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ranch and farm as a farmhand, cowboy insurance business. Mr. Carter was secand bronco buster, and began life as a cow retary of the first Democratic executive puncher for Col. Perry Froman at Dia- committee of the proposed new State of mond Z ranch, where the city of Sulphur Oklahoma from June to December, 1906, now stands. In September, 1889, he came and was elected to Congress on September to Ardmore, Indian Territory, which has 17. 1907. since been his home. He first engaged in Mr. Carter gives his nationality as a general merchandise store as clerk, book seven-sixteenths Chickasaw and Cherokee keeper, cotton buyer and cotton weigher, Indian, nine-sixteenths Scotch-Irish. He remaining three years, when he was ap is a man of generous disposition and jovial pointed auditor of public accounts of the to a marked degree, and his laugh will Chickasaw nation, serving two years. He soon come to be known throughout the was a member of the Chickasaw council cloakrooms and his stories will always for the term of 1895, superintendent of attract a group about him. He has his schools for Chickasaw nation for 1897, serious side, and is in a position to do his and in November, 1900, was appointed country a vast amount of good by bring. mining trustee of Indian Territory by ing about a change in the treatment of the President McKinley, serving four years, red man which will check the steady debut was not an applicant for reappoint- generation of the race which has set in ment. In 1895 he engaged in the fire under the paternal care of the government.



(See portrait on page 7)




R. BILLY (alias William E.) are. He is among those who while they

KENT, of Chicago, who enjoys can see no honesty in denying that presthe unique distinction of being ent institutions are extremely imperfect,

a Humorist as well as an Up can at the same time see no sense in deny. lifter, and who once pointed out one of ing that they exist. the gravest dangers of Reform by remark Mr. McCormick's conviction with reing, The problem is, how to uplift the gard to the existence of present institutown without getting too good ourselves,' tions is so strong that he is a prominent addressed his intellect not long ago to a member of the Cook County, Illinois, thorough revision of the ancient maxim Republican Organization. Which is no " Whatever is, is right.'

place for a man who hesitates to associate After long thought in deep retirement with facts. he came out with a totally new edition to Two years ago, being then twenty-five, the following effect :

going on twenty-six, Mr. McCormick was Whatever is, is so.

elected President of the Board of TrusThis is one of the most impregnable tees of the Chicago Sanitary District. apothegms ever composed, and while Mr. This is one of the four or five most imMcCormick may never have heard of it, it portant local offices to which a Chicagoan lies at the foundation of his young but can aspire. But, again, it is no place for extensive career.

a man who is uncomfortable in the same Mr. McCormick is a matter-of-fact room with a fact. The facts which exyoung man. He takes things as they are. isted in the Sanitary District were so When he leaves them they are better. numerous and so scandalous that young But, to begin with, he takes them as they Mr. McCormick must have felt like Alice


in Wonderland when he looked at them. legs and arms are long and sprawly. He

The Sanitary District was then one of is full of the most youthful kind of the worst public departments in the West. youthful vigor. He has, generally speakIt is now one of the most efficient and

ing, the build and stride of an unbroken one of the most incorruptible. This colt. When he plays polo, which he does change has been due partly to other men every summer, his friends always confibut mainly to Mr. McCormick, now dently expect him to mar the season with twenty-seven, going on twenty-eight. It a broken neck, his own or some one else's. is no small service for a plain, matter-of His speech is quick, direct, abrupt. He fact young man of his years to have ren treats a teamster with the same courtesy dered to his city.

as a bank president and a bank president Mr. McCormick made a bad enough with the same offhandedness as a teamstart as a politician. He came, socially, ster. He is no respecter of persons. His from the district which is popularly con hair is as unsubdued as the rest of him ceded to the control of Mrs. Potter and waves to the breezes with as much Palmer. His father had been ambassador disorder as its shortness will permit. His to Vienna. His grandfather was

eyes are gray, wide-open, concealing nothbrother of the Cyrus McCormick who ing, but at the same time cool, steady, began making reapers. His mother was admitting nothing. His manners are ima daughter of Joseph Medill, the war pulsivé, unpremeditated, sincere. editor of the Chicago Tribune. His uncle Like Mr. Roosevelt, if he lives to be a was the present editor of the Tribune. hundred there will still be something He himself had been educated at Lud- boyish about him. grove School, near London, England, The voters of the Twenty-first Ward afterward at Groton in this country and looked at him and voted for him. He was finally at Yale, where he had acquired the dressed then as now in clothes which degrees of

Alpha Delta Phi” and looked as if they would have been better “ Scroll and Key."

if better had been at hand or worse if These things were not really discredit worse had been available. Tan shoes; able to him, when you come to think about blue socks with a white stripe; an easy it, but they were not exactly political as business suit with a short sack coat; a sets in the district just north of the light blue shirt; a twisted, maltreated red River in Chicago where Mr. McCormick tie; a turn-down collar — such was, and had to get votes when he made his cam- is, his usual attire. paign for alderman in the spring of 1904. He wore these things not because they

Mr. McCormick also made a bad enough looked democratic but because they hapstart as a reformer. He came politically pened to be close to him when he got up from the district controlled by “Unser in the morning. He would have worn Fritz" Busse. “Unser Fritz" is not anything else that was equally convenient. notorious as a reformer. Nevertheless he It is a matter of political tradition that has an eye for real men (e. g., Mr. Brun on one occasion he lost twenty votes for dage who made such a good record as a legislative measure by appearing at a President of the County Board and is political conference in polo togs. He wore now Mr. Busse's corporation counsel), those togs simply because he happened to and he backed Mr. McCormick to win. have them on. He would just as soon

Mr. McCormick was only twenty-three have worn buckskin trousers and years old and, beyond palliation, a silk- corduroy jacket. His conception of stocking. And the ward, the Twenty- democracy in clothes is that it consists first, was traditionally and despondently not in dressing like somebody else but in democratic. But Mr. McCormick's first dressing in any way one pleases whenever appearance on the streets dissipated all one wants to. the rumors about his being a parlor The voters of the twenty-first ward ornament.

made Mr. McCormick an alderman in He is six feet four inches tall and al- spite of his being a Republican and in ways gives one the impression of intend- spite of his being socially if not temperaing to grow a few inches more before mentally, a silk-stocking. They had stopping sn't look finished. His looked at him, they had shaken hands


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with him and they liked him. Which is lot system. He persuaded the board – a sound, bed-rock beginning for a states and it is much to their credit that they man in a democracy.

were persuaded — to lodge all appointive Mr. McCormick, as alderman, opened power in the hands of the president of an aldermanic office in the Bush Temple the board, subject to the veto of a main the heart of his ward and proceeded jority of the other members. to listen to complaints from constituents This concentration of authority has whose garbage had not been removed. To brought a concentration of responsibility. these details of ward-life he gave indus From that day to this the candidate for a trious attention, but at the same time he position connected with the Sanitary Disdid not neglect the larger questions which trict has been obliged to show personal concerned the whole city. At the end of and moral and mental as well as political his very first year as alderman he had

qualifications. made such an impression on his colleagues Mr. McCormick's political qualifications that he was appointed a member of the

are considerable. He is a matter-ofsteering committee and also of the local

fact young man.

He knows that polititransportation committee, the two most cian simply means citizen interested in important committees in the

whole politics. He knows that a public man council.

can't depend entirely upon the support These honors would have been enough of citizens who are not interested in polifor the second year of his term, but a tics. If the politicians can give him the newer and a larger honor was coming his

right man for a place he takes him. If way. In November, 1905, before the ex they can't, he looks elsewhere. His pripiration of his first term as alderman, he vate secretary, Mr. Hoyt King, for inwas nominated and elected to the Presi stance, has been known in Chicago prindency of the Board of Trustees of the cipally as an inveterate investigator and Chicago Sanitary District.

prosecutor of criminal politicians. Mr. Some opposition was stirred up against King's appointment was a rather broad him during the campaign by a judicious hint. exploitation of the fact that his relatives, The removals and appointments made the McCormicks of the International in the Sanitary District during the last Harvester Company, had a lease of land two years have been quiet, steady and sucfrom the Sanitary District down along cessful.

cessful. A department which used to be the banks of the Drainage Canal and that

the happy feeding-trough of incompetent Mr. McCormick was being put forward precinct captains has been raised to a in order to grant them other favors. The high level of honesty and capacity. It only result of Mr. McCormick's election, has been plain, hard, every-day, matter. however, so far as the Harvester Com of-fact administrative labor. But from it pany is concerned, has been that Mr.

has emerged a governmental body capable McCormick has dug up a forgotten clause of governing. in the Harvester Company's lease and Mr. McCormick does not rank as an has obliged his cousins to construct an extreme radical. When he was in the extremely expensive dock along their city council for instance he was not a canal frontage. It will be a long time municipal-ownership alderman of the before the Harvester Company will want " immediate "kind. He believed strongly to see another cousin in office.

in submitting all traction ordinances to When Mr. McCormick was installed in a referendum vote of the whole people his new office he found that all the jobs at and in accepting their decision, but he the disposal of the Sanitary District, did not personally believe that'“ immewhich controls and operates the big diate " municipal ownership was finanthirty-two-mile sewage and ship canal cially feasible. from Chicago to Joliet, were divided into It is not as an extreme radical that Mr. pine lots. Why nine ? Because there McCormick has reformed the Sanitary were nine trustees. Each trustee then District. It has been a matter simply gave away the jobs in his lot to his of business sense and of public honor. friends.

But no extreme radical in the town has Mr. McCormick put an end to this job- resisted the encroachments of unscrupu

lous corporations more systematically or ways done “ the next thing." His conmore enthusiastically than Mr. McCor- ception of the ultimate destiny of society mick.

he has never divulged. The latest instance has been that of the But there is one respect in which his Economy Light and Power Company. career, practical as it is, touches the phiThrough a scandalous political water- losophy of contemporary politics. There is power lease secured from the commission- a great deal said nowadays about “ coners of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, trolling" corporations, especially quasithe Economy Light and Power Company, public corporations, and even of owning at Joliet, got in the way of the Drainage and operating them. And in various Canal of the Chicago Sanitary District parts of the United States we have witand also in the way of the projected deep- nessed the spectacle of governmental water ship canal from the Lakes to the bodies which couldn't control a fruitGulf.

stand, or operate a wheelbarrow, trying Mr. McCormick proceeded to attack the to coerce gas companies, electric light Economy Light and Power Company in companies and traction companies. These the press and in the legislature. But the efforts have thrilled the public and Economy Light and Power Company is amused the companies. the same thing as the Chicago Edison But we are beginning to perceive a Company, and the Chicago Edison Com- glimmer of light. We are beginning to pany is intimately allied with many of apprehend that corporations, which are the largest financial interests in Chicago. efficient, will never be controlled by govMr. McCormick was fought in the back ernmental bodies which are inefficient. as well as in front. He raised up ene- This is the reason why many corporamies for himself in Chicago as well as tion officials are dropping their subscripin Joliet, among financiers as well as tions to reform societies. among politicians. He found that he had A reformed governmental body means friends who believed in reform when it one which is not only honest and amiable consisted in preventing policemen from but one which is strenuously and ruthtaking a drink in a barroom on a cold lessly efficient. And therefore every night but who felt chilled to the bone when really reformed governmental body means they thought of preventing the Chicago cne which will control the corporations Edison Company from continuing to with which it comes in contact because enjoy the quiet and profitable possession otherwise the corporations will control it. of a water-power lease belonging right. It is always a battle to the death. One fully to the public.

of the two sides must be on top. It is Mr. McCormick left these friends be- usually the corporation side. It is the hind him, some of them his own relatives, public side only when the governmental and persevered. It has been a long fight bodies through which the public operates and it is not yet ended. But it can have are as strong and as remorseless as the only one conclusion. It is being waged corporations themselves. “Sympathy by a gentleman unafraid of family in- with the people," "hatred for the opfluence, financial influence or political pressor” and “ a heart in the right influence. When it began Mr. McCor- place” won't be enough. It is going to mick stood almost alone. Now there are be a struggle that will demand sheer, others in growing numbers with him. At brutal, administrative strength. the wind-up there won't be enough left In making his particular department of of the dams of the Economy Light and government honest, capable and strong, Power Company to stop a chip on the Mr. McCormick has taken a long stride way to New Orleans.

toward the day of public control of corMr. McCormick's battles have all been porations in Chicago. The actions of a with facts. He may be a political philos- man of action always have a philosophy opher but he has given no scintillating in them even if his words do not reveal it. evidence of it. He is not a particularly

Mr. McCormick is now twenty-seven, good speaker. He is simply a clear-headed, going on twenty-eight. He is a party clean-blooded, immensely vigorous, prac. politician and in his reform work he has tically capable young man. He has al. had the cordial support of many of his

fellow-politicians. He is a regular and his eyes and play that government by he has worked along regular lines. He parties doesn't exist. He is making his doesn't care for the side-lines. He is a part of his party good and his part of his matter-of-fact young man who can't shut local government strong.




HE rate of suicide in this scale as that for the United States. The country has long been scale for Curve B was so arranged that

steadily upon the in- it should coincide with Curve A in 1860. T

crease. Within recent Thereafter it shows that the rate of years, and notably since growth of suicide in Great Britain is 1900, this steady rate closely what it has been here; but the of increase has become average number of suicides per thousand a rapid one.

of population in Great Britain has always In Figure 1 are displayed curves show- been considerably less than that here. ing the increase, during the forty years, Curve A has been arranged to extend from 1864 to 1904, inclusive, in the from one of the darkest periods of our chances of one's dying by suicide rather national history to one of the brightest, than by some other method.

The curve for the last point of the curve applies marked A shows the increase for the to only the first half of 1907. Even in United States from the vital statistics of 1900 the outlook was brilliant in comparithe United States census. Curve B shows son with the hesitating self-deprecation the comparative growth of the suicide- which characterized this country in its rate in Great Britain.

comparison with other governments preCurve B, it should be explained, does vious to the Spanish War of 1898. Yet not show Great Britain's rate on the same from 1864 to 1900 the suicide-rate had

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FIGURE I.-SHOWING THE INCREASE IN SUICIDE IN FORTY YEARS From 1864-1904: A-In the United States in proportion to deaths from all other causes; B-Similarly in Great Britain; C—In

Manhattan in proportion to the population. The lines indicate the number of suicides per thousand of the population

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