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on persons or property, with a political view, for the good government and benefit of the community.

ART. 14. That sanguinary laws ought to be avoided as far as is consistent with the safety of the State; and no law to inflict cruel and unusual pains and penalties ought to be made in any case, or at any time hereafter.

ART. 15. That retrospective laws, punishing acts committed before the existence of such laws, and by them only declared criminal, are oppressive, unjust and incompatible with liberty; wherefore, no ex post facto law ought to be made.

ART. 16. That no law to attaint particular persons of treason or felony, ought to be made in any case, or at any time hereafter.

ART. 17. That every free man, for any injury done to him in his person or property, ought to have remedy by the course of the law of the land, and ought to have justice and right, freely without sale, fully without any denial, and speedily without delay, according to the law of the land.

ART. 18. That the trial of facts where they arise, is one of the greatest securities of the lives, liberties, and estate of the people.

ART. 19. That in all criminal prosecutions, every man hath a right to be informed of the accusation against him; to have a copy of the indictment or charge, in due time (if required) to prepare for his defence; to be allowed counsel; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have process for his witnesses; to examine the witnesses for and against him on oath; and to a speedy trial by an impartial jury, without whose unanimous consent he ought not to be found guilty.


ART. 20. That no man ought to be compelled to give evidence against himself in a court of common law, or in any other court, but in such cases as have been usually practised in this State, or may hereafter be directed by the Legislature.

ART. 21. That no free man ought to be taken or imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any manner destroyed, or deprived of his life, liberty or property, but by the judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land; provided, that nothing in this article shall be so construed as to prevent the Legislature from passing all such laws for the government, regulation and disposition of the free colored population of this State as they may deem necessary.

ART. 22. That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishment inflicted by the courts of law.

ART. 23. That all warrants, without oath, or affirmation, to search suspected places, or to seize any person or property, are grievous and oppressive; and all general warrants to search suspected places, or to apprehend suspected persons, without naming or describing the place, or the person in special, are illegal, and ought not to be granted.

ART. 24. That no conviction shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture of estate.

ART. 25. That a well regulated militia is the proper and natural defence of a free government.

ART. 26. That standing armies are dangerous to liberty, and ought not to be raised or kept up without consent of the Legislature.

ART. 27. That in all cases and at all times the military ought to be under strict subordination to, and control of, the civil power.

ART. 28. That no soldier ought to be quartered in any house in time of peace without the consent of the owner, and in time of war in such manner only as the Legislature shall direct.

ART. 29. That no person, except regular soldiers, mariners, and marines, in the service of this State, or militia when in actual service, ought in any case to be subject to, or punishable by, martial law.

ART. 30. That the independency and uprightness of Judges are essential to the impartial administration of justice, and a great security to the rights and liberties of the people; wherefore the Judges shall not be removed, except for misbehaviour, on conviction in a court of law, or by the Governor, upon the address of the General Assembly; provided, that two-thirds of all the members of each House concur in such address. No Judge shall hold any other office, civil or military, or political trust or employment of any kind whatsoever, under the Constitution or Laws of this State, or of the United States, or any of them, or receive fees or perquisites of any kind for the discharge of his official duties.

ART. 31. That a long continuance in the executive departments of power or trust is dangerous to liberty; a rotation, therefore, in those departments is one of the best securities of permanent freedom.

ART. 32. That no person ought to hold at the same time more than one office of profit, created by the Constitution or Laws of this State; nor ought any person in public trust to receive any present

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