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that many concerns are still relying on the efforts of man's best friend (the horse); that which is true with respect to motor transports and those reforms which may be inaugurated in connection with such service are likewise applicable in connection with the horse-drawn service.

CHAPTER XIII

RATE AND TARIFF STUDIES

The Relationship of Tariffs and Rates—The Intricacy of
Traffic Work-Technical Training a Necessity-Tariffs Are
Indispensable—The Use of Maps; The Geographical Plan;
The Distance Plan; The Zone Plan; The Route Plan; Ad-
vantages-Special Services—The Customer's Convenience-
Transfers-Packing Requirements—Classification Survey
-Exception Sheets-General Rules-Supplemental Evi-
dence.

THE RELATIONSHIP OF TARIFFS AND RATES

A study of rates or charges for transportation of necessity involves a study of the tariff, since the tariff is the means by which the rate is made public, and the rates so established become a legal obligation on shipper and carrier alike. That is, it may not be set aside and some other rate applied by either party.

Whether the rate is reasonable or unreasonable, it must be applied indiscriminately to all traffic and to all shippers as it is established between given points.

THE INTRICACY OF TRAFFIC WORK

Very few industrial traffic managers give the proper amount of consideration to the adjustment of freight rates applying to the shipping offering of the firm they serve. This is due perhaps to the fact that in the past a great majority of the so-called “industrial traffic managers" have been recruited from railroad service, and consequently they are inclined to accept as final the rates established by the carrier.

Obviously all ex-railroad men cannot have been employed in the traffic department of the carriers. The great majority of men so recruited have been secured from other divisions, such as the claim department, the accounting department, the operating department, or from the local freight station. Connection with such departments does not afford contact with the many intricate formulas which are employed by carriers in various territories for the establishment of rates. As a consequence, these men are unable to undertake intelligently the management of the traffic department of an industry.

TECHNICAL, TRAINING A NECESSITY

The development of the freight-rate structure in this country has proceeded along definite lines. Formulas have been evolved after years of experiment, and group relationships have been established under which many communities have developed and prospered. Until a short time ago these formulas were jealously guarded by the carriers. Only recently the efforts of the LaSalle Extension University have made it possible to put before the shipping public and quasiindustrial traffic managers, representative adjustments thruout the country in consolidated form. The students of this school are therefore intimately acquainted with the controlling features predominating in the various intraregional and interregional rate structures, and in this work they excell, in many cases, the railroad trained traffic manager who has not had the benefit of traffic department training.

TARIFFS ARE INDISPENSABLE

When an industry undertakes traffic work even on a small scale, it must of necessity have at its command a tariff file covering .in whole or in part the sources from which it draws its supplies, and the points thruout the country to which it distributes its products.

THE USE OF MAPS

The use of maps is essential in analyzing the contents of a freight-rate schedule.

For this purpose, outline maps indicating the North American Continent, the United States, or representative states or sections, can be procured from stationery houses or cartographers.

The outline map can be used to best advantage because it will be necessary to indicate only those points to which or from which the industry ships. The approximate geographical location of such points can be determined from an atlas or from a railroad map. One should be somewhat chary as to the use of railroad maps for geographical locations, however, in that many of these maps are purposely distorted to show to advantage the particular section of the country which a given road might traverse. An authentic atlas is, therefore, to be recommended in preference to a railroad map.

Practically all the public utility commissions of the various states issue maps of steam lines, electric traction systems, and the like, and usually residents of a given state can secure a copy without charge.

Fig. 40 illustrates various uses or plans to which these maps may be adjusted. For convenience, they will be styled the geographical, the distance, the zone, and the route plan.

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FIG. 40.—Map Plans and Outlines

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