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successful, all managers have not been Barnum, | The various sentiments of its characters, and of its and all vocalists have not been Jenny Lind. The successive stages, are made subservient to one. impetus given to musical taste may have slackened The genius of the composer preserves a unity from its first violence, and have become confined throughout his work, such as is always fascinating, within definite bounds; but it is constantly mani- and always effective. Whatever of art he has at festing its existence by its every day visible effects. his disposal, whatever of musical wealth he is able Musical Europe ten years, five years ago, looked to dispense, whatever of barmony he can infuse upon us as barbarous, and the advent of even a among the different creations of big intellect or his second-rate foreign vocalist or performer upon our fancy, these are met with in perfection in that style shores was a matter of note. The case at present of mingled musical and dramatic composition to is very different. The European artist, tired for a which we give the name of opera. season of the sameness of his career at home, In a preceding number, we alluded to the ill regards America as the scene of a luxurious and success that attended the first attempts to estabprofitable vacation, and makes his Hegira from lish a permanent opera in this country. This ill the old world to the new, with the same certainty success, however much it might have been regretted, of success which attends every one every where, was not unaccountable, and had it not then occurred, whose calling is in repute, and whose talents in his would bave been cause for wonder. At the time peculiar calling are eminently noticeable.
of these efforts, we had enjoyed very little musical The success of Parodi, among other facts, amply culture, and had had few opportunities of hearing shows the truth of what we have just said. She first-rate artists. To take the first step in such is a vocalist of genius, but in no way entitled to cases is always difficult, and rarely profitable. Did rank above any one of a dozen prima donnas who an enthusiastic manager solicit European vocalists have, in the last few years, proceeded from that to try their fortune in the new world i They were country to which she owes her origin. Her singing, obliged for the offer, but they were very well off in however, is such as we rarely bear excelled. Her their present situations, and were unwilling to risk action is striking, and is the fruit of much careful certainties for uncertainties. There were plenty of study. In two characters, Norma and Lucrezia indifferent singers rendy at any time to venture Borgia, she may justly be called eminent. But any where, but from such material no manager ten years ago, if she had thought it worth while to could hope to fill his treasury. Thus, good singers come to this country, she would hardly have found could not be obtained, simply because the experian audience, except it might have been obtained ment of introducing good singers into America had for a short season in one or two of our most popu- never been tried; and as the inferior rank of lous cities. The rich melody of her Italian voice vocalists were not warmly patronized, the better would have passed for jargon; her acting would class were more unwilling than ever to hazard the bave seemed strange, and to many distasteful; expenses and the difficulties of a season in the and unsupported by a trained company, however United States. her concerts might have been received, the opera- Palmo, however, opened an opera-house with the tic performances in which she would have sustained best singers he could procure. It was a snug little the chief part, would have been at least unappre. box in Chambers street, New-York, somewhat like ciated, and it is hardly less safe to say, unsuccessful. the Astor Place Opera house, on a very reduced
But Parodi, if she has not made a half million scale. He gave us some very good music, and of money in the short space of a year and six some also that was not very good. Audiences were months, has had good reason to be satisfied with her neither large nor steady. The performances were reception. In New-York and Philadelphia she has unmercifully travestied and ridiculed. The low been warmly applauded by a succession of crowded theatres måde game of him. He brought out houses; in her tour through the country she has " Zampa," or the “ Red Corsair," with all the scenic been greeted by full audiences, even in the minor effect at his command, and entertained hopes of towns. And whatever disadvantages may attend creating a sensation. In less than a week, the foreign vocalists, this was peculiar to her, that she audiences of Chatham street were roaring with was following hard in the wake of the most emi- laughter at a parody, entitled “Sam Parr," or the nent of singers, who might be supposed to have “Red Coarse Hair." There is a scene in the opera absorbed all the money which, for a season at least, where a statue turns upon its pedestal, and adthe public could afford for musical gratification, dresses the affrighted Zampa, amid the accompaniand with whom all comparisons must of necessity ments of loud and solemn music. In the travesty, be disparaging.
a beer-barrel is made to revolve upon a pivot, and The success of the opera must, after all, be re- a ragged and hatless loafer within sings a maudlin garded as the criterion of the public taste. The song in the ears of the drunken hero. opera is the only full exposition of music. Con.
Between the enterprises of Palmo and Maretzek, certs, no matter how carefully elaborated or judi- two attempts toward the permanent establishment ciously made up, are from necessity scrappy and of the opera were made by Fry and Sanquirico. incomplete. The most scientifically selected con- From various causes, both were unsuccessful. The cert that could be performed, would be, in com former, however, did not entirely lose his labor in parison with the representation of “ Don Giovanni," the sacrifice of his money; for when he abandoned like the reading of the “ Beauties of Shakspeare" to his endeavors, the building in Astor Place had been the representation of “Hamlet” or “Othello.”
built, and stood invitingly open to any one suffiAn opera, composed by a master of the musical ciently adventurous to risk his name and his fortune art, we may conceive, possesses all the requisites of in an enterprise in which all his predecessors had music. Its effect is heightened by dramatic action. (met with disaster.
Maretzek has not entirely succeeded, neither has This is our candid impression. We have no intenhe failed. He has met with triumphs amid reverses; tion of flattering. We wish simply to be just, to and by his unremitting energy has shown, that if award praise where it is due, and to criticize as he could not always command success, he was seems necessary. The “ Wreck” is a work that never undeserving of it. He has made us ac- fastens attention; it is full of the elements of quainted with vocalists whom we should never power. And, what is of equal consequence, it have heard but for his interposition, and has at shows correctness of eye and skill of band in its times shown us wbat we consider no less beautiful author. The anatomy of the figure is open only to than rarema well-attended, full-dress opera. Ou trivial criticism. Two things alone show the inexthis point of full dress we may have more to say. perience of the artist: the comparative want of Such vestimental regulations do not please the finish throughout the entire execution, and the republican tastes of the Americans. The experi- choice of inanimateness in place of the expression ment has been satisfactorily tried, and those who of passion. The former, time and practice will were most interested in the establishment of such remedy. The latter need not be repeated unregulations have fallen far short of doing their part less the sculptor has a particular design in so toward carrying them through. We dislike to use doing. the term aristocracy. It is an odious and an inde- By natural laws, a form and face redolent of terminate word, liable to misconstruction, and often passion and feeling, interest us more than when significant of ill feeling. But the fact is undeniable, devoid of these emotions. In art, the difference that the peculiar class whom Maretzek wished to is increased, for the reason that no human face can conciliate by adopting the opera regulations of the be either as passionless or as full of passion as it old world, although they professed to like the can be represented by art. A true picture or regulations, and even insisted on them as the con- statue is always an exaggeration. We involundition of their patronage, bave neither supported tarily regard it as such, and our pleasure at beboldthe manager nor his system, and have, by their ing it is regulated accordingly. A wax figure can demands, and by their subsequent neglect, brought be made into a perfect fac-simile of the character the opera into a degree of unpopularity which it whom it represents, and a wax figure is always will require some time to do away with. monstrous, and in the majority of cases disgusting.
The "People's Opera," first introduced by Marti, But this is a digression. at Castle Garden ; afterwards established by The bearing and the countenance of the "Apollo" Maretzek, at the same place; and finally localized express exultation; the forms of “Laocoon and his at Niblo's by the Artists' Union, will, we think, Sons” writhe in anguish, and their faces are dishereafter continue in successful operation during torted in mortal terror ; the “Venus” is contema large season of each year. The arrangements plative. These statues are alike emotional, and just completed by Mr. Niblo in Europe warrant us the world will never cease admiring them. The in such an expectation. The Royal Opera
of Lon- power of representing these various passions raises don should have its counterpart in the People's its possessor to the first grade of artistic excellence. Opera on this side the water; and it may bappen Another artist may handle the chisel equally well, that the Grisis and the Lablaches of a future but confines himself to inanimate subjects, to rigid period shall find their best encouragement and forms, and to features locked in lifeless repose. their most splendid triumphs in the great Ame- His task is easier, and his skill is just so much the rican cities.
more limited in its range.
The critical value of a comparison, we repeat, is Brackett's Wreck.
small. We regard the perfect delineation of a
form full of life and passion, with enthusiastic The Shipwrecked Mother and Child is the title pleasure. We look at the perfect delineation of of a group of statuary, wrought by Mr. Brackett, fixed and expressionless repose with simply calm an American sculptor, and now on exhibition in satisfaction. The only comparison that suggests the city of New York. It has also been exhibited itself-a comparison in whose conclusions we do in Philadelphia and Boston, and is universally not solicit implicit credence- is, that the genius recognized as one of the finest works of art which involved in the execution of the latter is not of an this country has yet produced.
order equally high with that involved in the creaOur range of selections between the creations of tion of the former. Or perhaps, assuming that American genius is limited. Comparison in the genius can ascend or descend at will
, we should present instance seems to vibrate between the say, that genius would recreate itself over the *Wreck” and the “Greek Slave;" but the critical inapimate statue, while it would be laboriously value of this comparison is small.' Powers labored tasked over the statue whose expression was that abroad; Mr. Brackett, not so fortunate, labored at of life and emotion. home. In this country models are rare; facilities The application of these remarks is obvious for study are deficient; the range among works of The shipwrecked mother, not dead, but extricating art is exceedingly narrow, Upon the greater herself and her child from the whirl of the breakers, advantages enjoyed abroad it is unnecessary to or gazing from some safe eminence at the tossing enlarge. The production of a work of art like fragments of the ship,-hope for the safety of one this group of Mr. Brackett's, amid the various de- whom she sees struggling with the waves, yet ficiencies of observation and study which he must lively on her countenance, - would be a work from have severely felt, leads us to believe that a resi- wbich, as to a pleasurable relaxation, the sculptor dence abroad would place him among the first of would turn to moulding the calm, beautiful, passionmodern sculptors.
less features of the sleeping form before us.
Hints to Employers. By JOSEPH P. THOMPSON. / wages is not less, and their wares are furnished to New-York: M. W. Dodd. 1852.
buyers at vastly lower prices. The amount of dis
tress at present existing in Manchester or Sheffield The Clerk's Journal: a Weekly Gazette, advocal- is no greater, in proportion to the number of work
ing Clerks' Rights. New-York. 1852. men within those towns, than it formerly was among
The book we have quoted has been lying beside the cutlers and spinners scattered throughout York us unnoticed for a long time, and we should prob- and Lancashire, while the fabrics which they proably have finally dismissed it with a brief men- duce are furnished at a price which would formerly tion, but for the appearance of the journal whose bave been deemed impossible. The wages paid title we have also given. The articles in the few to coinpetent journeymen in our various manufacnumbers of this journal which we have seen, aretories amount to a sum fully as great as would be such as we should have expected; somewhat realized by the average of workmen from the exquerulous, very declamatory, without definiteness clusive management of their own industry, while of purpose, and hinting at measures altogether the lessons of order, regularity, and economy, impracticable, and yet suggestive of facts in which which, in the discreet management of a large every one is more or less interested.
establishment, they cannot avoid being taught, are Whoever has carefully noted the various “labor of great practical value to them in the disposal movements” that have taken place both in this which they may have to make of their surplus time country and abroad during the last few years, can- or earnings. Society, it may fairly be said, loses not have failed to remark the strong tendency nothing in morals, and gains much in wealth, by among men of capital toward centralization, and the centralization of mechanical industry. the equally strong antagonism manifested against So, too, in the matter of trade, it is sufficient for it by workingmen and salaried dependants. The us to quote the universal saying, that the largest luxury of power, at all times coveted by men of houses, that is, the houses who transact the greatest every rapk, instead of being found, as formerly, in amount of business, are enabled to sell the cheapest. the command of troops of idle retainers or gay A very small portion of arithmetic is required to companions, is manifested at present in the dis- calculate the difference of profit upon a given posal of the greatest possible number of work- amount of sales, if in one case the goods are sold men, or of clerks, attached only by the payment of from a dozen different stores, and in the other are wages, and submissive in proportion to the wealth passed through the door of a single establishment. of the master whom they serve. Manufactories, And although it does not follow in the latter as in the case of the cutlery-rooms of Sheffield, or instance, that because the profits of the proprietor the looms of Manchester and Lowell
, have a ten- are larger, the pay of those whom he employs is dency to increase in size rather than in number, proportionately increased; yet it will be found that and so to centre round a given point, that a few the average of their wages is hardly inferior to the owners shall direct and keep in virtual subjection average profits of the proprietors of the dozen an indefinite number of operatives. Mercantile smaller establishments which we have supposed, establishments, as in the large cities of Europe and and might, if we consider the risks and losses to America, are constantly enlarging, while their which small proprietors are always subjected, and actual number, in proportion to the amount of from which employés are of course free, be called population they supply, remains comparatively absolutely, and in the long run, equal. stationary. It follows that the number of persons Whatever may be the amount of dissatisfaction engaged independently in the various industrial constantly exhibited by workmen and operatives, crafts
, and in commercial pursuits, is but little and whatever may be the circumstances that jusgreater than many years ago, while journeymen tify it, it will, we think, be difficult for any of the of every trade, and clerks
every branch of busi- class who are employed in mercantile establishness, are much more numerous. Hence arise an- ments, either in our cities or our smaller towns, to tagonisms between capitalist and dependant; dis- find reasons in their own case for similar manifesposition on the part of the one to compel as great tations of feeling. We should have supposed that a quantity of work as possible, and on the part of no such feeling existed among this class, and that the other, to escape as much as possible from its no such comparisons were being instituted between performance; mutual dissatisfactions and aversions; themselves and those engaged in the mechanical secret councils on the part of owners, and “strikes” arts, were we not furnished the clearest proof to on the part of operatives; complaints from one side the contrary. We are told at one time of the of the inefficiency and idleness to which all depend superior wages enjoyed by the mason or the car. ants are tending, and complaints from the other penter; at another, of the vastly smaller portion side of the rapacity and selfishness displayed by of time which the artisan is obliged to devote to all capitalists and employers.
those pursuits by which he gains his living; and That this state of things is not without many at another, of the various institutions and journals disadvantages, and that for some reasons a great devoted to his interests and his advancement. We manufactory or a great store may be truly styled are not told what we wish were never true, but a "moral evil,” we are not disposed to deny. But which, in all fairness, should have been put in as a we cannot admit that the world is the worse, after per contra argument, that the artisan's chances of all, for this constantly increasing centralization of acquiring name, fortune, or high position, are much industry. If the mass of mechanics have not pre- less than those of the clerk; that society—and we cisely that independence which they would enjoy, must take society as it is, however false its decidid each one labor at his last or his loom under sions may be,-looks down upon the one, while it the shelter of his own roof, the average of their regards the other with sufferance, if not with kindness; that the mill-owner will take his salesman or notice the wages allowed for so much exertion; we book-keeper into partnership, where he will not should find here and there a lucky man earning a admit one of his workmen to a like privilege; that handsome support; a larger number making shift the lawyer's daughter will marry the shopman, to live without denying themselves necessary comwhen she would feel insulted at an offer from the forts or running in debt; a large number gaining blacksmith; that the great mass of property about a subsistence only by close economy; and still a our centres of civilization is owned by men who large number in part or entirely maintained by their commenced life behind the desk or the counter; parents, and preferring to work for nothing at all and that the ambition of most young men who do rather than to lose their “situation.” not enter professions is directed by their older Then again we should be pointed to the spectacle friends to business rather than any one of the of old men, with gray hairs, and with shoulders mechanical arts, as a road to the possession of the stooped by confinement and hard work, toiling enjoyment of the good things and good opinions of amid those petty and uninteresting details of busithe world. Nothing of all this are we told by any ness which are handed over to them by their one of the eloquent advocates of "clerks' rights,” employers as too difficult for boys and too tedious and denunciators of hard-hearted and selfish em. for themselves; receiving no more salary than they ployers, to whom we are at times forced to listen; were receiving a score of years back, and still less and it is for this very reason we are tempted to able to look forward to competency and retirement; doubt both the information and the wisdom of such subservient and faithful, manifesting no inclinations as are foremost in disseminating this dissatisfaction of their own, enduring to live in the shadow of men among mercantile subordinates, and to question who have been more enterprising or more lucky whether the responses they may receive from the than themselves, and knowing no higher ambition more intelligent portion of their audience will be in life than that of giving“ satisfaction." We might of precisely that nature on which they may have be taken home with these men, and be shown how reckoned.
they live, and after what fashion their families are A little misguided enthusiasm, with a reasonable brought up; and we might derive some idea of space of time to gather materials on which to the limited knowledge they possess of the enjoyemploy itself, might be sufficient to conjure up a ments of life, of pleasurable relaxation, of indepicture of mercantile servitude such as would pendent enterprise, of travel, of literature, of active appear positively appalling. For a picture like benevolence, of refined society, and of mental culthis the strongest tints need not be disallowed, tivation. Then we might be shown how much their nor the outlines of facts prohibited from swerving children have lost in the way in which they have and varying as occasion should require; but a great been brought up; how little of free, wholesome, deal of truth might be incorporated into the healthy existence they have enjoyed, and how little coloring, and the sketch still remain to call forth they were likely to enjoy; and the picture would our aversion, and our desire of interference with be one from which we should gladly turn away. the circumstances portrayed. In such a picture But what, after all, is the mercantile system as we might behold the spectacle of thousands of displayed in our great centres of business ? Simply young men engaged from morning till night in the one where the natural selfishness of men finds its occupation of writing down figures, sitting in un- widest range; in which his acquisitive faculties comfortable positions, breathing an unwholesome may be kept, and are for the most part kept, in atmosphere, unrelieved by relaxation, and cheered unremitted exertion; where incitements to lose by very faint hopes of soon extricating themselves sight of the interests of others, and especially of from their burdensome employment; a much larger dependants, are most tempting; and in which there number endlessly flitting to and fro behind counters, are the greatest chances both of success and failure. assiduously and yet unwillingly banding up and Men who have been accustomed to rely on others taking down bundles, rolls, and boxes, displaying for aid and advice; or who have by nature so much wares in which they have no interest, before the of veneration that they dare never venture into the eyes of people with whom they can have no pos- way of those who are older or richer than themsible acquaintance, obliged to talk fine when they selves; or who have been taught that if they dewould much prefer being silent, to smile whether vote their time to the pecuniary interests of others, they feel sober or gay, to appear active when they their own will be reciprocally cared for; or who are ready to drop with fatigue, to overlook all are conscious that they are not fit to take the foreaffronts, however insufferable, and to affect pleasure most rank in a busy, selfish, jostling crowd; such at all witticisms, however dismal, often remaining men, if they are wise, will avoid mercantile subat their station late at night, and only inhaling the ordinacy in large towns, and leave that position, out-door air on Sundays and occasional holidays; which ought never to be one of permanency, for another large number in establishments of a some- those more ambitious and self-reliant individuals what different nature, working amid piles of bales who enter upon its duties only as a means to an and boxes, compelled to deliver orations to “close end, and who in their turn will give place to others buyers” over the superiorities of this or that style, of like stamp. Men of this latter class are the or the cheapness of this or that assortment, hoist- only ones who realize at once the duties and the ing at the ropes like porters whenever there is profits of clerkship. necessity for such services, working till midnight In no case, and in no department of business, for weeks and months at a time, and always ex. has any man a right to complain. It is one of the pected and obliged to appear affable to all with most practical of our every-day remarks that this whom they come in contact
, and enthusiastic in the is a free country, and it is every one's privilege to performance of their various duties: then we should choose his calling for himself.' We confess, that amid all our sympathy for the discomforts and the obligations on one side, to be considerate and not positive hardships to which many of our clerks to suffer injustice, are as binding as on the other, are subjected, and our sincerest wishes that all and would be equally recognized, did not the practicable measures for their alleviation may be lack of capital and the pressing necessity of prespeedily brought about, we cannot enter into their sent subsistence stupify the discernment of that complaints, or lend an open ear to the recital of large part of society who would be most benefited their wrongs. In this country and we are not now by promptly acting up to this proposition. speaking of any other—each individual's place is of So long as men are selfish, we may expect to find his own choosing. If he is born and brought up many individuals dissatisfied with the treatment amid city walls, he bas it in his option to enter they receive at the hands of those who possess business or to earn his living by the plough or the authority. Clerks, undoubtedly, come in for their plane; or if he possesses the requisite talent, and full share of the incitements to this discontentwill make the necessary sacrifices, he is free to ment; and the only recipe for the evil is self-denial undertake any one of the professions: if he has been and hard work. With this specific, and in this educated in the country, his facilities for disposing rich, republican country, no man need be long his own course are equally good. Circumstances | blaming fortune because he is a subordinate. may control him for a while, but his time of elec
“The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, tion will always come. There is always one time But in ourselves, that we are underlings." in a man's existence when he chooses his pathway for life with his eyes open; and no matter how Hydropathic Management. By Joel Shew, M.D. rigorously he may have been kept down before New-York: Fowlers & Wells. that event, for all after disadvantages of position To those who wish to be posted up in measles, he has chiefly to thank himself. We can hardly croup, whooping-cough, and other infantine diseases, conceive of any degree of healthiness in that this is an interesting work. We had no idea they state of mind in which an individual shall remain, could be made so pleasant. Our readers, however, year after year, blaming others because he is not must not misunderstand us. We recommend the advanced, when he has been the sole means of volume, not the complaints in question. placing himself and keeping himself where he is, We particularly admire the 27th chapter, on and when he bas allowed others, with no greater Scarlatina. It cannot be too extensively read. It advantages than he might have possessed, to pass has touches of the poetical worthy the pen of Mr. by and to rise above him.
Willis. Indeed, we suspect, if he were accused of This is very far from being a perfect world; and it to his face, his blushes would be the frontispiece in the relations of master and subordinate, em- of scarlatina. ployer and employed, there is a vast deal of tyranny and selfishness displayed by those who Home Narratives; or Stories from Household enjoy the superior power. But in the immense Words. Edited by CHARLES DICKENS. Putmajority of instances, the subordinate is partly to nam's Semi-monthly Library, No. 6. New-York: blame for this. A man who is worth the wages G. P. Putnam. 1852. paid him does wrong, unless he is hampered by contracts such as very few Americans are willing Isa; a Pilgrimage. By CAROLINE CHESEBRO. Newto make, when he gives his time and labor to a York: Řed field. Clinton Hall. 1852. tyrannical master, and be is justly punished in the endurance of inflictions from which it is his duty Madeline; a Tale of Auvergne. By Julia KAVAto escape. The question of demand and supply NAGU, author of " Nathalie,” “ Women of Early enters largely into the readiness with which this
Christianity,” &c. New-York: D. Appleton & principle is acted on, but its etbics are the same Co. 1852. every where. When labor is scarce, employers will be considerate and gracious; when it is plen. Springlers and Tinglers. tiful, they are apt to be imperious and exacting; Adventures of Colonel Vanderbomb. Hart's Libut there is a vice versd to this proposition also; brary of Humorous American Works. Philaand the laborer who submits to insults or injuries del phia : A. Hart. 1852. when labor is plentiful, is as much to blame as the employer who puts up with injustice or fraud Hearts Unveiled. By SARAH EMERY SAYMORE on the part of his men, when labor is scarce. The New-York: D. Appleton & Co. 1852.
Agents for the Review.
GEORGE R. SMITH, GENERAL AGENT. Mr. C. W. JAMES, No. 1 Harrison street, Cincinnati, Ohio, is our General Traveling Agent for the Western States, assisted by JOHN T. DENT, Dr. J. A. WADSWORTH, ALEXANDER R. LAWS, JAMES RUTHERFORD, Dr. LOTT EDWARDS, C. M. L. WISEMAN, and H. J. THOMAS.
Mr. HENRY M. LEWIS, Montgomery, Ala, is our General Traveling Agent for the States of Alabama and Tennessee, assisted by C. F. LEWIS, JAMES 0. LEWIS, and SAMUEL D. LEWIS.
Mr. ISRAEL E. JAMES, No. 182 South Tenth street, Philadelphia, is our General Traveling Agent, assisted by WM. H. WELD, JOHN COLLINS, JAMES DEERING, A. KIRK WELLING TON, E. A. EVANS, PERRIN LOCKE, GEORGE P. BUTTON, JOSEPH BUTTON, D. R. GOODWIN. WILLIAM J. COXEY. ISAAC M. BODINE. and WALTER D. THOMPSON