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with fractional loads; several trucks ought not to be covering the same routes with mixed loads; and finally, no truck should lose valuable time unnecessarily awaiting the receipt or delivery of its lading at either the plant or the receiving station.

TERMINAL DELAYS

In a study of terminal delays made by Mr. David Bancroft, editor of The Motor Age, the statement is made that losses of time at terminals are due to four causes: 1. Loss of time because of congestion in the street leading

to the depot and from it. This congestion is sometimes due to the lack of adequate police control, at other times because of the narrow streets and again is caused vol.

untarily by the drivers. 2. Delay due to trucks waiting in line to reach the loading

or unloading platforms at the freight depots, caused generally by long waits for bills of lading, insufficient loading platforms, or not enough doors in the freight houses.

(See frontispiece.) 3. Loss of time in unloading because one man often has

to unload a five-ton truck; because not enough hand trucks are in the freight depots; because there is a deplorable lack of system with the freight sheds; because there is a lack of clerical force at the freight house to handle the numerous shipping documents and

bills of lading. 4. The driver, the human factor in the case, is often the

"Czar" of the situation, and generally he is the greatest

waster of time in the entire freight system of a city. In the case of the New York Team Owners Association et al. v. the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad Company et al., the subject of terminal deliveries and delays was thoroly examined before the Interstate Commerce Commission.

The complainant in this issue pointed out that for the most part, transportation experts have confined their activities to speeding up the line haulage or road performance, that “they have left the freight terminal with its gross imperfections severely alone.” “The terminal is a dumping place. To reform a dumping place is not an heroic thing to do, however necessary it may be. There is no poetry in speeding up the movement of a humble package from the corner of a pier or of a freight house to the teamster's wagon. There may be no acclaim in store for him who discovers a method of so doing; but unless some means of speeding up the movement of freight thru the terminals is found,

the rapidity of line haul is wasted effort."

The amount of expensive time wasted by trucks at freight terminals is clearly shown by the record of one truckman at Pier 27, North River, New York, shown in Fig. 36.

The solution proposed by the complainant was that the carriers should make inbound goods conveniently and readily accessible to the teamsters in one of two ways: (1) by promptly permitting them to back up their wagons and to bring the tailboard to the place where the goods ought to be; or (2) by bringing the goods to the tailboards of the wagons.

Some of the delinquencies attributed to the prevailing practice in this proceeding were:

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1. The carriers do not separate, segregate, or make con

veniently accessible to all consignees, merchandise unshipped at their terminals.

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RECORDS OF ADAMS BAIST COMPILED FROM EXHIBIT NO. 41,

SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF TIME AT PIER 27.

FROM MARCH 31, 1914, TO APRIL 4, 1914. TUESDAY, MARCH 31, 1914.

Arrived at Penna. R. R. Co. Sta. 27 N. R.......... 1:20 P. M. Applied at notice clerk's office for arrival notices. 2:03 P.M. Paid charges at cashier's office.......

2:14 P. M. Started locating freight and loading same.

2:20 P. M. Left dock

3:35 P. M. How many packages—28.

Total time, 2 hours 15 minutes. WEDNESDAY, APRIL 1, 1914.

Arrived at Penna. R. R. Co. Sta., Pier No. 27 N. R.... 2:20 P. M. Applied at notice clerk's office for arrival notices.. 2:45 P. M. Paid charges at cashier's office........

3:10 P. M. Started locating freight and loading same.

3:15 P. M. Left dock ...

4:10 P. M. How many packages—18.

Total time, 1 hour 50 minutes. THURSDAY, APRIL 2, 1914.

Arrived at Penna. R. R. Sta., Pler 27 N. R........ .11:10 A, M. Applied at notice clerk's office for arrival notices. .11:33 A. M. id charges at cashier's office......

.11:42 A M. Started locating freight and loading same.

.11:55 A. M. Left dock ....

1:05 P. M. How many packages-16.

Total tine, 1 hour 55 minutes. FRIDAY, APRIL 3, 1914.

Arrived at Penna. R. R. Sta., Pier 27 N. R. ...........12:15 P. M. Applied at notice clerk's office for arrival notices.

.....12:25 P. M. Paid charges at cashier's office......

...12:35 P.M. Started locating freight and loading same.

.12:50.P. M. Left dock ....

3:05 P.M. How many packages-20.

General time, 2 hours 50 minutes.
SATURDAY, APRIL 4, 1914.
Arrived at Penna Sta., Pier 27 N. R......

.12:05 P.M. Applied at notice clerk's office for arrival notices.. .12:15 P. M. Paid charges at cashier's office......

.12:30 P. M. Started locating freight and loading same.

.12:35 P. M. Left dock

1:55 P. M. How many packages-11. Total time, 1 hour 40 minutes.

FIG. 36.-A Summary of Truck Performance

2. The carriers compel consignee's representatives to go

into their respective terminals and to search for, find, and remove merchandise from under and over piles of

freight marked for other consignees. 3. The carriers do not furnish reasonable facilities and

suitable and convenient appliances at their respective terminals to enable the shipping public to remove their

goods. 4. The carriers frequently pile boxes, bales, and bundles

without attention as to whether marks are visible or

turned down. 5. The carriers frequently dump merchandise indiscrimi

nately, intermingling in one pile the merchandise of various consignees, piling, together inflammable articles and fragile materials with heavy iron pipe and castings, leaving the whole to lie in heterogeneous masses until the consignees' representatives themselves separate the

same in their search for goods. 6. The carriers do not maintain sufficient aisles of proper

access to merchandise. 7. The carriers do not employ a sufficient number of clerks,

weighers, and checkers, to take care of incoming and outgoing freight adequately and to move the same with

proper celerity. 8. The carriers permit the trucks of favored team owners

to drive onto piers, pass waiting lines of other teams, and there to receive and discharge freight in advance of

others. 9. Certain of the carriers discriminate between truckmen,

to some of whom they give actual tailboard delivery,

while they either wholly or partly deny it to others. 10. The delays at the terminals arising from present termi

nal conditions for both inbound and outbound are long, serious, and expensive alike for consignors, consignees, carriers, and truckmen.

T'he foregoing sums up the problems that are encountered in questions of local transport; while many are beyond the control of the industry, the troubles can be minimized, if not entirely eliminated, by placing the superintendent of the service under the control of the traffic manager.

ANALYZING AND CHARTING FACILITIES

The transportation resources of the district should be analyzed to determine (1) available steam routes; (2) electric traction systems; (3) navigable waterways; (4) suburban express wagons or motor truck service; and (5) good highways for motor truck use.

Charts may be prepared similar to the one indicated in Fig. 37, on which are indicated the more important towns and villages within a given radius of the local shipping point. This chart indicates the city of Chicago proper and the so-called “inner and outer Chicago switching district." By this means certain local transportation conditions are most effectively visualized.

In the larger cities and towns, the regular interstate express companies maintain a pick-up and delivery service. In this case, the goods need not be delivered to the express companies' forwarding stations, but should be held in the shipping room awaiting the call of the express companies' wagons or trucks. For small shipments the cost of sending by freight is often greater than that by express. Tho the freight charge may be less than the express charge, the cost of the industry of making the delivery to the freight terminal is frequently greater than the saving, especially on account of the costly waste of time at the freight house. In the case previously mentioned a competent witness testified that the delay of an hour as applied

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