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representatives on the other. The weight so ascertained is used as the basis of transportation charges, thus eliminating the expense of weighing shipments on the industry's premises.

CHAPTER XII

LOCAL TRANSPORT

Assembling Outbound Shipments—Terminal Delays—Ana-
lyzing and Charting Facilities Charting the City-Rout-
ing and Saving—Elastic System-Receipts for Damaged
Packages-Long-Distance Service.

This chapter treats not only of local deliveries and pick-up service maintained to serve local patrons, but also of cartage to and from the different receiving stations of the carriers that are situated in various parts of a large city.

ASSEMBLING OUTBOUND SHIPMENTS

It is important that sufficient space be provided in the shipping room or on the shipping platforms, so that when goods are ready for delivery to the railroads and are about to leave the plant, they may be assembled in full truckloads. A large concern shipping many truckloads a day should sort out and route its packages. Individual full truckloads may thus be sent to each of several receiving stations or a mixed truckload may be sent to several receiving stations near each other. Intelligent planning results in material economy.

A motor truck or a horse-drawn dray represents a substantial investment and a heavy and continuous overhead expense which goes on whether it is in use or not. As a consequence, it should not be kept busy with fractional loads; several trucks ought not to be covering the same routes with mixed loads; and finally, no truck should lose valuable time unnecessarily awaiting the receipt or delivery of its lading at either the plant or the receiving station.

TERMINAL DELAYS

In a study of terminal delays made by Mr. David Bancroft, editor of The Motor Age, the statement is made that losses of time at terminals are due to four causes: 1. Loss of time because of congestion in the street leading

to the depot and from it. This congestion is sometimes due to the lack of adequate police control, at other times because of the narrow streets and again is caused vol

untarily by the drivers. 2. Delay due to trucks waiting in line to reach the loading

or unloading platforms at the freight depots, caused generally by long waits for bills of lading, insufficient loading platforms, or not enough doors in the freight houses.

(See frontispiece.) 3. Loss of time in unloading because one man often has

to unload a five-ton truck; because not enough hand trucks are in the freight depots; because there is a deplorable lack of system with the freight sheds ; because there is a lack of clerical force at the freight house to handle the numerous shipping documents and

bills of lading. 4. The driver, the human factor in the case, is often the

"Czar" of the situation, and generally he is the greatest

waster of time in the entire freight system of a city. In the case of the New York Team Owners Association et al. v. the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad Company et al., the subject of terminal deliv

eries and delays was thoroly examined before the Interstate Commerce Commission.

The complainant in this issue pointed out that for the most part, transportation experts have confined their activities to speeding up the line haulage or road performance, that “they have left the freight terminal with its gross imperfections severely alone." “The terminal is a dumping place. To reform a dumping place is not an heroic thing to do, however necessary it may be. There is no poetry in speeding up the movement of a humble package from the corner of a pier or of a freight house to the teamster's wagon. There may be no acclaim in store for him who discovers a method of so doing; but unless some means of speeding up the movement of freight thru the terminals is found,

the rapidity of line haul is wasted effort."

The amount of expensive time wasted by trucks at freight terminals is clearly shown by the record of one truckman at Pier 27, North River, New York, shown in Fig. 36.

The solution proposed by the complainant was that the carriers should make inbound goods conveniently and readily accessible to the teamsters in one of two ways: (1) by promptly permitting them to back up their wagons and to bring the tailboard to the place where the goods ought to be; or (2) by bringing the goods to the tailboards of the wagons.

Some of the delinquencies attributed to the prevailing practice in this proceeding were:

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1. The carriers do not separate, segregate, or make con

veniently accessible to all consignees, merchandise unshipped at their terminals.

TIME

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RECORDS OF ADAMS BAIST COMPILED FROM EXHIBIT NO. 41,

SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF TIME AT PIER 27.

FROM MARCH 31, 1914, TO APRIL 4, 1914. TUESDAY, MARCH 31, 1914.

Arrived at Penna. R. R. Co. Sta. 27 N. R.......... 1:20 P. M. Applied at notice clerk's office for arrival notices.. 2:03 P. M. Paid charges at cashier's office.....

2:14 P. M. Started locating freight and loading same.

2:20 P. M. Left dock

3:35 P. M. How many packages-28.

Total time, 2 hours 15 minutes. WEDNESDAY, APRIL 1, 1914.

Arrived at Penna. R. R. Co. Sta., Pier No. 27 N. R.... 2:20 P. M. Applied at notice clerk's office for arrival notices... 2:45 P. M. Paid charges at cashier's office.......

3:10 P. M. Started locating freight and loading same.

3:15 P. M. Left dock

4:10 P. M. How many packages—18.

Total time, 1 hour 50 minutes. THURSDAY, APRIL 2, 1914.

Arrived at Penna. R. R. Sta., Pier 27 N. R........ .11:10 A. M. Applied at notice clerk's office for arrival notices...

...11:33 A. M. Paid charges at cashier's office.....

.11:42 A M. Started locating freight and loading same.

.11:55 A. M. Left dock ...

1:05 P. M. How mary packages-16.

Total tine, 1 hour 55 minutes. FRIDAY, APRIL 3, 1914.

Arrived at Penna. R. R. Sta., Pier 27 N. R. ...........12:15 P. M. Applied at notice clerk's office for arrival notices.

.....12:25 P. M. Paid charges at cashier's office.....

.12:35 P.M. Started locating freight and loading same..

....12:50.P. M. Left dock ...

3:05 P. M. How many packages-20.

General time, 2 hours 50 minutes.
SATURDAY, APRIL 4, 1914.
Arrived at Penna Sta., Pler 27 N. R........

.12:05 P. M. Applied at notice clerk's office for arrival notices.. .12:15 P. M. Paid charges at cashier's office......

.12:30 P. M. Started locating freight and loading same..

.12:35 P. M. Left dock .....

1:55 P. M. How many packages—11. Total time, 1 hour 40 minutes.

FIG. 36.-A Summary of Truck Performance

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