed the island will be in possession of a first-class institution and one which will render valuable service.


A school or institution of this character has been established at Alde

coa Hospital, near Habana. A large portion of the girls sent to this institution is from the lowest class in Habana-girls under 15 years of age, who have been gathered up from the streets and various disreputable establishments in the city. Once in the institution they are under the direct control of certain Sisters, whose sole object is to reform women and girls of this class. Good work is being done at this establishment, and its influence is extending.

An industrial school for girls, known as the Habana Industrial School for Girls, has been established in Habana. Here the course of instruction is thorough. There are day schools for all the inmates, kindergartens for the little ones, and manual training for all. Thorough instruction is given in calisthenics. The children are happy and contented. The buildings for this school were formerly Spanish cavalry barracks, and the conversion into school buildings was done by General Ludlow with the idea of establishing a manual training school for large girls and young women.

The four institutions above referred to are the only ones at the present time which are established as permanent governmental institutions. There are, however, many other schools or asylums for boys and girls scattered throughout the island. Some of them are private charities, others are State institutions, known as beneficencias, with special endowments, but at present all require assistance from the State. Some of them are conducted by civilians, and in others the personnel is divided between the civil and religious orders, but in all cases the establishments are under the control of civil superintendents or directors. These institutions are all of them to a certain extent educational, and all of them give a certain amount of manual training.

Charitable institutions.-Under the Spanish Government many liberal and wise provisions were made for the care of children and aged and infirm people. Almost every large town has its beneficencia, in which are always found children of both sexes and in many cases old people, cripples, etc. Nearly all these establishments were endowed by private individuals, and many of them have very large. properties, but owing to the disastrous effects of the war and the suffering and confusion following it very few of them derive any income from their properties, and consequently all have required assistance from the State. These establishments were governed by juntas or committees appointed in accordance with the requirements of law and were under the charge of Sisters of various orders.

The purpose for which these institutions were founded was an excellent one, and the laws and regulations governing them were conceived and drawn up in a broad and liberal spirit, yet years of neglect and bad administration had destroyed in many instances all semblance

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of efficient administration. Their equipments were, generally speaking, insufficient, and in most instances worn-out and practically worthless. The supply of linen and clothing for the children was totally inadequate to the needs of the situation. The children in nearly all of these institutions were covered with vermin, and a close inspection of the establishments showed a woeful disregard of the ordinary rules of cleanliness. In no case was this more manifest than in the large beneficencia located in Habana. A great number of children had a contagious inflammation of the eyes. Their heads were in many instances lousy, and the dormitories were overrun with bedbugs. The bathing and other sanitary arrangements were only sufficient for a small portion of the children present. In passing through the various dormitories many of the beds were opened. The linen was found soiled with excretions, and in many cases the pillows were well stained with dried pus from affected eyes or ears. It was as dirty and unsanitary an institution for children as I have ever seen.

The present superintendent, Dr. Arístides Agramonte, had had charge for only two or three days and was in no way responsible for the shocking conditions existing. During the past year he has made great improvements in the institution. On the other hand, many of these institutions were maintained, everything considered, in a fairly satisfactory manner. None of them, however, were what they should have been or what we had a right to expect, even under the then existing conditions.

In all these institutions extensive sanitary reforms have been made during the year. They have been thoroughly cleaned up, and in some instances, as at Habana, the State has expended many thousands of dollars in modern cooking arrangements, sanitary appliances of all kinds, and improvements to the buildings and grounds. The same is true of Santiago, Cienfuegos, Matanzas, and elsewhere. These establishments are now all under the general department of charities and hospitals and governed in accordance with the laws of charities. and hospitals recently published, as follows:

Habana, July 7, 1900.

The military governor of Cuba, upon the recommendation of the secretary of state and government, directs the publication of the following regulations for the department of charities of Cuba:




SECTION 1. There is hereby established a department of charities of Cuba, which shall be under the general supervision of the department of state and government. The term "department," when used hereafter in this decree, shall mean the department of charities.

SEC. 2. There shall be a board of charities of Cuba, which shall consist of eleven (11) members, to be appointed by the military governor, as follows: One from each of the six provinces and five from the island at large. The regular term of office of members of said boards shall be six (6) years. The first appointments of the six members representing provinces shall be made for the terms of one (1), two (2), three (3), four (4), five (5), and six (6) years, respectively. The first appointments of the five members from the island at large shall be for the terms of two (2), three (3), four (4), five (5), and six (6) years. Subsequent appointments, except to fill vacancies, shall be for the term of six (6) years. Appointments of members of this

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