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Thus the distances such commodities may be transported for given sums are shown in Fig. 48.

Perhaps this type of chart is employed most effectively to compare period performances with respect to tonnage. Fig. 49 is a chart used for this purpose. The numbers at the top of the sheet are those of the tons handled. At the end of each month a block is inserted showing the amount of work done, and, if desired, dotted lines or bright spaces may be utilized,

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as shown, to indicate the preceding year's performance for the same period.

SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION CHARTS

Supply and distribution charts are useful in making plans for the growth or readjustment of a concern's shipping activities. Sometimes they are used to picture how the traffic resources of a region correspond to production and consumption. Fig. 50 is a chart of

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DISTANCES CEMENT AND OTHER HEAVY COMMODITIES ARE CARRIED

BOSTON & MAINE

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FOR A RATE OF 5 CENTS PER 100 POUNDS

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FIG. 48.-A Multiple Bar Chart

the cotton production of the state of Mississippi. The various counties of the state are blocked in solid or

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are covered with lattice work lines of various kinds, and a key indicates the meaning of the arrangement as applied to production.

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CIRCLE CHARTS

Circle charts are quite frequently used by common carriers in showing the sources of revenue and the distribution of expense. They can be employed with equal advantage in industries to show the same factors. Suggested methods of employment are indicated in Fig. 51.

Diagram A of Fig. 51 indicates the distribution of moneys paid out for transportation among the several agencies employed by an industry.

Diagram B indicates the apportionment of tonnage among representative lines serving an industry. On competitive business it is customary to apportion the traffic impartially among the lines unless the service or the rates of one line attract a preponderance of tonnage.

To determine the apportionment of labor, the circle chart may also be employed, as illustrated in Diagram C. Here the work of the claim division of an industry has been charted, indicating a preponderance of claims for overcharge as contrasted with those for damage or for total loss.

In Diagram D, the expense of operating the department has been charted in a circle graph.

The relationship of expense to recovery of claims is frequently indicated by means of circle graphs, as indicated in Fig. 52. The outer circle represents the amount recovered by a certain traffic department, and the inner circle indicates the expense incurred in maintaining the department.

Fig. 53 indicates the adaptation of the circle graph to railway operation. This form may be employed in industrial traffic work in lieu of the diagrams shown in Fig. 51.

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