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not intend to run this expression up into its rise and original; also, I have done it elsewhere. The use of unctions in the judaical church, the meaning and intendment of the types attended therewith; the offices that men were consecrated unto thereby, are at the bottom of this expression; nearer the unction of Jesus Christ, from whence he is called Messiah, and the Christ, the whole performance of his office of mediatorship, being called also his anointing, Dan. ix. as to his furnishment for it, concurs hereunto. Christ is said to be anointed with the oil of gladness above his fellows; Heb. i. 9. which is the same with that of John iii. 34. God giveth him not the Spirit by measure.' We, who have the Spirit by measure, are anointed with the oil of gladness;' Christ hath the fulness of the Spirit, whence our measure is communicated; so he is anointed above us; that in all things he may have the pre-eminence.' How Christ was anointed with the Spirit to his threefold office of king, priest, and prophet; how by virtue of an unction with the same Spirit dwelling in him and us, we become to be interested in these offices of his, and are made also kings, priests, and prophets to God, is known, and would be matter of a long discourse to handle, and my design is only to communicate the things treated of.
I shall only, therefore, fix on one place, where the communications of the Spirit in this unction of Christ are enumerated, of which, in our measure from him, and with him, by this unction, we are made partakers; and that is, Isa. xi. 2, 3. The Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge, and of the fear of the Lord,' &c. Many of the endowments of Christ, from the Spirit wherewith he was abundantly anointed, are here recounted. Principally those of wisdom, counsel, and understanding, are insisted on; on the account whereof, all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge are said to be in him;' Col. ii. 3. and though this be but some part of the furniture of Jesus Christ, for the discharge of his office, yet it is such, as where our anointing to the same purpose is mentioned, it is said peculiarly on effecting of such qualifications as these; so 1 John ii. 20. 27. the work of the anointing is to teach us, the Spirit therein, is a Spirit of wisdom and understanding, of
counsel, knowledge, and quick understanding in the fear of the Lord. So was the great promise of the Comforter, that he should teach us; John xiv. 26. that he should guide us into all truth; chap. xvi. 13. This of teaching us the mind and will of God, in the manner wherein we are taught it by the Spirit, our Comforter, is an eminent part of our unction by him, which only I shall instance in. Give me leave to say there is a threefold teaching by the Spirit.
(1.) A teaching by the Spirit of conviction and illumination; so the Spirit teacheth the world, that is, many in it, by the preaching of the word, as he is promised to do; John xvi. 8.
(2.) A teaching by the Spirit of sanctification, opening blind eyes, giving a new understanding, shining into our hearts, to give us a knowledge of the glory of God, in the face of Jesus Christ, enabling us to receive spiritual things in a spiritual light, 1 Cor. ii. 8. giving a saving knowledge of the mystery of the gospel; and this in several degrees is common to believers.
(3.) A teaching by the Spirit of consolation, making sweet, useful, and joyful to the soul, the discoveries that are made of the mind and will of God in the light of the Spirit of sanctification. Here the oil of the Spirit, is called the 'oil of gladness,' that which brings joy and gladness with it; and the name of Christ thereby discovered, is a 'sweet ointment poured forth,' that causeth souls to run after him with joy and delight; Cant. i. 2. We see it by daily experience, that very many have little taste and sweetness and relish in their souls of those truths, which yet they savingly know and believe; but when we are taught by this unction, oh how sweet. is every thing we know of God! As we may see in the place of John, where mention is made of the teaching of this unction, it respects peculiarly the Spirit teaching of us the love of God in Christ, the shining of his countenance, which, as David speaks, puts gladness into our hearts; Psal. iv. 6, 7.
We have this then by the Spirit, he teacheth us of the love of God in Christ, he makes every gospel truth as wine well refined to our souls, and the good things of it, to be a feast of fat things; gives us joy and gladness of heart with all that we know of God, which is the great preservative of the soul to keep it close to truth. The apostle speaks of our
teaching by this unction, as the means whereby we are preserved from seduction. Indeed, to know any truth in the power, sweetness, joy, and gladness of it, is that great security of the soul's constancy in the preservation and retaining of it. They will readily change truth for error, who find no more sweetness in the one than in the other. I must crave the reader's pardon, for my brief passing over these great things of the gospel; my present design is rather to enumerate, than to unfold them. This one work of the Holy Ghost, might it be pursued, would require a fuller discourse than I can allot unto the whole matter in hand. All the privileges we enjoy, all the dignity and honour we are invested withal, our whole dedication unto God, our nobility and royalty, our interest in all church advantages, and approaches to God in worship, our separation from the world, the name whereby we are called, the liberty we enjoy, all flow from this head, are all branches of this effect of the Holy Ghost. I have mentioned only our teaching by this unction; a teaching that brings joy and gladness with it, by giving the heart a sense of truth wherein we are instructed. When we find any of the good truths of the gospel come home to our souls, with life, vigour, and power; giving us gladness of heart, transforming us into the image and likeness of it, the Holy Ghost is then at his work; is pouring out of his oil.
8. We have adoption also by the Spirit; hence he is called the 'Spirit of adoption;' that is, either he who is given to adopted ones, to secure them of it, to beget in their hearts a sense and persuasion of the Father's adopting love; or else to give them the privilege itself, as is intimated, John i. 12. Neither is that opposite hereunto which we have, Gal. iv. 6. for God may send the Spirit of supplication into our hearts, because we are sons, and yet adopted by his Spirit. But of of this elsewhere.
9. He is also called the 'Spirit of supplication;' under which notion he is promised, Zech. xii. 10. and how he effects that in us, is declared, Rom. viii. 26, 27. Gal.. iv. 6. and we are thence said to 'pray in the Holy Ghost.' Our prayers may be considered two ways.
(1.) First as a spiritual duty required of us by God; and so they are wrought in us by the Spirit of sanctification, which helps us to perform all our duties, by exalting all the facul
ties of the soul for the spiritual discharge of their respective offices in them.
(2.) As a means of retaining communion with God, whereby we sweetly ease our hearts in the bosom of the Father, and receive in refreshing tastes of his love. The soul is never more raised with the love of God, than when by the Spirit taken into intimate communion with him, in the discharge of this duty; and therein it belongs to the Spirit of consolation, to the Spirit promised as a comforter. And this is the next thing to be considered in our communion with the Holy Ghost; namely, what are the peculiar effects which he worketh in us, and towards us, being so bestowed on us, as was declared, and working in the way and manner insisted on. Now these are, his bringing the promises of Christ to remembrance, glorifying him in our hearts, shedding abroad the love of God in us, witnessing with us, as to our spiritual estate and condition, sealing us to the day of redemption; being the earnest of our inheritance, anointing us with privileges as to their consolation, confirming our adoption, and being present with us in our supplications. Here is the wisdom of faith; to find out, and meet with the Comforter in all these things; not to lose their sweetness, by lying in the dark to their author, nor coming short of the returns which are required of us.
The general consequences in the hearts of believers, of the effects of the Holy Ghost before-mentioned. Consolation; its adjuncts, peace, joy; how it is wrought immediately, mediately.
HAVING proceeded thus far in discovering the way of our communion with the Holy Ghost, and insisted on the most noble and known effects that he produceth, it remains that it be declared, what general consequences of these effects there are brought forth in the hearts of believers; and so we shall at least have made mention of the main heads of his dispensation and work in the economy of grace. Now these
(as with the former) I shall do little more than name; it being not at all in my design to handle the natures of them, but only to shew what respects they bear to the business in hand.
1. Consolation is the first of these. The disciples walked in the fear of the Lord, and in the consolation of the Holy Ghost, Acts ix. 31. ἐν τῇ παρακλήσει τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύμα τος. He is ὁ παράκλητος, and he gives παράκλησιν, from his work towards us, and in us, we have comfort and consolation. This is the first general consequent of his dispensation and work. Whenever there is mention made of comfort and consolation in the Scripture given to the saints (as there is most frequently), it is the proper consequent of the work of the Holy Ghost towards them. Comfort or consolation in general, is the setting and composing of the soul in rest and contentedness in the midst of, or from troubles, by the consideration or presence of some good wherein it is interested, outweighing the evil, trouble, or perplexity that it hath to wrestle withal. Where mention is made of comfort and consolation, properly so called, there is relation to trouble or perplexity; so the apostle, 1 Cor. i. 5, 6. As the sufferings of Christ abound in us, so our consolation also aboundeth by Christ.' Suffering and consolation are opposed, the latter being a relief against the former; so are all the promises of comfort, and all the expressions of it in the Old and New Testament, still proposed as reliefs against trouble.
And, as I said, consolation ariseth from the presence or consideration of a greater good, that outbalances the evil or perplexity, wherewith we are to contend. Now in the effects or acts of the Holy Ghost before-mentioned, lie all the springs of our consolation. There is no comfort but from them; and there is no trouble, that we may not have comfort in and against, by them. That a man may have consolation in any condition, nothing is required but the presence of a good, rendering the evil, wherewith he is pressed, inconsiderable to him. Suppose a man under the greatest calamity that can possibly befall a child of God, or a confluence of all those evils numbered by Paul, Rom. viii. 38, &c. let this man have the Holy Ghost, performing the works mentioned before towards him, and in despite of all