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There will never be a large white popula- and friends in America who formerly did tion in Liberia, but without European much for the Republic. The primary coöperation in money and plans, the re- schools were few and very poorly equipsources of the country will not be devel. ped. The splendid Presbyterian school oped. Many Liberians have failed to on the St. Paul River, of years ago, is recognize these manifest truths. Let us now represented by a heap of debris, and hope an era of wisdom has come.

that great church, among whose leaders


In the center: President Arthur Barclay; left to right: Secretary of State, Judge Travis; Attorney-General,

Hon. F. R. Johnson; Secretary of the Treasury, Hon. D. E. Howard

Agriculture has been neglected. Presi- were numbered a majority of the founddent Barclay in his last message says: ers and financial helpers of the Republic “It has been nearly fifty years since the twenty-five years ago, has withdrawn its effort to stimulate the productive energies missionary coöperation entirely. So have of the community by official effort was the American Baptists. The Protestant abandoned. The dependence of the com- Episcopal Church and the Methodist munity, every day more serious, upon the Episcopal Church have kept up their outside world, even for the necessities of schools, the latter greatly hampered by life, must be a source of alarm to all lack of proper support as compared with patriotic citizens." Not only the failure work it has in hand. I am glad to say to succeed but the absence for fifty years that a new day has come to the college and of any serious attempt on the part of the it is now well organized and backed by Liberian government to develop its mar- the government with fair appropriations. velous agricultural possibilities, is a sad The work of establishing public schools is illustration of incompetence in leadership. being better done than formerly. But the

Another matter is that of education. sad thing is that in the meantime a genYears ago the Liberian College and two eration has grown up in Liberia, a very or three strong denominational schools small percentage of which has had the were great factors in the education of opportunity for anything like a fair eduleaders. Ten years ago the college had .cation. The results in both the State and degenerated to a single primary school, Church in the lack of sufficient competent and its fine building on the hill was aban- leaders are sad indeed. doned. On the shelves of its library Previous to the financial plan which I were hundreds of volumes bearing the shall mention later it was generally adnames of distinguished philanthropists mitted that for lack of officials with sufficient ability and moral rectitude, the ruptcy. Several different schemes have customs service could not be efficiently been suggested, which need not here be organized. In two or three counties it enumerated except to say that one of is now a very serious matter to find them, the Liberian Rubber Company, now enough men competent to fill the few gov. seems on the way to success, and this year ernment positions, including members of will pay to the government $10,000 as its the legislature. Add still another sug- share of profit. gestive fact, stated by the President in

But the great scheme was that entered his message, that since the adoption of the into a year ago between the government new financial plan by which an English and the Liberian Development Company, inspector of customs is organizing and controlled and largely financed by people directing the service, it has been impos- in England. This company has been sible thus far, during nine months, to find granted large concessions as to minerals, enough competent men in two or three if they can be found, and the development counties, who can give the sufficient of the products of the forests and in guarantee, to take charge of the customs agriculture. The company advanced a work.

loan of $500,000 at six per cent. This The prevalence of licentiousness among money goes to pay off the floating indebta large proportion of the people is also edness, establish a bank, open up roads a matter of very great concern among the into the interior, etc. The customs are good people of Liberia whose lives are made a guarantee for the payment of the consecrated to its welfare. The blighting interest and principal. At the request of curse of polygamy, backed by the aggres. Liberia, the British Government has sive influence of Mohammedanism, is loaned one of its trained customs officials, manifest. Some who owe all they are to who, with one or two assistants, is to the Christian Church have used voice and organize the customs service, using, of pen to propagate polygamous ideas. The course, Liberians. His work is intended rum traffic is having increasingly bad to be principally educative. These are effects, and I am sorry to learn that pri- the general items of the scheme. For sevvate drinking at home among both men eral months it has worked well. From the and women is increasing. Bishop Levi

Bishop Levi beginning all customs were paid in gold, Scott, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and now all official and government bills when he visited Liberia in 1853, said are paid in silver or gold. The governthat the Republic stood for two things; ment is to have a credit in the bank suffithe observance of the Sabbath and the for- cient for emergencies. bidding of the liquor traffic. To-day the In answer to a series of questions, Sabbath is fairly well observed, but in President Barclay, Secretary of the the other respect Liberia has greatly Treasury Howard and Mr. Lamont, infallen.

spector of customs, gave me the following It is not strange, therefore, in view of information: The debt of the country is what I have said, that thoughtful men now about $1,000,000; the customs reand women realize the supreme crisis ceipts for the past year will be over $300,which faces the Republic. To-day Liberia 000 in gold, and will easily go to $400,000 needs the friendly counsel and sympa- annually and beyond, with the increase of thetic coöperation of all its friends. And trade sure to come as the whole scheme is what is of special significance, recent carried out. This will pay the interest events indicate that she is determined not and provide a sinking fund for the debt, only to rally her forces to help herself, and the government will have an opporbut that she cordially asks the help of tunity to develop the country on essential others.

lines. The first great problem faced by the There have been some sharp criticisms reformers was the question of finance. of the scheme as a whole, but it has The Republic had lost its financial stand- started well, and money at par is now in ing. Its own paper was at a ruinous circulation in much larger quantities than discount, and when pressed for money it for years.

All seem to be encouraged. had to borrow chiefly from the traders at There are also some minor questions over rates which, if continued, meant bank- which there has been some friction. These,

I am assured by responsible parties on to be a world-wide power. Not only this, both sides, will be adjusted, or, as the her own ten millions of negroes, destined English say, "ironed out."

not only to be a permanent factor in the My judgment agrees with that of many United States, but also steadily to inwith whom I have talked, that Liberia is crease in numbers, have a relation to now in the epoch of new and important Africa which must grow more and more opportunities, and that she ought to suc intimate. All Africa is to be opened up

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ceed in fulfilling the obligations of this and civilized. Among the negroes in contract. If, for any reason, she fails, America there will be many who will want the probabilities are that she will go under an outlet for adventure and commerce, a protectorate, and naturally an English and, if proper opportunity is given, to protectorate.

Africa they will naturally turn. The United States has its responsibility American sympathy and coöperation in relation to Liberia. Certainly its gov extended now to Liberia is a manifest ernment and people can not be released duty. The commerce between the United before the civilized world from their States and Africa is in its infancy and in moral obligation to this child of Amer fifty years ought to go to $100,000,000. ican philanthropy and planning. We are America has no territorial designs upon in the midst of marvelous times in the the continent of Africa. She is the friend development of the continent of Africa, of all, and her relation of friendly coöperand in these same times America has come ation is well understood.





See portrait on page 9)




F there is at hand a very late map of whether they want to or not. It's beMinnesota, a map of not more than cause they know he's on the square.' six months' vintage, a dot will appear Everybody on the Mesabi knows that

in Itasca County on the highlands of he is on “the square," and through this the United States, where if one turn his there has grown up a most unique patersled to the southward he would land in nalism. Louisiana, granted that the coasting were “Does the steel corporation own this good all the way, or if to the north, in section of the country, body and soul ?” Hudson. Bay, provided he were not stalled was the query put to one of Mr. Greenin a snowdrift. That dot marks the cen- way's men when it appeared in answer to ter of what is fast becoming the greatest questions that “the company" with a iron-ore mining district of the world, and most uncorporation-like philanthropy had the location of the model town of the reserved the site for the library, erected Northwest. And it is named Coleraine. a perfectly equipped hospital, built a

Rhythmically back and forth swing the seventy-five thousand dollar school, dohuge steam-shovels doing the work of a nated land for parks, provided an excephundred men at a stroke. In and out of tionally fine field for athletics in the the mine pit rush the shrieking engines, warmer months and a slide for skeeing panting impatiently when, for a brief mo- during the season of snow and was estabment, they have to pause for the cars to lishing sewer, water and electric systems. be loaded. With the mechanical sureness No,” was the reply, “Greenway does." of the one, and the restless impatience of “Isn't that about the same thing?" the other, John C. Greenway, the man The questioner was rewarded with a who in such a brief while has transformed swift glance of displeasure. “Not much. a peaceful, fragrant pinewoods into the He's a good mixer, but he won't merge. likeness of a vast tract convulsed by an It was true. The sole solvent of the earthquake, traverses every foot of the capital and labor problem is bringing rework' on his handsome bay horse direct- sults on the Mesabi range; Mr. Greening present operations.

way has been able to prove to the comOn the books of the United States Steel pany which he represents that their inCorporation, Mr. Greenway appears as its terests are identical with the interests of iceroy in this district, but on the unwrit- the body of employees, and to persuade en books of Minnesota's history he ap- his men that the converse is equally true. irs as the czar of the western Mesabi John C. Greenway began doing things 1 range.

when he “made the team” in his freshWhen Greenway gets an idea that a

man year at Yale in '91. Thereafter as .g ought to be done, that's all there is right end on the famous elevens of '92

remarked one of his assistants. “He and '93, as catcher on the nine for Car3 a way of making people do things ter, old Eli's great pitcher, and as presi

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