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portation bills by the proper shipping of goods. In this way, he will increase sales and contribute generally to the success of the concern.

Intelligent traffic work necessitates some knowledge of the transportation laws of this country. Shippers and carriers incur obligations that may not be disregarded under penalty of heavy fine. Ignorance of the law excuses no one, and not infrequently reputable concerns have found that they were guilty of fraud in obtaining transportation for less than the legally established charges. As a consequence, they suffered penalties which made a considerable inroad in their profits.

CHAPTER II

ORGANIZATION

Industrial Organization-Definition-Factors Determining
Type-Organization Precedes Management-Efficiency Ap-
plied to Traffic Management-Principles of Efficiency,
Ideals—Common Sense-Counsel-Discipline-The Fair
Deal-Records, Dispatching, and Schedules Standard-
Practice Instructions—Efficiency Rewards—Types of Or-
ganization--Military-Functional-Line and Staff-Charts.

The traffic department must find a place in every efficiently administered industrial organization that has any amount of shipping, either inbound or outbound.

The term “industrial organization” as here used applies in a broad sense to all concerns engaged in barter and trade. The commission merchants handling shipments on consignment and disposing of them for the consignor's account on a commission basis would be so construed. Wholesalers or jobbers acting as an intermediary between the manufacturer and the retail dealer would come in the same category. It would include also those concerns whose industrial function is the conversion of raw or unfinished products into finished articles or commodities.

The question of organization logically precedes the question of management. The rookies, or raw recruits, must be mustered before they can be drilled and trained to be fighting men.

The character or type of the department that is best adapted to the individual requirements of a given industry naturally rests to a large extent on the number of shipments, the volume of tonnage, and the character of goods.

A wholesale tailor, for instance, whose shipping for the most part consists of dry goods of light weight in and finished clothing of still lighter weight out has a somewhat elementary traffic problem. In an industry where the activities are many and varied and the items of transporation considerable, the problem is acute and requires the best efforts of a corps of practical and technically trained men to effect the best results.

The failure of many men to make good as traffic managers, or the inadequacy of the department itself, is due in a large measure to a lack of knowledge of the fundamental principles of organization.

EFFICIENCY

“Efficiency” is, to state it mildly, a somewhat regularly employed word. To many men it is a visionary's “catch-a-penny” or “clap-trap," without real signifi

" cance in the business world. This hazy conception of the term is reflected in the number of business failures in which the inefficient human element has played “the stellar rôle."

As applied to traffic work, "efficiency' has been quite tritely defined as the greatest result by the employee or employees engaged. By “result" is meant benefit to the concern. It implies the least effort, the elimination of lost motion, the avoidance of unnecessary detail and routine.

A certain office efficiency expert states that a wellconstructed office operates thru certain principles of efficiency which may or may not be conscientiously applied, and that if success be lacking, an analysis will show the cause to be the failure to apply at least one or more of these factors.

Mr. Harrington Emerson, a recognized efficiency expert, has set forth a dozen efficiency principles which may well be considered in the organization and administration of a traffic department. They are as follows:

Clearly defined ideals.
Common sense.
Competent counsel.
Discipline.
A fair deal.
Immediate and adequate records.
Dispatching
Standards and schedules.
Standardized conditions.
Standardized operations.
Written standard-practice instructions.
Efficiency reward.

Ideals

The first principle, that of clearly defined ideals, contemplates a definite goal. Without this, we have the sorry spectacle of the “we're here because we're here" or the “in out of the rain” traffic department or traffic manager.

The success of modern merchandising or manufacturing is contingent almost exclusively on a satisfied patronage.

“The customer is right” policy of some of our leading commercial and mercantile organizations is responsible for the development of a clientele that may be relied upon to stick thru thick and thin.

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"To give the greatest dollar's worth per dollar" is an irresistible magnet as far as a great number of our citizens are concerned.

Loyalty is indispensable in any organization. Before a corps of employees can be loyal, however, it is necessary that they be definitely informed as to the ideals, the aims, and the purpose of the organization. Then they may adjust themselves accordingly and vigorously carry out the program.

As a model code of principles, the following contains numerous clearly defined ideals that may be well employed in all traffic departments :

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TO BE THE BEST TRAFFIC DEPARTMENT IN THE WORLD.
TO INSIST UPON AND DEMAND OUR RIGHTS AND RESPECT

THOSE OF OPPOSING FACTIONS.
TO BE BROAD AND LI BERAL AS WELL AS AGGRESSIVE IN

OUR POLICY AND METHOD.
TO BE LOYAL TO THE COMPANY, TO OURSELVES, AND TO

EACH OTHER.

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SHOULD BE MAINTAINED AS EFFICIENTLY AS POSSIBLE.
TO PAY NO MORE OR NO LESS THAN THE LAWFUL CHARGE

FOR OUR TRANSPORTATION,
TO AVOID WASTE, TO IMPROVE PRACTICE, AND TO INCREASE

RESULTS.

Common Sense

This, as a learned professor was wont to say, is perhaps the most uncommon thing in the world. We become so imbued with theories and false notions and are so inclined to pursue a will o' the wisp that quite

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