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foundly contemplative and philosophic spirit, our intellectual nature are analyzed, and she brought to the discussion of the great shown to have their constituent forms or questions of Philosophy, an affluence of primitive laws, from which all the phenomthought and an array of great names unsur- ena coming within their respective spheres passed in ancient or modern times. To take quality and form. By the transmuting resolve all the great problems of thought, process of these primitive laws or categories, and to throw open the entire arcana of ex- the mind proceeds from simple objective existence, was her ambitious aim. The source istence, the only thing given in the Sensiand validity of ideas, the essence and origin bility, through sensations, notions, and judgof being, and all the mysteries connected ments, to the ultimate ideas of Soul, Nature, with the existence of the soul, of nature and and God, the last generalizations of the God, came within the range of her exhaustive Reason. speculations. The constitutional nature of The union of the subjective and the obGermanic mind determined the direction of jective in all knowledge is thus determined, its inquiries. All its native impulses and and faith in the validity of ideas and the habits of thought were at war with Sensa- conclusions of science and morals justified, by tionalism. Its speculative tendency, its pro- showing the possibility of an à priori knowfound reflectiveness, and its lofty enthusiasm, ledge, and the necessity of accepting the all indicated its affinities with Idealism, as original conceptions of the understanding. the system most in harmony with its spirit- The influence of the Transcendental Phiualistic sympathies and faith. Flere, then, losophy upon German thought was imwe may look for a counter-current and cor- mense. It completely extinguished a shalrective to the sensualism of the French and low species of Skepticism, which had begun English schools, and a protest against the to make its appearance, and gave birth to a skeptical doctrine advanced by lIume and school of Philosophy and a series of specuhis less able coädjutors upon the Continent. lations, which have given Germany the intel
Of Liebnitz, chronologically connected lectual empire of the world. with this period, but philosophically related Kant, as we have seen, sought to deterto the Cartesians, we have already spoken. mine the exact proportions and agency of He controverted the theory of Locke regard- subject and object, the me and the not-me, ing the origin of ideas, adding to the in every act of perception and thought. In maxium of the Sensationalists, “Nihil in this office he had assigned almost the entire intellectu, quod non prius in sensu," his agency to the subjective, but yet allowing a noted “Præter intellectum ipsum."' We bare objective existence, without quality or recognize here the germ of that system attribute, to furnish the unformed material of “ Critical Philosophy” which has placed of knowledge. Here, then, was a tendency the name of Kant so high on the roll to pure subjective Idealism, which nothing of philosophic fame. It was the great was needed to complete but an elimination merit of Kant to have given to the laws of the realistic element, already held by so and operations of the human mind a feeble a tenure. To effect this was the more thorough analysis than they had be work of Fichte. Fixing his eye upon the fore received. His method was psycho- idealistic side of the Kantean philosophy, he logical, and he pursued it with rigorous pushed it to its extreme development. Kant severity until he stood within the very pene- had shown that all our actual knowledge is tralia of consciousness. He distinguished limited to the facts of consciousness. Here, between the respective functions of the Sen- then, Fichte takes his position, and maintains sibility, the Understanding, and the Reason, the exclusive office and claims of the Ego. and indicated the agency of each in the We can know nothing beyond the field of genesis of ideas. He showed that while all our own consciousness; whatever is given knowledge begins with experience, it does in that, we may accept, but farther we may not all come from experience-post hoc, non not go, for the consciousness cannot transpropter hoc-a thought which Cousin has cend itself; all our sensations and percepso fully developed in his distinction between tions are purely subjective; they are nothing the logical and chronological antecedence of more than affections of mind. That they ideas. Each of the three great functions of have any corresponding objective reality is
a supposition wholly conjectural. It is an stitutes the universe. To trace the process inference which Faith may accept, but which of this development is the office of PhiloReason cannot prove. For it is clear that sophy; an office which becomes possible we can have no knowledge of any thing pre-through the intimacy of relation which the vious to its coming under the laws and con- individual mind sustains to the Absolute as ditions of our own subjectivity ; but the im- one of its modes of manifestation. position of these laws and conditions, it is This process of self-development is effected admitted, determines the entire character, through the operation of a law in which form, and properties of the thing known. Philosophy detects three agencies or moveHence it can never be proved that the ob- ments. The first is the reflective movejective fact corresponds with the subjective ment, or the attempt of the Infinite to emidea. Neither does such subjective know- body itself in the finite. This gives nature. ledge necessarily correlate simple objective The second is called the subsumptive moveeristence, as was held by Kant, any more ment, or the effort of the Absolute, having than it does correspondence. The fact that embodied itself in the finite, to return again the intelligence forces us to believe in an ex- to the Infinite. This gives mind, which is ternal world, proves nothing; for the intelli- nature arrived at consciousness. The third gence itself is a part of that very subject- movement consists in the union of the other ivity, and is thus necessitated by the impo- two, and is the blending of the subjective sition of its laws. Mind, therefore, which is and the objective, of mind and matter in the defined as the power of thinking, is the only Absolute as realized. The development of real existence. Being an active principle, this original system, which we cannot further with impulses to self-development, it projects pursue, is extended throughout the entire its activities out of itself; but, meeting with phenomena and relations of being. This limitations to its free activity, as it must, same law, in its three-fold movement, is else it would proceed to infinity-it objecti- traced through all the realms of nature and fies these limitations, and calls them the ex- mind. It is shown to operate entire in the ternal world. Thus the me determines the most subordinate, as well as in the highest not-me, and creates what it beholds. The ranges and gradations of existence. It is universe becomes wholly spiritual ; "mind made to resolve all the great problems of precipitated” becomes matter, and all out- Philosophy, and to illume with new light and ward being is but the sensized product of meaning the domains of Science and Litethought. Knowledge and existence, there- rature and Religion and Art. Whatever fore, are synonymous, and subject and ob- opinion there may be regarding the merits of ject identified as one.
Schelling's system as a solution of the enigma The intense Egoism which distinguishes of the universe, it must be admitted, when these speculations of Fichte marks the ideal- viewed in its entire development, as one of istic phase of the Kantean philosophy in its the most remarkable examples of original, highest expression. It had reached its point vigorous and comprehensive thinking that of culmination in a system of pure subjective Philosophy and Genius have ever given to Idealism.
the world. Closely related to Fichte was Schelling. Its development of the affinities and inHe was an Idealist, but his Idealism devel- terdependence of all modes and gradations oped itself in another direction. He did of being, and its unfolding of the secret conDot, with Fichte, sink all existence in the Ego, nections and correspondences of physical, inbut he allowed the reality of objective being. tellectual, and ethical science, was a masterWith Fichte, he identified subject and ob- ly achievement of intellect, and a rich contriject, but not upon the same plane. He car-bution to the treasury of Philosophy and ried the union to a higher point, and identi- Thought. We had purposed to speak of fied them in the Absolute. This absolute, the relations of the “ Identity-Philosophy" in which exists potentially all phenomenal to some of the peculiar phases of modern being, is revealed to us though the intellec- literature, and of its partial reproduction in tual intuition, a kind of spiritual vision, the school of New-Ėngland İdealism, but which is the great organ of philosophy in this we must, for the present, defer. The the perception of truth. The self-develop- arrival of nature and through nature, of God, ment of the Absolute or Infinite Mind con- ! to self-consciousness in man, is an idea which
will be recognized as the pervading thought|mere negations. It is only in the mediation of that Philosophy, in whose rhythmical of their antagonism" that real existence aputterances we are taught how
In the Abstract Idea of Hegel, as in the –“ Past, Present, Future, shoot, Triple blossoms from one root."
Ego of Fichte and the Absolute of Schelling,
the universe potentially exists. The decomHow
position of this Idea gives all the complex “ Substances at base divided, In their summits are united ;
phenomena of thought and being. This deWhere the holy essence rolls,
composition is effected through an impulse to One though separated souls,
activity contained in the Idea, and which And the sunny Æon sleeps,
unfolds itself in the evolution of contraries, Folding nature in its deeps;"
through a logical process of development. And how
In this logical process consists the spirit of “The poor grass does plot and plan
the Idea, the true, substantial existence—the What it will do when it is man."
Creation thus becomes synonymous with The Idealism of Kant had thus, in diverse dialectics, and Hegel's Logic a formula of directions, consummated its two-fold deve- world-development, a programme of procelopment. Its subjective phase had reached dure for the Absolute Idea. its highest expression in Fichte, while Schell- In his Philosophy of Nature, IIegel's speing had exhausted its objective element. culations are similar to those of Schelling. The two divergent lines were now to be He holds that nature is inarticulate thought, united in the Absolute Idealism of Hegel. on its way to consciousness; and when we Fichte, starting with the Ego as the only add his idea, that God comes to full self-conreal existence, constructed from it the non- sciousness only in Philosophy, there will be ego; Schelling, taking the Absolute as the no question of Hegel's claim to the paterlast possible generalization, traced its unfold- nity of Absolute Idealism. ing in the me and the not-me. Hegel starts Reason had thus reached its highest poswith an Abstract Idea as his conception of sible conceptions. It had pushed its genethe Absolute—and his conception is the Ab- ralizations to a point of abstraction beyond solute itself, since thought and existence are which the boldest thought could never wing correlative-and by a process of Logic re- its solitary way. But what of the incomsolves it into the various phenomena of the municable Sphinx ? Had Reason resolved universe. This unresolved Idea is not an her curious enigmas ? Alas! she had come, Absolute Unity, for such a unity is impossi- bringing her children of sharpest eye and ble. In the last generalizations of the Reason, cunning brain, but no (Edipus had arrived. two elements of thought are always given, The secret which the ages had kept, of which are mutually generative and conditioning. These two elements are contraries and
“What subsisteth and what seems," correlatives. Every thing is bi-polar. It has was not yet whispered. Some clearer vision its positive and negative side. “An inevita- must read the mysterious cipher : ble dualism bisects nature, so that each thing is a half, and suggests another thing to “ Profounder, profounder, make it whole." The subjective and the
Man's spirit must dive: objective, the conditioned and the uncondi
To his aye-rolling orbit tioned meet in every possible conception.
No goal will arrive.” Neither is a reality in itself; neither can Since Reason had thus exhausted its enerexist independent of the other. Being and gies in vain, what remained but to invoke Non-Being, abstractly and separately consi- once more the assistance of Faith? To her dered, are the same, for both are uncondi- piercing vision, it might be that the secrets of tioned, and hence exclude each other ; but being would unfold their mystical life. This in their reciprocal negation, existence is posi- appeal from the discursive to the spiritual ted, as two negatives combined give an af- faculty, was made by one of the best and firmative. Since, then, nothing exists in purest of Germany's gifted children. Jacobi itself alone, the only reality lies in the rela- has been called the German Plato; and in tion. Subject and object disconnected are lofty spiritualism and a keenly apprehensive intellect, he is not unworthy of a memory and their respective forms would be to write the mention with the founder of the Academy annals of German thought for the last half and the pride of Athens. His devoutly re-century. ligious spirit could not accept the cold and Philosophy had thus completed another dreary abstractions of that rationalistic philo- great revolution on the field of modern specusophy which had become so prevalent. He lation. In passing through its second eclipdid not believe that the Understanding was tic, it had reproduced its four great systems the only organ of truth, and Logic its sole in- of thought, and again found in Mysticism terpreter. In the depth of his consciousness the limits of its endeavor. And was there was implanted the conviction, that "reason nothing gained, then, through so many cenis not entire in reasoning, nor is all evidence turies of intellectual activity ? Had Phireducible to that of demonstration." He losophy but repeated its former periods, and regarded Reason as something more than a could it hope for no higher guerdon than discursive and regulative faculty. He re- the honors of ancestral thought? cognized in it an element of feeling, a faithprinciple, which lifted it above all ratiocina- Jam redit et virgo, redeunt Saturnia regna, tive processes of thought, and carried it be. Delectos heroas; erunt quodque ultera bella,
Alter erit tum Tiphys, et ultera que vehat Argo yond the limitations of logic. In this syn. Atque iterum ad Troiam magnus mitteturAchilles.” thesis of reason and faith is given an immediate and intuitive perception of truths Nay, not in such fruitless renewals had which transcend all faculties of demonstra- Philosophy exhausted the energies of Intion, but which are authenticated in the tellect, and wasted the fires of Genius. spontaneons and universal consciousness." Thought is always advancing, but in a The existence and attributes of God, the spiral line," says Goethe. Ancient systems immortality of the soul, and the fundamental | had reäppeared, but in larger proportions and principles of morals, are truths without the upon a higher plane. The elements might range of Categories, Predicables, and Syllo- be the same, but they had been taken up gism, and verified only in the spontaneous into fuller developments, and set in higher affirmations of the intuition.
and brighter constellations of thought. The A full recognition of the moral attributes speculations of the French and English Senof Deity, and a hearty acceptance of Christian sationalists far surpassed, in penetration and Revelation, distinguished Jacobi from most of vigor, those of Athens or Ionia. Physical the philosophers of his time. With him, Philosophy, at least, has been enriched by this universe of being was something more their searching empirical inquiries, whatever than a reflex of consciousness or the decom- may have been the value of their contribuposition of an abstract Idea. He recognized tions to metaphysical science. The Skeptiit as the fair creation of Infinite Goodness, cism of Hume, by its acute and discriminative rather than as the necessitated development observation of mental phenomena, disclosed of a primordial germ, or the product of un- laws of our intellectual nature, of whose exconscious law.
istence and operation Pyrrho and the Acade
micians were profoundly ignorant. Ideal"Deep love lieth under
ism, in its palmiest days, and as it fell from These pictures of time; They fade in the light of
lips of more than Attic eloquence, in the Their meaning sublime.”
groves of Academus and on the banks of the
Ilissus, could not compare, in affluent and The faith-principle of Jacobi naturally led to profound speculation, with its latter developMysticism, and to various species of mysti- ments in the systems of Kant and Fichte and cism, as it was connected with the respective Schelling and Hegel. In a thorough and systems of Idealism. Of these various exhaustive analysis of psychological phenoclasses of mystics, differing, by the slightest mena, and a rigid application of method and gradations of sentiment, from the philosophi- logical tests, Germany far excelled Greece. cal faith of Schlegel to the supernatural And the mysticism of Alexandria, as repreilluminations of Swedenborg, we have no sented in the vision of Porphyry and the space to speak. Their mazy speculations are union and ecstacy of Plotinus and Proclus, inwro'ight in all the texture of German let- was of feeble growth, in comparison with its ters and life; and to give a full exposition of more luxuriant development in the kindling
aurora, the lofty faith and piercing intuition | The former alternative seemed fruitless, the of Boehme, and Jacobi, and Schlegel. On- latter inglorious. But one other expedient tology had traveled, by slight gradations of remained : to bring all existing systems toadvance, from the crude materialistic concep-gether, and in their combination to discover tions of Thales, to the refined and towering new principles and truths. Each system is generalizations of Hegel; and psychological true in part. The error of Philosophy has science had gradually pushed its ascending been to mistake this part for the whole. way, from the faint initial distinctions of Truth is always in harmony with itself, and Parmenides, to the profound analysis and assimilates with its like. Bring together, complete classifications of the philosopher then, all the various systems and schools, of Königsburg
and let their fractional truths unite. Error Not in vain, then, bad Philosophy prose- will thus be eliminated, and truth, complete cuted her inquiries, through all the mazy and without alloy, remain as the happy respeculations of ancient and modern thought. sult. Not in vain, with unfaltering hope, had she This expedient, then, is adopted. The sought, of sense, and reason, and faith, some warring systems are brought into correresponse to her questionings. Not in vain ; spondence, the ancient feud forgot, and for though the riddle of the Sphinx remained Eclecticism, like harmony born of discords, unsolved, many truthful and significant words the fifth and last great system of Philosophy, had fallen from the lips of those who had appears. Of this system, as founded and essayed to whisper her secret; many illus- developed by the most accomplished and trious Names, " which the world will not acute Thinker of modern time, we do not willingly let die,” had left her their legacy now propose to speak. Upon some future of imperishable thought; many pure and occasion we shall resume the consideration exalted sentiments had been given to the of this subject, with an exposition of the heart of Virtue ; many fruitful and enduring Eclectical Philosophy of Cousin, and a disprinciples in morals and science had been cussion of the relations of metaphysical to added to the treasury of Truth.
physical science. We have thus traced the course of Speculative Philosophy, from its first feeble begin
Note. It may be proper to say, that the omisnings in Greece, to the culminated develop- sion in the above sketch of any allusion to several ment of each of its respective systems. But important Schools is not from inadvertence, or an the great world-problem was still unresolved, phical Science
. In a full history of Speculative
under-estimate of their contributions to Philososave to the rapt vision of Faith alone. Such Philosophy, the teachings of the Porch and the solution Philosophy could never accept, for Garden, and the later speculations of the Scottish it was beyond the application of all its recog- School, would claim a prominent position. But nized criteria of verification. What, then, regarding them as only branch-movements in the remained to be done? Must Philosophy to trace, we have omitted their publication.
direct line of development which we have sought retrace its steps, or abandon the search?
W, L. C.
W. L 0.