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To accomplish this delivery four trips were actually made, as indicated by the light lines:

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The traffic department prepared a graph similar to that used in Fig. 39, showing that these deliveries could have been made in a single trip as indicated by the heavy black line. The distance would have been reduced almost one half, the time about two thirds. . The saving in fuel, depreciation, and other items is evident.

ELASTIC SYSTEM

If a city is blocked off into zones according to the map plan, attention should be paid to zone border points. Sometimes a truck assigned to one zone can make a delivery in an adjoining zone with little or no inconvenience. For example, if the dividing line ran between E and F in Fig. 39, it would probably be best to route both points inside the same zone.

For distant stops it is highly profitable to utilize suburban express agencies rather than to dispatch one of the industrial trucks on a long journey with a light load and no prospect of picking up tonnage on the return trip.

RECEIPTS FOR DAMAGED PACKAGES

Truck drivers should be given a general insight into the laws pertaining to the receipt or delivery of goods from or to common carriers, so they may protect the interests of their employer. The law holds that an employee is the agent of his principal, and that his act binds his principal as completely as if it were performed by the principal himself. Conse quently, the assent of the truckman to a provision incorporated in a bill of lading, or to some indorsement on the bill of lading or delivery ticket, is valid and binding on the employer.

The truckman should be cautioned against giving clear receipts for property if the container is crushed or broken; if the contents rattle as if damaged; or if the external appearance indicates leakage. In such cases he should insist on having the package opened while it is still in the railroad company's possession, in order that the extent of the damage may be definitely recorded. The adjustment of the ensuing claim will thus be greatly facilitated.

If the damage is considerable, he should telephone the traffic department for instructions as to the course to pursue. In case the damage has rendered the shipment practically worthless, the consignee is not obliged to receive the property, and he may recover from the carrier its full value.

For open trucks tarpaulins should be provided, so that in wet weather the load can be kept dry. It is customary for railroad companies to indorse receipts "received in the rain," "boxes wet,” etc. In case of a claim of damage by moisture, a receipt of this kind accepted by the industry or its representative, raises the presumption that the goods were damaged before they came into the carrier's possession, and as a consequence the carrier is not legally liable for such losses.

LONG-DISTANCE SERVICE

The commercial motor vehicle has enjoyed a wonderful development in the past few years. Many concerns have installed motor truck service to far distant points. As roads become better under the continued advocacy of good road development associations, the commercial motor truck will be far more widely used to collect and distribute shipments for industrial and commercial concerns. A noteworthy achievement in this direction is the motor service maintained by a large tire manufacturer at Akron, Ohio. Finished tires are carried to distributing points in New England, and cotton fabric used in tire construction is brought back from New England textile mills by the truck on the return journey. Many of the leading motor truck concerns have prepared valuable books on the advantages of motor truck service, on mainte nance cost, and on the efficient results which may be secured by industries thru the utilization of this type of service.

While the foregoing has laid particular stress on motor transport service, the fact must not be overlooked

that many concerns are still relying on the efforts of man's best friend (the horse); that which is true with respect to motor transports and those reforms which may be inaugurated in connection with such service are likewise applicable in connection with the horse-drawn service.

CHAPTER XIII

RATE AND TARIFF STUDIES

The Relationship of Tariffs and Rates—The Intricacy of
Trafic Work— Technical Training a Necessity—Tariffs Are
Indispensable—The Use of Maps; The Geographical Plan;
The Distance Plan; The Zone Plan; The Route Plan; Ad-
vantages—Special Services—The Customer's Convenience-
Transfers—Packing Requirements Classification Survey
-Exception Sheets-General Rules-Supplemental Evi-
dence.

THE RELATIONSHIP OF TARIFFS AND RATES

A study of rates or charges for transportation of necessity involves a study of the tariff, since the tariff is the means by which the rate is made public, and the rates so established become a legal obligation on shipper and carrier alike. That is, it may not be set aside and some other rate applied by either party.

Whether the rate is reasonable or unreasonable, it must be applied indiscriminately to all traffic and to all shippers as it is established between given points.

THE INTRICACY OF TRAFFIC WORK

Very few industrial traffic managers give the proper amount of consideration to the adjustment of freight rates applying to the shipping offering of the firm they serve. This is due perhaps to the fact that in the past a great majority of the so-called “industrial traffic managers" have been recruited from railroad

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