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and death. He would rather do something free he offered the Treasury portfolio to for a friend in distress than for himself, Mr. Crane. Crane declined it. The Crane and as he is always giving himself pleas- paper companies had, and still have, large ure by such performances, he is a very contracts with the government. Thoubusy and a very happy man.
It is well sands of dollars worth of Crane paper are known in Massachusetts that he has saved used every year in the Treasury Departmany firms and individuals from destruc ment. It is not only unlawful, but unwise, tion in times of business stress, and he is for a man supplying wares to a governaffectionately known as the “Financial ment department to accept the chieftainUndertaker.” And he doesn't bury the ship of that department, and Senator corpse, either, but resuscitates it.
Crane naturally declined the position. In the Senate Crane is known as the This same question arose later when he “Political Coroner. If there is a legis- entered the Senate. To avoid criticism lative corpse requiring expert attention, when he decided to take the offered toga, Crane is called in. If the Senate is in a he transferred to his son that mill which snarl, and there is serious factional feeling had exclusively contracts with the governon the Republican side, Crane is sum ment. moned. He is constant in his attendance Senator Henry Cabot Lodge looked with upon these wakes. This has been one of some favor upon Crane's appointment to his fortes in Massachusetts for years. the Senate.
sure that Crane In the first session of the Fifty-ninth would leave the showy part of the job to Congress he showed his genius for this him, and Crane has, but he has approbusiness. A bitter fight raged between priated the practical part to himself. Senthe White House and the Republican Sen ator Lodge gets more jobs for his conate over the Railroad Rate Bill. The stituents, but Senator Crane is building majority were apparently hopelessly di the greater reputation. vided over the question of the court review Crane will never try to undermine the provision. It looked as though the bill senior senator. He plays no tricks. would be passed by a minority of the Re. Hence, Lodge has accepted the situation, publicans, acting with the Democrats. and has settled down to the accomplishThis, to be sure, would give to President ment of his ambition, which is to become Roosevelt a law which he craved, but it the chairman of the Committee on Foreign would be a Democratic law, and the Demo- Relations when the distinguished Shelby cratic party would get the credit for it. M. Cullom steps aside, and prevent the None realized this better than did the introduction of the primary system into frail little Senator from Massachusetts. Massachusetts, which would result in some He finally effected a compromise, in which other man obtaining his job. the President concurred, on the "Allison Unfortunately for the peace of mind of Amendment." The Republican party was Senator Lodge, President Roosevelt wished saved from a wide split up the back. Win Massachusetts to send a delegation to the throp Murray Crane did it.
Chicago convention instructed for William All that he has accomplished in the Howard Taft. Senator Lodge proceeded Senate, however, has been done without to deliver the goods. Senator Crane took previous knowledge of legislative affairs. the position that the selection of an inHe is an executive, not a law-maker. He structed delegation would simply mean had been a practical governor of Massa that the delegates to the convention might chusetts, and put many reforms into just as well don Western Union messenoperation, the necessity for which ap ger boy uniforms. He has contended that pealed to him as a business man. He only by an uninstructed delegation could entered politics in 1892, when, at the Min the greatest popular participation in the neapolis convention, he was elected Repub- Republican convention be secured. Hence lican National Committeeman for Massa there is raging in Massachusetts to-day chusetts. While he was governor, in 1902, one of the fiercest political fights in the a vacancy occurred in the cabinet of country. President Roosevelt. Up to that time the If the Taft managers had not attempted old McKinley cabinet had held over. As to tie, bind and deliver the delegates for soon as President Roosevelt's hands were their candidate, it is probable that the
Secretary of War might have secured a destinies of Secretary Taft. If Crane
Vice-Presidency on the ticket with Mr.
He did not even conson, with an unimpressive appearance in sider the offer which was tendered to him. general — but it failed. Crane saw to It is probable that the fight now in that. He is a man of peace, in business progress in Massachusetts over the can. and politics, but with his back to the wall didacy of Secretary Taft will not split he becomes a fighter. Diplomacy is his the Republican party in that state, alweapon, but he can wield a bludgeon, al- though a similar quarrel among Demothough he may have to use both hands to crats would disrupt them, and there will do it. Since he put Sam Winslow, who be no open rupture between the senators. opposed him for lieutenant-governor, in Senator Crane will probably win, in Masthe vanquished class, he has had no opposi- sachusetts, his struggle for freedom of tion. Even Sam Winslow is now on his expression on the part of delegates in a side.”
national convention. Senator Lodge will Hence it has come about that Senator bark, but he will not bite. Senator Lodge Crane holds the balance of power in the has an ambition.
THE LITERATURE OF JOYLESSNESS
FRANCIS LAMONT PEIRCE
ITHIN the past few from the scenes that the stern old Norwe-
gian drew, up there in the cold, dark
speare's “Midsummer what sheer poetic magic, what rich and
"As You Like It." The and life and love and beauty, are revealed success which these productions enjoyed is in those plays of the great Elizabethan! sufficient to refute the oft-repeated asser It would seem as if the primal Earth tion that the public will not go to see Spirit, the spirit which in Goethe's Faust Shakespeare.
"weaves the living garment of deity," had And what brilliant and enchanting entered into the soul of the Stratford oases these plays made in the generally player as he wrote these comedies, and dearid waste of the modern drama! Moon creed that whatever he might touch should light revels in fairyland, sun-bathed Illy. spring into forms of rarest charm and ria, green-bowered Arden: how different pure delight.
But Shakespeare wrote when the world comprehension that it once did. We are was young, when the sun still shone bright no longer naive. We have become sophison flowers and field, and the soul of man ticated; we are the victims of disillusiondrank in the glory of it and was simple ment. and calm and glad. He wrote before People nowadays look back with amuseSchopenhauer wrote, before Leopardi ment, not untinged with contempt, upon wrote, before Nietzsche wrote, before the the emotional and sentimental raptures of cold and callous man of science peered out the eighteenth century literature, upon into the infinite spaces of the star depths Wertherism and the comedie larmoyante and into the rocks and ruins of the past, and Richardson's novels. These producbefore Darwin and Haeckel and Spencer tions are thought to be rather mawkish assailed the work of the Man of Nazareth, now. Yet one likes occasionally to turn before the seething turmoil of a complex from the neurasthenic heroes and heroines society begot the Weltschmerz and the of modern European literature to Goethe's spiritual unrest and the bitter question. Werther, the gentle, loving dreamer, the ings and ceaseless cravings of the present. sweet, sad, emotional idealist, keenly alive
So we do not have any more Midsum- to sensuous influences and perceiving the mer Night's Dreams or Twelfth Nights. mystic harmonies of nature. And one Instead of Shakespeare we have Ibsen. sometimes wonders if the ultra-modern Instead of Oberon, we have Peer Gynt; school of writers would not be more truly instead of Rosalind
of Rosalind we have Hedda human and more universally intelligible Gabler; instead of Viola we have Ellida if they gave fuller expression, not only to Wangel, “The Lady From the Sea.” In- man's sense of beauty, but to the gentler stead of Hermia and Orlando, Mr. Thomas and more appealing emotions of the heart. Hardy has given us Tess of the D'Urber- Time was when the public welcomed villes and Jude the Obscure. The litera- gladly the works of poets who sang of joyture of the present bears somewhat the ous beings who “wander on silver wings same relation to the literature of Shake- among the blossoms of earth, breathing speare's time that Arnold Bocklin's “Todo perfumes on the flowers, or rest in buds of ten-Insel" bears to a landscape by Corot. the moss-rose in palaces lighted by the
What have become of the beauties that sparkling gems of jewelled crowns. But poor Keats dreamed of - of the
contemporary European literature, at magic casements opening on the foam least, gives us nothing like this or like Of perilous seas, in faery lands forlorn ? “Werther" or like Twelfth Night." We no longer have such pictures as that of
But we have the jarring slam of the front
door as Nora leaves “A Doll's House”; The moving waters at their priest-like task
we have Sudermann's Magda stepping Of pure ablution, round earth's human shores,
over the corpse of the poor, old-fashioned or that incomparable one that Shelley colonel, out into the modern world, whose drew in “The Cloud":
witching allurements she has been unable That orbéd maiden, with white fire laden, to resist; we have Hauptmann's Helene, Whom mortals call the moon,
lusted after by her own drink-maddened Glides glimmering o'er my fleece-like floor,
father, stabbing herself to death - "BeBy the midnight breezes strewn.
fore Sunrise." And as if this were not We of the modern world seem to have enough Oscar Wilde paints for us the piclost, in great measure,
ture of Salome kissing and cuddling the der and delight in the marvelous, the beau
gory head of John the Baptist under the tiful, the strange and subtle things of life.
green flare of a stage lamp! Our poetic sensitiveness, our responsive
Most modern European literature seems ness to
to be either morbidly brutal and pessimisAll beauty, and all starry majesties, tic or wildly erotic; in surveying this And dim trans-stellar things,
work we find ourselves confronted in turn as Francis Thompson phrases it, have been by the “flowers of evil” and the gloom appreciably dulled. The magic suggestion and mire of naturalism. Germany, whose of “an elfin storm from faery land” or “intellectuals” not long ago were acclaim“twilight saints and dim emblazonings” ing the ravings of Teamster Henschel and no longer calls forth the eager imaginative the leprous despair of Poor Henry as the
summit of dramatic art, has been taken by “Are we here traversing the field of one storm by “Salome," whose atmosphere, of the fine arts, designed to afford enjoy. no less than that of Hauptmann's dramas, ment, æsthetic gratification, and insight is the very antithesis of a sanely joyous into the normal and essential aspects of outlook on life.
existence, or are we rather being conAs an illustration of the fermentation, ducted through a morgue or hospital for the "yeast-stirring,” the revolution in the criminal insane?” moral values which is taking place in Degeneracy, death and desolation, misEuropean thought-life, I will venture to ery, gloom, terror, morbidity, eccentricity, translate some things that Herr Rudolph disillusionment, cynicism, pessimism, misLothar says in a book on the modern anthropy, psychopathy, sociology, frank drama published not long ago in Ger- and brutal sensuality -- all these and many. The author scoffs at the objections much more we have – but very little joy. which “burgher respectability” raises The "little old world” seems sick at heart, against this drama of Wilde's. He ridi- and the really vital and significant literacules the pater familias who “has no com ture of the present — the literature that prehension of raptures and ecstacies of reflects the typical modern Weltancolor.” The characters in this drama are, schauung – is an embodiment of despair, in Nietzsche's phrase, “beyond good and world-weariness, and disgust with life. evil,” like the people of the Renaissance Life becomes, with Thomas Hardy, a
Cæsar and Lucretia Borgia, for in- “thing to be endured." stance. Most persons are horrified at the The color of most modern literature Borgias. But Herr Lothar says: “I, is drab and somber, and there echoes however, would willingly give, for a through it what Gordon Craig, in speaking glimpse of Lucretia's glimmering flesh, of “Rosmersholm" calls the long-drawn. shining from beneath her veils, or for a out horn of death.” The modern school of flash of the great Cæsar's sword, all the writers have investigated everything, they ethics and all the moralizing sermons of have exposed with relentless irony all the the worthy bourgeoisie. When he sees
baseness and all the weakness of man, they 'Salome" he feels "as if there blossoms have brought before us in lurid colors the once again, in its primal glow and splen- "chaos of thought and passion, all condor, but with a gleam of colors and with fused”; and apparently the conclusion the refined perfume of modern night, that which they reach is that of Michael Flower of Evil which those old condottieri Kramer in Hauptmann's drama: “Death of pleasure tore down from heaven.” is the mildest form of life. The activities Comment on these passages would be of the great world are the shudderings of wholly gratuitous.
But our principal objection is not to the The "morbid vaporings" of Strindberg, class of literature in which the mouth of a the alternate grossness and spirituality prophet is described as "redder than the of Paul Verlaine, the unpleasant social feet of him who cometh from a forest dramas of Jose Echegeray, are all charwhere he hath slain a lion and seen gilded acteristic of the modern literary attitude. tigers." Compared with the soul-killing But everything that went before seems, if literature of darkness and savagery and we may believe the reports of the St. disease, the literature of passion is spir. Petersburg critics, to have been pale and itually innocuous.
mild when compared with the unreLook at a few of the subjects of modern strained bitterness, the fierce rebellion plays and novels: “The Power of Dark- against God and man, displayed in the ness, " "Red Laughter," "The Triumph recent play, "The Life of Man," by the of Death,” “Ghosts," “When We Dead young Russian writer Leonid Andrieff: a Awaken,” “Dame Care,” “The End of drama of sordidness, pain, and sorrow; of Sodom," "Lonely Souls." The very titles the destruction of the fleeting illusions of are gruesome, but not nearly so gruesome love and joy; of the hollowness and as the contents of these and many other mockery and hypocrisy of life; a drama works. After perusing many of the pro of moral and spiritual decay, in which ductions of Hauptmann, Ibsen, and their The Man dies “in a grog-shop, amid brutal followers we might be excused for asking: and filthy creatures, raving and cursing,
passing into non-existence.” If we may Doctor Castan, the well-known Berlin judge from extracts and criticisms, this physician, sat in a conspicuous position in production must be instinct with the spirit the audience, swinging a certain surgical of a more gloomy and implacable Swift: a instrument which need not be mentioned spirit of dark doubt and passionate dis- here. Rudolph Lothar says truly that the satisfaction, of contempt and scorn, of pathological always had an attraction for anguish gnawing at the heart.
Hauptmann; the problem of inherited Instead of saying with Dante
alcoholism is treated in several of his Non ragioniam di lor, ma guarda e passa, works; disease of one kind or another is a the creators of modern European literature prominent element in all of them. The dwell only too often upon things that can
poetic and mystic idealism of Heinrich arouse only aversion and disgust. The
the Bell-Founder — "the disinherited bete humaine, it is true, is not now
child of the Sun, that longs for home”generally portrayed in the unblushing affords but little offset to the morbid menhideousness of the ultra - naturalistic tality or degraded passions of most of the school. The harsh, forbidding colors have
other characters that Hauptmann's genius as a rule been toned down somewhat. But has created.
as created. Hauptmann's art, as Kuno the Schopenhauerist atmosphere, the uni- Francke says, blossoms upon "a hideous, form sadness of outlook, still persist in pestilential pool”; he offers us, not “the that portion of literature which can lay universally and harmoniously human, claim to genius. Nor are they unaccom
but types of the “abnormal and the dispanied by the indelicacy, the appeal to
eased." prurient curiosity, and the laying bare of
Maxim Gorky says of his own works : noxious moral conditions, against which
“I know the great fault of my books : they Max Nordau protested so vigorously.
can never give pleasure." And it is probThe ocean of the spirit “brings the ably not too much to say that, despite the eternal note of sadness in”; and this atti
tremendous realism and the power of pititude of mind would seem to have become
less social analysis displayed in Gorky's so deeply engrafted in modern thought works, their uniform portrayal of squalor, that nothing is capable of altering it but depravity, and dull-eyed, hopeless wretchthat glowing dawn and glorious rebirth edness will forever bar them from the sung of by Shelley, the visionary, in the number of really great literary works. last chorus of “Hellas':
In a recent German book on Ibsen, the The world's great age begins anew,
"grim skald” of Norway is extolled as "a The golden years return,
mountain-wanderer, who raises his hands The earth doth like a snake renew
to the sun, the pure hands of the priest Her winter weeds outworn;
and the judge.” One wonders whether Heaven smiles, and faiths and empires gleam this is as true a characterization as the one Like wrecks of a dissolving dream.
which has been bestowed upon Ibsen by Sudermann has a play called “Es lebe less sympathetic readers, viz., “a pessimisdas Leben” – “The Joy of Living” tic decadent." Ibsen seems at times to but the title is merely sarcasm. Haupt- have a positive fondness for the sordid and mann's spasmodic attempts at gayety serve the nasty. The character of Doctor Rank only to accentuate the fundamental som- in “A Doll's House” is entirely unnecesberness of his genius. Occasionally he sary to the action, and was apparently ingives us a comedy, like “Und Pippa troduced merely in order that Ibsen might tanzt,” or “Die Jungfern von Bischofs- let us know that the doctor was dying of berg,” but it is evident that his pen finds consumption of the spine because his more congenial material in the stark hor- father was a “waster.” The whole busiror of “The Weavers,” the pathological ness about the Alving family is too repultragedy of Teamster Henschel, or Han- sive to talk about. What are we to think nele's fevered visions of celestial bliss as when a prominent American alienist she lies dying in the vulgar ugliness of an writes for a medical magazine an article almshouse.
analyzing and explaining the various What a spectacle was that presented at types of insanity in Ibsen's plays? What the initial performance of "Before Sun- are we to say when Hedda Gabler insists rise” on the Berlin “Free Stage,” when on Eilert Lovberg committing suicide