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snares of the Evil One. But the punishment that he might regain his peace of mind. has overtaken me even in this world, for Father Aloysius gave him his blessing, and since that moment I have not known a quiet he returned to Cologne with a lighter heart. hour."

And he related further how he had watched by night in the cathedral, and then

CHAPTER VII. continued: “ I can no longer bear the fear

THE MASTER'S NAME. ful burden which weighs upon me. I would not confess to the pious fathers in Cologne, Various strange things were whispered lest it should prove a grief and scandal to in the city of Cologne. The people heard them, when they learned that the cathedral with great astonishment that the master had in which they so delight was built with Sa- caused the brazen tablet with his name to tan's help. Therefore I have come to thee, be taken from the pillar, and the opening to that thou mayest utter a blessing upon my be walled up again. And they told each building, that it may prosper, and tell me if other that since that time the master had it is not possible that the punishment which been completely changed. Although each I have drawn upon me may be lightened.” one had formerly avoided him on account

The master was silent, and bowed his fore- of his singular demeanor, his dark and steadhead in the dust.

fast gaze, yet now each looked upon him But after long reflection, the pious her- with compassion; for deep grief was visible mit said, “Thou hast sinned grievously, my in his pallid face, and still the heavy gloom son. But the All-mighty is also the All upon his brow had become much milder. merciful; he will behold thy deep and bit- But the people wondered still more that ter repentance, and the heavy punishment the master no longer was ever present at the which thou hast already suffered from the building as heretofore, but went often to the tormenting consciousness of thy guilt. And churches, and came more and more seldom, if thou shalt persevere in thy purpose of re- until at last he was almost entirely forgotformation, and dost exercise repentance until ten. And one day they heard in the city thy life's close, the Lord will look down gra- that the master was dead, and buried in all ciously upon thee, and will not eternally stillness. He had requested on his deathcondemn thee; for truly he sent his Son, bed that this should be so, that no one our Lord Jesus Christ, to save and redeem should attend his body to the tomb, and no mankind, and thou also wilt share in this re- one know the place of his burial. demption. But that thy penitence may be And it happened as Father Aloysius had complete, go hence, and let the brazen tablet said. Soon, repeated hindrances interrupted with thy name engraved upon it be taken the progress of the building, mostly arising out of the pillar in the church. For as thou from the feuds of the city with the Archhast sinned from foolish vanity, it shall be bishops, so that it could easily be seen that thy punishment that thy name be forgotten they came from an evil source. And after among men, and never more be uttered upon the year 1499 the building of the cathedral earth. And because thou didst not set about entirely ceased, so that it remains at this day thy work with God's help, it will never be unfinished. completed, for that at which the Lord is not But the master's name was forgotten. present will never prosper."

And when any one now stands before the At these words the master rose, and bit- gigantic edifice, and admires the boldness, ter wo was visible in bis countenance. His the grandeur of the undertaking, -wonderwhole life had been bound up in the build- ful, even uncompleted,—and asks after the ing of his cathedral, and now his life was name of the master-builder, there is no one lost.

who can name him. It is to be found in no But the pious hermit continued to com- book, the memory of no man has preserved fort him, so that he at last became more it, it has not passed from generation to geneconsoled, and resolved to do as was told him, I ration—it is forgotten!

1.

THE VIOLIN.

A MÉLANGE.

The violin is unquestionably the most modern style, and it is for his discoveries of important instrument used in music. It is their peculiar effects, and marvellous genius the most important, considered with refer- in availing himself of them, that he has been ence to the performance of music, inasmuch ever considered the father of modern instruas it possesses more power, variety, and mental composition. After him, Mozart brilliance of effect than all the other instru- added still new effects, particularly in the ments in combination, and thus commands brass instruments; and under the genius of the entire orchestra. The din of the wind the great master of the orchestra, Beethoinstruments may be so used as to overpower ven, and others, such as CheruBINI, SPOHR, it for a while, but the continuous use of them Weber, and many more, we have it as in that manner, soon fatigues the ear. The now, capable of expressing the delicate and wind instruments can be used effectively beautiful conceptions of Mendelssohn. alone, only for martial music in the open Still, the old quartet maintains its position air ; in the full orchestra, and in the higher as the groundwork of the whole fabric; and departments of music, they can only be em- it is no less necessary in modern composiployed as accessaries to stringed instruments tion than when it was used almost exclu--and of these the violins are those which sively by the writers of a century since. conduct the principal melody, and produce Whatever may be the style, and whether the body of tone which carries along the the flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, horns, whole current of musical ideas—which, in trombones, tympani, &c., be used loudly or fact, command the orchestra. For whatever softly, and in whatever combinations, they may be the style of composition, if the are always carried along by the violins, and stringed instruments are properly combined, it is to them that the hearer's mind returns they have a certain fire, an electric force, with the most enduring satisfaction. No which all the rest cannot resist. To feel other instruments can produce such a firm this, even any one wholly unacquainted with body of sound ; nor are any capable of such music has only to stand in or near the marvellously new modifications and changes violins during the performance of an over- of expression. There seems to be no limit ture or any other orchestral piece. He will to their utterance. In HANDEL's Israel in then have an idea, not only of the over- Egypt, we hear them imitating the buzzing whelming power of the instrument, but of of flies, the plague of hail, and the thick the irresistible fire and grandeur of emotion darkness ; while MENDELSSOHN has made that music can express, and which can be them tell of the roar of the desolate sea in fully attained in no other way. The violins Fingal's Cave, and the loves of fairies and are to the grand orchestra what the diapa- heroes, and the humor of clowns, in the sons are to the full organ. They, and their Midsummer Night's Dream. And what quartet, the violas and violoncellos, form have not Mozart and BEETHOVEN made the substratum and body of the whole; the them say in their symphonies and quartets ? effects of the others, though beautiful and All forms of human emotion, love, tenderindispensable, being generally subordinate. ness, anguish, things unutterable, have

The old writers used only the quartet for breathed through their mysterious voices, voice accompaniments. HANDEL"so wrote until, to the musician, there is a charm is the Messiah, and the wind instruments, as their very shape and appearance. they are now employed, were added to the But the violin may be considered not only score by Mozart. Haydn was almost the l as important to musical performance, but to first to employ the wind instruments in the the whole musical art. Once it was furnished with frets like the guitar. Those have long them, D being its third, and A the third been discarded, and the scale, as now played of its dominant harmony; accordingly, this upon it, exists only in the mind of the per- key approaches more nearly a medium chaformer and his habits of execution, modified, racter. In F we use all the open strings in as they must be, by the open fifths and their the scale, but they fall in such a manner in harmonics. It is a theory that has never the principal harmonies that they have not been expressed, so far as the writer is aware, the same effect as when used as the fundaexcept here, that the different qualities of mentals of tonic harmonies; this key has the different keys may be traced to the hence, perhaps, a less marked character than construction of the violin. In strictness, there any; it is simply pleasing and cheerful. should be no difference except that of piteh; This illustration may be carried through but without it we should be deprived of all all the major and minor keys, and it will be those beautiful progressions of chords and found that the universally recognized qualithe modulations which are the glory of the ties of them have always a similar connection science of counterpoint. The keys of which with the places of the open strings of the the open strings of the violin are the funda- violin. Other instruments require to be mental of the tonic harmony, G, D, A, E, tempered in tuning to suit our ideas of are the most open of any. They also in the different keys; and the imperfection of crease in brilliancy as we go upward ; D be- the scale is thrown into keys less frequently ing a more brilliant key than G, A than D, used than others, and therefore termed reand E major, or the key of the upper string mote. On the violin, the artist tempers of the violin, being the most brilliant of any as he plays, according to the scale which in music. May not these differences be exists in his mind, with the exception of the owing, not merely to pitch, but to the com- use he makes of the open strings, which, mon chords formed from these key-notes being of a slightly different quality from the being affected by the powers of the four open closed notes, affect each key in the inanner strings, and the temperament unconsciously suggested. At least, the great power of the given them in tuning and in playing ? Thus, violin, the fact that its scale exists almost in G, the harmonies most nearly related are wholly in the mind, and the coincidences we D, an open string, (the octaves or harmonics have above observed between the use of the on both strings being frequently used in open notes and the qualities of the keys, playing,) and C, whose third is an open E, makes this the most plausible theory we and fifth, G itself. The open notes in this have ever seen, to account for their manifest way fall differently in the scale to what they differences. do in any other key, and there are more of The importance of the violin to music them used in playing than in keys of a less may be again illustrated by its almost unopen character. So it is with D and A, and limited capabilities of execution, and the their attendant harmonies, and with E, which fact that so much music is written expressly makes use of the highest open notes and to take advantage of its peculiar facilities. harmonics, and is therefore the most piercing It is not the organ any more, if it ever was, and brilliant in its quality.

which gives shape and form to melody; nor, If we take keys very near these in pitch, looking at the whole art, can we say it is we perceive at once a great change in qua- the voice. The melodies which have taken lity, according as the open notes are more most hold of the world's ear, which the or less used in them. Thus, A flat, only voice and all instruments have followed and half a note from G, is one of the most rich imitated, have been those most adapted to and mellow in inusic, and is associated in the violin ; and it is not too much to say our minds with beautiful andantes and ada- that this instrument controls the very shape gios, where the great masters so frequently of the passages of notes in modern music. employ it. Here, not a single note, either The most admired melodies are the best for the tonic, or its related harmonies of the fifth the violin ; they are violin melodies; such and fourth, the dominant and sub-dominant, as, but for the existence of the violin, never falls upon an open string. So with E flat, could have been conceived, at least, not in another rich key, but one which comes in its the form in which they are now written. remoter relations a little nearer to the open When we say a “piano-forte melody," a Rotes. In B flat we approach still nearer " horn melody," or an "organ passage," we mean something different from ordinary them carelessly with his cane, was surprised melody, which is, in a peculiar sense, the me- to observe that they gave forth a ringing lody of the violin. True, there are peculiar sound. Being a person of some taste for violin difficulties, and points which can be music, he picked up the shell and took it made singularly effective by uncommon skill; home with him to Argos, where he kept it indeed, there is, as we remarked, no end and used it a long while for the amusement to such. But the airs and themes—the or- of his countrymen. At length the tendous dinary tune of music-belong to the violin, broke; and it then occurred to him to reand are, in an especial and essential manner, place them by others of similar material. governed by its capacities. It is more at This is the story of the origin of the lyre. home in melody than any other instrument. Gradually it changed its form. The shell It lies nearer to the bosom of pure Music, was covered, and the strings stretched over and can, better than aught else that ever the top, as in the mandolin, or more popuman invented, unbind the chains that tie her lar banjo, which probably resembles very secret soul.

much in its tone a lyre that might have beThe history of the violin is not less re- come addicted to the use of snuff. Then markable than its character. While the Apollo (if we are not mistaken) stretched out world has been rolling on during the slow the ends of the shell into two necks, with a lapse of centuries ; while civilized mankind bar across to hold the strings ; added a has changed in customs, manners, religion; bridge; changed the shape of the body, and while empires have come up and gone down, played upon the instrument himself to uniand the glory and grief of thousands of bat-versal admiration. Possibly he may have tles have passed into oblivion, this little in- used a bow; but our impression is, that his strument, composed of a few insignificant music was a sort of arpeggio-pizzicato, and pieces of wood, has remained without one that the bow was not used till considerably particle of change—the same little Protean after his era. spirit, as obedient as ever to the call of About the tenth century of our era, the genius, and as potent to soothe and beguile. two necks of the lyre had united into one, It is said that something nearly resembling the bridge had become elevated, the body it, and played upon with a bow, has been enlarged, and a bow was used, something found in some ancient bas-relief. The Jews, like a part of a hoop of a four-barrel — if we are not mistaken, also lay claim to the most inconvenient article, one would imainvention of it; and hence it is possible it gine, for cantabile playing. should be ascribed to that great father of It must be remembered, however, that the music, Jubal-he whose descendants have world was then in a very rude and unculticertainly made as much noise in the world vated state with respect to the arts, comas those of any great man whose fame has pared with that in which it is now. Alfred reached us. However it may be, the Jews the Great was then King of England; in Gerof the present day can produce most excel- many all was anarchy, and the most powerlent performers on the violin, as well as ful princes constituted themselves electors, to composers of music.

appoint their emperors; the last of the race Perhaps the chief musicians to whom so of Charlemagne ruled in France ; Donogh many of the Psalms were addressed, were the Second in Ireland, and Dublin was just acquainted with the instrument. We know building; in Scotland, it was a century bethat they were with the harp. The gene-fore Macbeth ever thought of murdering rality of writers, however, trace the violin to Duncan ; Wales was governed by Howel the Grecian lyre, of which it is thought to Dha, a prince of whose greatness few readbe a modification. The lyre was invented ers of history have any idea ; while in Italy by a certain individual of ancient Greece, the Pope was just beginning to assume the who found one day, as he was walking along temporal power. It was three centuries the sea-shore, a large turtle-shell which had after the death of Saint Cecilia; two centuries lain there and dried in the sun. Some of since Gregory the Great had permitted the the tendons that remained had also dried, use of music in the Christian Church ; one and by their contraction had become tight-century before the first crusade ; one century ly stretched across the concavity of the shell

. before Guido gave names to the notes of The gentleman, whoever he was, hitting the diatonic scale; and three centuries

before Cimabue restored the art of paint-| be remembered that in those days learning ing.

was very much neglected, and that there For several centuries afterwards, the vio- was not an individual in all England who lin and all stringed instruments must could be said to have possessed the advanhave been of extremely rude construction, tage of a common school education." and quite incapable of being used in music Chaucer spells it fidel, which is a little betof a later date. In the hands of the min- ter, but yet not sufficiently well to entitle strels and troubadours of those times, the him to go up to the head.” But the English shape and compass of the instrument de need not blush for the ignorance of their pended very much upon the fancy of each ancestors, when they turn to other nations of performer.' They are accordingly found, in the continent. In high German it was (and the illuminations of ancient manuscripts, of for aught we know, is still) called videl, a many varieties of shape, generally, however, player upon it is a videlare, and the bow is more or less resembling the modern. Some- a videl-boge. In Icelandic it is fidla, in times they had three strings; sometimes Danish fadel; the Dutch called it vedel

, veel, sis, and even more; and the bow was not vicol, the Flemish vedel and vedele, and in universally used. But they bore a resem- modern German it is still fiedel, fidel, giege. blance, gradually increasing in the progress It is singular that a nation so remarkable of time, to the form of the instrument now for its love of music, and for general knowin use.

ledge and acquirements in the sciences, and Almost every nation possessed instruments especially in metaphysics, should so neglect like the violin, and hence it is not possible one of the most important rudimentary to determine to which one should be ascribed branches of education. the merit of its invention. In England, But the name most used in England was an instrument resembling the mandolin the crowd. Perhaps, from its attracting shape, with a short neck, and played upon many listeners, this word came to be used with a bow, was used by the Anglo-Saxon in the modern sense, as when we say “this Gleemen, as early as the earliest date we crowd wants fixin.” However this may be, have mentioned, the tenth century. Later the instrument was so called for many centhan this, the Welch claim to have origi- turies. Crowdero, or a performer on the nated the crwth or cruth, which was the crowd, is one of the characters in Hudibras. parent of the English crowd. This was a A leading Professor, lately conductor of ono bowed instrument in the form of an oblong of our principal orchestras, informed the square, the lower part of which formed the writer that often, in travelling in England in body. It had four strings, and was played his youth, he had been familiarly styled a upon like a violin; but not being hollowed “crowder.” When one considers what difat the sides, it could have left little play for ficulty violinists have in getting through the the bow, unless the bridge were very high, world, and especially that they work their which would have produced a singular way along literally with the elbows, the quality of tone. The true English crowd title seems singularly appropriate. was more like the Anglo-Saxon instrument Four or five years ago, a leader of an orin its form, the body being deep aud curved chestra in Boston, in looking up some apartlike the mandolin, or the half of a pear. ments for himself and family, found at This was used at fairs and merry-makings length some which answered the purpose, long after the introduction of the violin pro- and agreed to take them. After settling per. It was sometimes called the fythele, about the terms, &c., the lady, as he was leavfrom an old Saxon word, fidle. This word ing, thought it but prudent to inquire his occurs in the old legendary romances of the occupation. “I am Mr. Such-a-one,” he eleventh and twelfth centuries; and if the answered, " very well known in the city as instrument varied in its form according to a musician. I play the violin, and conduct the fancy of each performer as often as does orchestras.” “Ah, indeed !” exclaimed the the orthography of its name in the ancient good woman; "then we can't think of letchronicles, it is hardly possible to say what ting the rooms to you; we can't have any might not have been its “exterior sem- in our house but respectable people !" blance." In English it was spelled fythle, In Queen Elizabeth's time, a statute was fitkele, and sometimes fythale; but it must passed by which “minstrels, wandering

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