« AnteriorContinuar »
2. The carriers compel consignee's representatives to go
into their respective terminals and to search for, find, and remove merchandise from under and over piles of
freight marked for other consignees. 3. The carriers do not furnish reasonable facilities and
suitable and convenient appliances at their respective terminals to enable the shipping public to remove their
goods. 4. The carriers frequently pile boxes, bales, and bundles
without attention as to whether marks are visible or
turned down. 5. The carriers frequently dump merchandise indiscrimi
nately, intermingling in one pile the merchandise of various consignees, piling, together inflammable articles and fragile materials with heavy iron pipe and castings, leaving the whole to lie in heterogeneous masses until the consignees' representatives themselves separate the
same in their search for goods. 6. The carriers do not maintain sufficient aisles of proper
access to merchandise. 7. The carriers do not employ a sufficient number of clerks,
weighers, and checkers, to take care of incoming and outgoing freight adequately and to move the same with
proper celerity. 8. The carriers permit the trucks of favored team owners
to drive onto piers, pass waiting lines of other teams, and there to receive and discharge freight in advance of
others. 9. Certain of the carriers discriminate between truckmen,
to some of whom they give actual tailboard delivery,
while they either wholly or partly deny it to others. 10. The delays at the terminals arising from present termi
nal conditions for both inbound and outbound are long, serious, and expensive alike for consignors, consignees, carriers, and truckmen.
T'he foregoing sums up the problems that are encountered in questions of local transport; while many are beyond the control of the industry, the troubles can be minimized, if not entirely eliminated, by placing the superintendent of the service under the control of the traffic manager.
ANALYZING AND CHARTING FACILITIES
The transportation resources of the district should be analyzed to determine (1) available steam routes; (2) electric traction systems; (3) navigable waterways; (4) suburban express wagons or motor truck service; and (5) good highways for motor truck use.
Charts may be prepared similar to the one indicated in Fig. 37, on which are indicated the more important towns and villages within a given radius of the local shipping point. This chart indicates the city of Chicago proper and the so-called “inner and outer Chicago switching district.” By this means certain local transportation conditions are most effectively visualized.
In the larger cities and towns, the regular interstate express companies maintain a pick-up and delivery service. In this case, the goods need not be delivered to the express companies' forwarding stations, but should be held in the shipping room awaiting the call of the express companies' wagons or trucks. For small shipments the cost of sending by freight is often greater than that by express. Tho the freight charge may be less than the express charge, the cost of the industry of making the delivery to the freight terminal is frequently greater than the saving, especially on account of the costly waste of time at the freight house. In the case previously mentioned a competent witness testified that the delay of an hour as applied
THORNTON JC. ก็ FINLEY PAAN
• GRIFFITH NEWLENNOX SPENCER
CHICAGO DYER BANE
• STcoen MATTAIN
CHICAGO SWITCHING DISTRICT INNEA ZONA
FIG. 37.-A Local Transportation Layout
to a wagon or truck meant an out-of-pocket expense to him of $1.50, based on a maintenance cost of $1.00 per hour and an earning capacity of 50 cents per hour. Another point worthy of consideration in this connection is that the express service is more expeditious and is surrounded with greater safeguards than the freight service; as a consequence, only a very substantial difference in favor of the freight charge should warrant sending by freight rather than by express.
This work should be assigned to the routing clerk of the traffic department, who by experience soon becomes able to determine readily which methodfreight or express-is more economical.
CHARTING THE CITY
Even more valuable than the general district chart described above is a large scale chart of a few square miles adjacent to the factory or industry, embracing the manufacturing and shipping district of the region. On this are marked the freight receiving and distributing stations, the express stations, factories, and ware houses whence supplies are drawn, and important local customers. A clear picture of this kind makes it easy to route and dispatch trucks intelligently and economically.
A successful plan for delivering and picking up loads involves the use of a large map of the city-mounted on a felt or cork backing into which tacks, with heads of different colors, can be easily and firmly pressed. The map is divided into zones, each of which may be served by one truck. The stops or deliveries to be made are indicated for Truck 1 by red tacks, for Truck 2 by blue tacks, for Truck 3 by green tacks, etc. Conditions will have to be thoroly studied before the boundaries of the zones can be definitely determined. Obviously, a highly developed manufacturing district will require a greater amount of service than residential districts, or those where the manufacturing and shipping centers are scattered.
Likewise, as concerns stops to be made at points adjacent to border lines, if a particular stop can be reached better from the blue route than from the red route, the red tack is pulled out and a blue tack substituted.
ROUTING AND SAVING
The shipping clerk ought to write out each trip of each truck in advance, and the driver should follow the written instructions. Definitely routing the trucks in this manner enables the shipping room to reach the driver at one of his stops with additional instructions if occasion should arise after the truck has left the plant. The shipping room should preserve duplicate copies, and should summarize the work performed by each truck. The form in Fig. 38 shows the essentials of a weekly summary.
It is a source of material economy to secure the coöperation of drivers by paying bonuses for an excellent record of trips made, fuel saved, mileage per gallon of gasoline, clear receipts, and tonnage hauled. What may be accomplished in the conservation of equipment and the contingent expense as concerns local transport service is evidenced by the instance cited in connection with Fig. 39.
The day's inbound and outbound tonnage of the industry (A) was distributed as follows: