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present century the same saying might tography. Within a year after the have been applied to photography in ex- “Photo-Aquatint” treatise of Mr. planation of the paucity of good work. Demachy came from the English press it But it can not be said now, except in jest. was the bible of all aspiring workers in
The camera workers of the entire world the craft. Possessed by a few of the elect have been wide awake to the duties and in the large cities, its formulæ and techresponsibilities of their new dignity ever nique were whispered about in the higher,
since the revival of gum-bichromate print and inner, circles of the Salon cult. The ing by Robert Demachy during the very jealousy with which these little books eighties and nineties, and more especially were guarded from the philistine outsider, since its public exploitation in America by and the fasting and prayer necessary to Alfred Stieglitz of New York, late in the borrow one, had much to do with the devellast decade. As a matter of fact the opment of the method and its speedy delicious uncertainties of gum arabic ascent to the summit of favor as the pigment films should be credited with a supreme medium of individuality in this large part of the advance which is now field of art. conceded for pictorial, or “Salon,' pho- Empiric to the point of the ridiculous
when first introduced, the 'gum process in the hands of innumerable men of sense and science has been reduced to its chemical and pictorial elements, and it is quite as exact and predicable in its behavior as silver bromid is in the presence of reduc. ing agents. Not only do we know that gum arabic and bichromate of potash mixed with pigment and spread on paper will yield artistic “fuzzy-types,” but, thanks to the quiet research work of a host of photo-chemists of all grades of acumen, we have learned many new and valuable facts about chromium salts in general and their properties in the presence of a wide variety of colloids.
Of a similar order of merit was the perfection of the glycerin-development method for platinotype paper by Mr. Stieglitz and Mr. Joseph T. Keiley; and the mercury modification of the same medium for pictorial effects otherwise unobtainable.
Much might be added to the score of credit due to the amateurs of the new movement for variations in lens types, for a number of valuable additions to the list of available processes, for new and prevailing methods of manipulation both of dry plates and paper, and for a consider
able mass of experience and data leading ganized since the birth of the pictorial up to the achievement of color photog- movement and literally thousands of raphy.
prints have been submitted to juries of In every center of esthetic culture the selection composed of painters, sculptors world over, for the last decade, hundreds and photographers. The censorship which of enthusiasts of the lens and camera have has been exercised by these juries, under been toiling with truly admirable devotion the authority of Salon canons, has been to bring nearer the realization of the extremely rigid. "Artistic intention and painter's ideals by the means and methods individuality of expression” have been of modern science. The zeal which pos- ever the criteria of judgment. Technical sesses these pictorial workers in Europe, perfection without evidence of imaginain Asia, in Africa, in Oceania and in tive power has been thrown out; profound America, is strongly reminiscent of the characterization, such as results from in“mania for drawing the forms of things tense artistic perception and feeling, has - the things of heaven and of Buddha, been exalted. From one end of the world the lives of men and of women,” which to the other these exhibitions have been Hokusai ascribed to himself in his viewed and studied by innumerable dev“Mang-wa.” Not only have the photog- otees of the camera. Royalty has conraphers had to perfect their methods and tributed to them on the same terms nicely adapt their means to the end; they imposed upon the lowliest aspirant for have had to analyze the world's heritage honors. Private collectors and public galfrom the masters of the past in every leries have purchased admirable examples department of art, seizing the essential of the new school. The art journals and principles and finding ways to embody the illustrated press of the world have them in the product of the camera.
vied one with another in reproducing Hundreds of exhibitions have been or- these prints. Successful Salon workers
have been commissioned by publishers to been the work of the pioneers in the field illustrate famous poems and novels, and to prepare for geniuses whom the exigenthese strictly photographic conceptions cies of the future may make incarnate, to have been accorded very high rank. Rather set their seal upon all human thought good for one decade ?
thenceforth. So far the Salon movement The pictorial movement so far has been has established modes and methods and preparatory. It is not contended that any precedents such as may be said to estabtremendous creative work has been pro lish for pictorial photography the true duced by it as yet. But that need not artistic intent. disconcert or discourage any one.
It has Once or twice in a millennium, as the
cosmic Professor Fiske observed, speak- beholder, gives guerdon to the botanist,