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WASHINGTON LEE CAPPS Chief Constructor of the United States Navy and Chief of the Bureau of Construction and Repair Years of experience and special training have brought Mr. Capps into an important place in the service of the nation with the rank of rear-admiral. In these days of demand for an enlarged navy and the building of improved war-ships, there is abundant need for the seientific knowledge Mr. Capps has at command

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FREDERICK HAYNES NEWELL

Director of the United States Reclamation Service Mr. Newell has been in the scientific service of the United States Government since 1888, when he was hydraulic engineer in the Geological Survey. He entered the Reclamation Service in 1902. He holds office in several scientific societies and is an authority on irrigation, having written several books on various phases of the subject

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FRANK P. LAHM

Lieutenant in the United States Signal Corps Lieutenant Lahm has charge of the aeronautics for the United States Government, and is now engaged in a series of balloon tests for the War Department. He won the James Gordon Bennett cup in the international bal. loon race in Paris, in October, 1906

EVENTS OF THE MONTH

Foreign Affairs

One of the opportunities for trouble of trade. John Morley remains Secretary constantly open to the European powers of State for India, but in order to do so, The Baltic

has been a dreaded mo must for health reasons, give up work in and nopoly of the Baltic and the House of Commons and will therefore North Seas North Seas by one or more be made a peer. As his democratic tenof the nations having territory bordering dencies are well known, this move has thereon. It was particularly feared dur excited some surprise, but it was a choice ing the last months, that Germany and between that and giving up the office Denmark had made an alliance with this where he has proved himself valuable. object in view. By the signing of two Sir Edward Grey, Messrs. Birrell, Gladagreements simultaneously on April 23, stone, Burns and others retain their forat Berlin and St. Petersburg, these fears mer offices. These cabinet changes involve are set at rest. The North Sea treaty was four by-elections. Of these, Mr. Churchsigned by the Secretary of Foreign Af ill's was lost for the government, the fairs for Germany, the British and French northwest division of Manchester returnambassadors, and the ministers to Ger. ing his opponent, Mr. Joynson-Hicks, many, of Denmark, Holland and Sweden. Conservative, by a majority of 1,019. The The Convention relating to the Baltic Sea Liberals acknowledge that this is a serious was signed by the representatives of Rus blow to their cause. Radicals assert that sia, Germany, Sweden and Denmark. In it has a like effect on free trade. After a both agreements the signatories engage to sharp contest Mr. Churchill was successmake no changes in ownership of their ful in winning the Dundee seat. The respective territorial possessions border Liberal majority, however, was reduced ing on these seas. Any event threatening almost half. Likewise, another by-electo disturb the status quo shall be cause for tion, that at Wolverhampton, where in conference regarding the concerted action the last election Sir Henry Fowler had a to be taken for its preservation.

plurality of 2,865, was held for the Liberals by a majority of only eight. It is

undeniable that the government has lost Since our last issue the reorganization heavily of late in the support of the peoof the British cabinet has taken place. It ple. For this various reasons are assigned: Governmental involved few changes and opposition to the licensing bill and failure

Affairs in these were mainly trans to carry through measures promised at Great Britain positions. David Lloyd- the general election. George is promoted to the place of Chancellor of the Exchequer and Lord Tweedmouth becomes President of the Council. Both from without and within the BritReginald McKenna is transferred to the ish are having trouble in India. A plot office of First Lord of the Admiralty,

among the natives in Ben

Trouble while Walter Runciman succeeds him in

gal has been discovered

in India the presidency of the board of education.

and over thirty persons Earl Crewe takes the place of Lord Elgin were arrested. A large number of bombs as Secretary of State for the Colonies, and were also seized. Examination of those Winston Spencer Churchill that of Mr. arrested revealed plans to kill General Lloyd-George as president of the board Kitchener, the commander-in-chief of the

British army in India, and other high offi- "will learn to her cost” that she made a cials. Prominent Bengalese appear to be bad mistake when "by main force she implicated. Serious raids have been made compelled China to recede from her rightby Afghans across the northwestern bor- eous position regarding the Tatsu Maru." der in the vicinity of Khyber Pass. Arms and ammunition have been smuggled in

It will be interesting to observe the efthrough Persian Baluchistan and large fect this boycott has upon the developforces of natives assembled within British

Will the Boy- ment of Asiatic politics. territory. Most disturbing fact of all is

cott Benefit It will not be difficult for the indifference of the Ameer of Afghan- the World the astute Japanese to in. istan, who has professed to be in friendly volve China in some disturbance which alliance with Great Britain. On May 2 would serve as a pretext for armed interbetween thirteen thousand and twenty ference. On the other hand, Japan is thousand Afghans attacked the Michnis likely to move cautiously. Korea is furkandach blockhouse and caravansary, nishing difficulties enough for her just at which are held by a detachment of the present, while the financial situation of Khyber rifles. The garrison defeated the

the empire is such as to arouse serious attempt. Major-General Sir James Will

anxiety at home. As we have previously cocks, who had gone to the Baru Valley to

insisted, the real significance of the action secure obedience and order from the Zak- of China is in its testifying to the new kakhels tribesmen, immediately went to

national spirit. Just how far this will Landi Kotal at the Afghan end of the

involve hostility to other nations can not Khyber Pass with cavalry and infantry yet be foreseen. But it can hardly be troops. The Afghans were driven back

questioned that the “open door,” which with a loss to the British of seven men was so seriously threatened, is likely to killed and forty-seven wounded. An ef- be of more real commercial importance. fort was made by the Mollahs — religious It is greatly to be regretted that the dignitaries – who led the Afghans, to United States does not more clearly see raise the fiery cross and rouse Moham- what opportunity the boycott offers for medan fanaticism, but without effect. No an extension of American trade. Unforsupport was given by the Mohammedans tunately, American exporters are a genor by other tribesmen, so that there is no eration behind those of Europe in their reason to fear any general uprising among capacity to adjust themselves to the peculthe natives of India.

iar conditions of trade outside of America.

This Chinese-Japanese affair is alWhen China was resisting the demands ready having its influence upon American of Japan in regard to the seizure of the

The Boycott plans. Our minister to
China

steamer Tatsu Maru, she and the China, Mr. Rockwell, adBoycotts threatened that if com- United States vises our government that

Japan pelled to concede them, it would be ill advised to send the fleet to she would institute a boycott against China on its way around the world. There Japanese commerce. This threat is now was danger lest its presence should give being fulfilled. Japanese steamships are rise to two opposite suspicions: one that leaving the ports of Focchow, Amoy, Swa- the United States was ready to coöperate tow, Hongkong, and even Manila, Mel- with China, or at least to express - its apbourne and New York without any in- proval of the advance of Japan into Manvoices of Chinese goods. Merchants at churia; and the other that the presence Hankow and interior towns are refusing of the fleet would be understood as an to accept the notes of the Yokohama attempt on the part of America to coöperSpecie Bank. Word comes from Canton ate with Japan in stopping the boycott. that the determination is not to lift Because of this danger the fleet will now the boycott until the loss to Japanese be divided into two squadrons and appear commerce reaches $150,000,000. The in Chinese and Japanese waters practiself-government societies are managing cally simultaneously. Chinese public this retaliative movement, and the leader opinion is already having its influence in of the one at Canton asserts that Japan international affairs.

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