« AnteriorContinuar »
neither of them disciples of what Schlegel | low, Peele, Lodge, Nash, Lylie, &c., and rather undefinedly calls the Romantic School) compare them in this respect with the structhat Shakspeare possessed an art by which ture of Shakspeare's performances in a simihe“ gave fashion” (i. e. form) to his “mat- lar class. ter;" that he was “made" (by study) as well The action of their fable is, for the most as" born" (by nature) a poet; and that he part, very protracted,* and its incidents are invented the peculiar system (or code of brought out in detached portions of timelaws) which guided his own practice, and regular in their proper sequence indeed, but which he "did first impart." These are im- generally so slightly (if at all) connected, portant concessions, and should set us upon that all continuity is lost; and always so the inquiry into the particular laws of which inartificially put together as to leave the inthis system consists. We have already as-tervals uncovered, either by the overlapping certained two steps in this inquiry: first, of parts, or the involution of circumstances. that he knew, and (in certain cases) prac- Their story runs right through from begintised the ancient code of unities; and, sec- ning to end, in a straight line; and their ondly, that in certain cases also he employed method may be compared to a substitute for their rigid discipline.
“ The Pontic Sea, The just inference is, that, with his un
Whose icy current and compulsive course limited power over his materials, his depart
Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on ures from the ancient system and they con- To the Propontic and the Hellespont." stitute the most voluminous portion of his works) were the result of judgment and On the other hand, whilst the time of design; a judgment improved by expe- many of Shakspeare's dramas, whether hisrience, a design suggested by deeper and torical or factitious, covers periods of conmore natural principles of art. What this siderable extent; still the dramatic developsystem was—though first and last practised ment of it is so foreshortened (to borrow a by himself alone-does not appear to us to term from a sister art) by the involution of be quite indiscoverable; but we must not events, and the overlapping of the severed suffer ourselves to be tempted, on this occa- parts of one incident with the adjoining exsion, into a discussion of it, which would, tremities of another intervening one, that perhaps, be premature, but which certainly the result is a reduction of the real time to would deserve more time and space than we an apparent time, not greatly nor essentially can here afford it. Suffice it to observe that, differing from the limitation of the legal as it was not the regular system of the unity, and the production of a continuity of Greek and Roman dramatists, neither did it action more in accordance with nature and resemble the irregular and unsystematic reason than the arbitrary limit imposed upon school of dramatic composition which was the drama by the Greeks. in possession of the stage when his star began to ascend “the highest heaven of invention.” The difference will be palpable rigidly fixed at four-and-twenty years ; that of
* The action of Marlow's “Doctor Faustus" is to any one who, with a view to their struc- Lylie's “ Endymion,” at forty. All their historical ture, will examine the plays of Greene, Mar-plays run out their full time.
WHIG PRINCIPLE AND ITS DEVELOPMENT.
"Above all things," said the honest John- equally barren and unsubstantial. They are son, “clear your mind from cant.” We re- skilful in arousing the prejudices of an honcommend this advice to the attention of the est and confiding people; they can excite opposition party; for never has a body of the farmer against the manufacturer, the sensible men been more miserably deceived workman against the employer; they can than they, by the unceasing cant of their paint in alluring colors the desirableness and leaders. They have been led to believe and the weakness of a foreign territory which to call themselves “Democrats," while their they wish to invade; they can shake the policy has always been directly opposed to Union itself, by the exhibition of a Buffalo the true interests of the masses. They have or a South Carolina platform; but they can been persuaded that low tariffs, war, Mexi- never hide the fact that all these measures can invasions, the destruction of credit, and proceed, not from any one fixed principle, the neglect of internal improvements were but from an utter want of it. to advance, in a remarkable degree, the pros- If there be any thing in the nature of a perity of the nation. They have been hur- principle which governs the opposition in its ried into dangerous action upon the subject impulsive and inconsistent movements, it of slavery, by the sectional cant of their must resemble the doctrine of Rousseau, that Rhetts and Van Burens, their Rantouls and all men are happiest in a state of nature; their Bentons. In all parts of the Union the and they must intend, by the destruction of great mass of the opposition have, in fact, national wealth and progress, to render their been swayed by the personal feelings and country the wilderness which the French prejudices of their leaders, and have been philosopher so greatly admired. We should led to mistake cant for argument, and expe- be glad to know if we are right in our condients for principles.
jectures. For we have sought in vain through But we are confident that the majority of the eloquence of Calhoun, Van Buren, or the American people can no longer be de- Benton, for any principle which could exluded by unmeaning pretense. They have plain their conduct as members of their pediscovered already what are the real interests culiar party. Their actions, measures, and of the nation. They see that agriculture, inculcations have been as opposite as were manufactures, and trade, are the true sources their characters, and they have agreed but of national progress, and that no policy which in the single point of having each aimed a is hostile to these can be advantageous to fatal blow at some vital interest of their themselves or to their country. We think common country. we have observed already an inclination The Whig party, on the other hand, has among the opposite party to revolt at the ever been guided by the principle of popular lengths to which their leaders are carrying elevation. It seeks to create an equality of them, and a wish to review more closely the property, intelligence, and character among great questions of policy which are now the people, not by destroying national prostirring the intellect of the nation.
gress, but by hastening and establishing it. We shall endeavor in the following pages This end it endeavors to accomplish by a to consider certain first principles which lie series of measures which are adapted to at the base of just legislation, and which, if the wants and peculiarities of the country, rightly attended to, will serve to clear even and which it has steadily advocated from the the feeblest mind of all tendency to cant. formation of the government and the days These principles are carefully avoided by our of Washington, who was the first Whig, and opponents. You will look in vain for any whose example and teachings have had a thing that even resembles a principle in the large influence upon the policy of his party. whole course of opposition legislation, and The elevation of the people, we repeat, is you will find opposition eloquence to be the growing principle of the Whigs; and we now propose to examine with what faith- But, although thus successful in individual fulness they have developed this principle in States, the Whigs have never been able to their leading measures.
enforce their policy by the aid of the general We should, perhaps, first remark that the government. Opposition outcry has effectWhig party claims neither to be the Con- ually stopped the good work there. Our servative nor the Progressive party, because great Western rivers are left unimproved, to it is founded upon a principle deeper than the serious injury of the Western farmer; that of either conservatism or reform. It the harbors of the two oceans are neglected, looks upon the cry of the Conservative or and commerce greatly impeded; the great the Reformer as equally unmeaning, so far lakes are covered with wrecks that might as it does not fall in with the real wants of have been avoided by a small expense for the people. It adopts no new opinion, merely proper retreats from the autumnal storms; because it is new, nor an old one, because it and thus are both agriculture and commerce is old. It has sometimes been Conservative, greatly injured by a party which, under the and sometimes the party of Reform; but it name of Democracy, is directly hostile to the has never for a moment sacrificed its policy two main supports of the people. at the mere cry of Conservatism or Reform. Next to the improvement of the natural Its measures have ever been steadily directed resources of the country, the Whigs advoto the development of the principle upon cate protection for native industry as a powwhich it is founded.
erful instrument for elevating the physical The first of these measures which we shall and moral condition of the masses. The consider, is the improvement of the natural necessity for this protection is apparent in resources of the country by the action of the history of our manufactures. In the government. The Whig party has always early existence of our country, we were conadvocated a River and Harbor Bill, besides tent to depend upon foreign nations for aloriginating nearly all the judicious internal most all our manufactured articles, and the improvements of the individual States. From first impulse to home industry was given by the organization of the government, it has the last war with England. The close of pursued this policy with unchanging pru- that war was followed by a vast importation, dence and zeal. It found the nation placed a sudden failure of native industry, and a by Providence in a magnificent territory, period of general bankruptcy spreading over penetrated by rivers, enclosing mighty lakes, the whole country. A protective tariff was, bounded by a long line of sea-coast
, and pos- in consequence, adopted to remedy these sessing a soil capable of sustaining an unli- evils, and the home manufacturer has, since mited population. It saw that these gifts of that period, felt to some extent the fostering nature-of infinite value if properly used care of government. would prove in a great degree useless, unless But it should be remembered that the hosskilfully aided and developed. It saw that tility of the opposition to protective measures these vast rivers must be cleared and made has always been bitter and open. They navigable, that these broad lakes must be con- have, from the first, declared themselves unnected with the coasts by railroads and ca- willing to lend any aid to the growth of this nals, that the mountain chains must be pierced great national interest; and it is only the and the harbors of the sea-coast be improved, unceasing exertions of Whig statesmen that before all the advantages which they offered have given us any manufactures at all. .The could be felt by the whole people. It urged opposition notion, that manufactures will therefore, upon the general government, as grow of their own accord, in the face of forwell as upon each State, that it was their duty eign competition, has been contradicted by to aid nature in her evident purpose of nurtur- all experience, since they have never been ing a great nation. In each State where the able by all their hostility to leave this intoW big party has usually prevailed, this policy rest unprotected, and since it has ever dehas been carried out; canals and railroads clined with the fall of the tariff. have multiplied; the means of internal com- The doctrine of the opposition upon munication have been proportioned to the subject is so peculiar, that we pause for a wants of the community, and the wealth moment to notice it. They assert that all and prosperity of the State has rapidly ad- native industry which has been nurtured yanced.
into existence by a protective tariff, is in fact
injurious to the progress of the nation. (ployed in the manufactories; to the towns They therefore urge that all protection and cities which have grown up under their should be withdrawn. They declare that influence; to the merchants who are susmanufactures should only arise in a country tained by the sale of domestic goods; the as they may chance to grow up spontaneous- ships, railroads, and canals which they have ly, and that the United States will not be brought into existence and freighted, and to fitted to sustain them until, by the increase the vast amount of produce for which the of the population, labor shall be rendered as farmer has found a market in the manucheap here as in Europe. They recommend, facturing towns; and they ask if all these therefore, that we abandon the idea of man- facts do not prove that protection has had ufacturing for ourselves, devote our whole a very great share in raising our country to attention to agriculture, purchase our cloth- its present wealth and power. This quesing and hardware abroad, and pay for them tion the opposition has never seen fit to with the produce of our farms.
answer, because it has but one answer. We This patriotic doctrine of the opposition believe that protection, feeble as it has been is very naturally sustained by the free-tra- hitherto, is one chief element in the proders of England, among whom its leading gress of our country; that but for this, we champion, Mr. Walker, has been lately re- should have remained but little better than ceived with proper consideration. Free-trade a colony of England, and should have reis certainly an admirable policy for England. sembled Canada or Australia, in our comEngland is incapable of providing food for plete dependence upon our oppressing paher crowded population, but by her skill in rent. But for protection, we should have manufacturing and the low rate of wages, she been a nation without self-reliance and is enabled to undersell the world. Her in- without enterprise. Our canals and railterest, therefore, is to force her goods upon roads would have been unbuilt, our cities of other nations, to the destruction of their home not half their present size, our agriculture manufactures, while she hopes, by driving by no means so flourishing as now. great masses of their population into agri- believe this, because the influence of home culture, to obtain subsistence for her work- industry is written upon the face of our men at a rate so low as to enable them to country in letters of light. And we are live upon wages
almost nominal. She would certain that, but for opposition interference rejoice especially to produce this effect upon in this matter, we should have reached, our own country, and to obtain an entire under a higher and uniform tariff
, a far abandonment of the doctrine of protection greater and far better established state of by the government, since the growth of our prosperity than we have yet attained. The population seems to assure her of an un- opposition have done incalculable injury to bounded demand for her goods, could she the past of our country by their unhappy destroy our native manufactures.
course in this matter, and have deserved Aided by the ready arguments of the rather the name of a Destructive than a foreign free-traders, the opposition have Democratic party. never ceased to denounce home industry and But, not content with the evil they have national protection. Had they the power, already occasioned, they are at this moment and did they dare to carry out their destruc- as eager as ever to seduce the people into tive policy, they would instantly withdraw listening to their destructive doctrines, and all protective duties, and leave the American would have them overthrow altogether the manufacturer at the mercy of his foreign small remains of protection which keep up competitor. This is the long-cherished pur- a languid vigor in our manufacturing compose of that party, and one that, far from munities. These communities are the parconcealing, they make their open boast and ticular objects of hatred to our opponents. pride.
They make open war upon the manufacThe Whigs have always looked upon the turing companies, the towns they have built, free-trade notions as dangerous and un- the laborers they employ, the farmers whose principled. They see that much of the past produce they consume, and all the interadvance of the country has been obtained ests and persons connected with them : a by the protection of native industry. They war which they prosecute as eagerly as point to the thousands who have been em- I would the most violent British free-trader, and which has the same object with both, of the flourishing manufacturing towns or the destruction of the American manu- villages which have sprung up from Maine facturer.
to Texas, and see what is hourly and daily In order to discover the true effect of doing for the farmer. In Massachusetts their policy upon the country, let us sup- you will find that the whole prosperity of pose that Birmingham had triumphed over the State has been fostered into existence by Pittsburg, and the opposition over the ad- this policy. You will find cities and villages ministration. Let us imagine the present rising almost instantaneously under the imperfect protection taken away, and ob- skill and enterprise of manufacturing comserve the necessary result. We cannot mis- munities. You will see thousands of welltake this result, because it is already in part informed, well-dressed, moral people, purproduced by the low rate of the existing suing a regular course of prosperous intariff.
dustry, who, under the system of the freeTake iron as an example. Suppose all trader, would have been wandering over the protection removed from manufactured iron, country, or crowding into the cities in search and where stands Pennsylvania? The first of precarious employment. These manuresult is plain : American iron would be facturing communities consume at present instantly undersold, and capital must be about six hundred thousand bales of cotton, withdrawn or sunk in the furnaces. In six besides wool, leather, and various other mamonths, not a furnace would be left in ope- terials. They require also large quantities ration in the State.
of flour, beef, pork, and other provisions, all But it is to the later consequences that of which are the productions of the neighwe would direct attention. The closing of borhood, or are obtained from the Western the furnaces must drive capital away from States; and thus is it that every manufacthe iron-mines, and thus at the outset two turing town becomes a direct benefit to the interests are destroyed. The miner as well farmer, by keeping up the price of his as the laborer at the furnace is deprived of grain. his employment, and thousands of able- We ask the attention of the farmer to bodied men left helpless and without hope, this point, because it has always been a who are now sustained in this way, with part of the opposition policy to arouse the their wives and children, by the present jealousy of the agriculturist against the tariff. But the laborer who is out of em- manufacturer, and to sacrifice the feebler ployment ceases at once to become a pur- class to the larger and more influential. chaser of the corn or wheat of the farmer, But the farmer must soon become convinced and is perhaps driven himself to seek a sup- by the progress of events, that the manuport from agriculture. The effect of these facturer is his best friend. In England he circumstances upon the farmer must be may be undersold by the serf-labor of Russia equally unpropitious. He loses a purchaser or Poland, but in his own manufacturing and obtains a rival by the failure of the villages he is sure of a constant market, and furnace. The price of his crop is materially of a reasonable price. And this home marlowered, and his position depressed. He ket is one that, even under the present tariff, has less to spend upon his family, and they is constantly growing, but which, with proper must soon feel the consequences of the protection, would soon reach an extent change in the loss of educational advan- capable of consuming all the grain that we tages, and many of the usual comforts of could produce. A proper increase of prolife. We trust it will be remembered by tective duties would cause a rapid growth every farmer that protection to home in- of manufactures, not only in their old haunts dustry means especially the protection of upon the seaboard, but in all the interior his industry, and the insuring of a ready states. And this is just what the farmers of sale for his crops.
the interior want. It is idle to tell the farmers We would desire any farmer who has of Indiana or Illinois that there is a market not yet adopted the Whig doctrine upon for their Indian corn or their wheat in this subject, to observe the practical influ- Great Britain, while the distance and expense ence of even the present inefficient tariff
, of transportation, even without serf-compeand notice how completely its results refute tition, shut them out from the hope of ever the theories of the free-traders. Enter one reaching the market. It is mockery to talk