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This is a collapsible device designed to avoid many of the defects of the one-trip containers. This device is illustrated in Fig. 32.

MARKING

Cases should preferably be marked with brush or stencil. Tags and labels ought never to be employed. The method of marking foreign shipments, however, may depend on regulations established by various countries. In shipping to Chile, South America, brush addresses are not permitted; stencils only must be employed. Shipments to the Argentine may be marked either by brush or by stencil; the address must be printed on four sides of the package.

The illustration shown in Fig. 33 shows the operation of the shipping room of the National Cash Register Company. In the case of this plant, a machine is shipped to one customer to-day and a similar machine to another one to-morrow and for such a product the company has found the Dart Marking Machine, made by the Dart Marking Machine Company, of Hartford, Conn., almost invaluable. It prints in legible and unmistakable characters the name and address of the party for whom the box is intended and rarely, if ever, is this company confronted with any query as to whom a shipment may be intended for.

Rough iron castings, iron bars, and similar goods, which are shipped without any packing protection, frequently do not present a surface large enough to receive the address, and, as a consequence, tags must be used. The classification regulations of the carriers contain elaborate rules for marking, and usually require that tags, if used, must be of some construction strong enough to withstand the strain they must endure.

The necessity for extreme care in marking is evidenced by the numerous consignments that turn up at various points on the lines of the carriers of this country without any marks or directions which will enable the carriers to determine where the property belongs.

WEIGHING

The question of weight and weighing produces much controversy between shippers and carriers. Upon receipt the railroads weigh property delivered to them in less than-carload lots, except that covered by an authorized weighing association agreement. Because of haste or carelessness, the weight so obtained often differs materially from the actual weight of the consignment.

In weighing carload shipments, the practice of weighing cars coupled in trains, and even in trains in motion, obviously is likely to produce error; and not infrequently an error in the gross weight or the tare weight will produce a serious overcharge on an incorrect net weight.

In weighing less-than-carload shipments, the scaler sometimes neglects to deduct the tare weight for the truck and truckman. Shipments are sometimes billed out on a weight that includes the consignment proper, the truck on which it is loaded, and the truckman who is to take the shipment to the proper car, as shown in Fig. 34. While, fortunately, these cases are relatively few, the possibility makes necessary an efficient system of weighing and of recording the weights of shipments in the shipping room, so that in extreme cases, or in those which involve considerable money, the shipper can protect his interests.

Since the railroad charges vary according to the

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class of article or the classification rating assigned to the component parts of a shipment, it is desirable to weigh the several groups or pieces separately, so that the individual weight of respective portions may be definitely known.

NOTICE.

This shipment is billed at actual scale weight and stenclled on package. If you allow charges to be assessed on a higher weight, it will be your loss.

Clayton & Lambert Mfg. Co.,

Detroit, Mich., U. S. A.

FIG. 35.-A Weighing Notice

Many concerns have adopted the practice of marking the weight on each package, and of affixing a note on the bill of lading to the effect that this has been done. Thus they caution the consignee to pay no charges upon a weight in excess of that figure without first assuring himself that the weight is as claimed. Many overcharge claims by this plan are nipped in the bud. Fig. 35 reproduces such a notice.

WEIGHING AGREEMENT

If an industry produces a line of products that are standardized in shape, size, or number to a package, it is possible to make a so-called “weight agreement” with any one or all of the several weighing and inspection bureaus maintained by the carriers. Representatives of the bureau will weigh a number of packages to determine the average weight that is satisfactory to the industry on the one hand and the carriers'

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