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Agent's Order No.

Shipper's Order No.

Chicago, Illinois.

116 S. Michigan Avenue.
Dear Sir,

Kindly arrange to furish empty cars (not previously
ordered) as designated below, It is hereby agreed that cars
will be loaded, consigned, and routed as indicated.

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for loading, using the most accessible point so that teaming or trucking cost may be reduced to the lowest possible figure. Where the industry is equipped with private siding or spur track, this, of course, is not necessary as the order can be so phrased as to provide for the placement of the car or cars on that track. This form can be filled out in duplicate and a copy retained by the car order clerk, so that it may be followed up with the carrier, and no unnecessary delay involved in securing such equipment.

It is customary for the railroad company to notify the shipper when the cars are placed in suitable or designated locations for loading. A condition attaching to such a notice is that if the cars are not promptly loaded, a charge (demurrage) will be assessed against the car for its undue detention.

For the accommodation of the duplicate orders, a small desk card index file is recommended. The duplicates of the cards are filed as soon as the request is made, and are removed as soon as notification of placement is received.

CAR RECORD BOOK

Another adjunct that will be found of considerable assistance is a car record book. A substantial, tho not necessarily expensive, journal or ledger book may be used for this purpose, provided it has a sufficient number of pages to run a sequence of numbers starting with 1 and ending with 100.

The page numbers correspond with the last two numbers of the car number and are the key to this record. For example, Illinois Central Car 148075 would be entered upon page 75 as I.C.-1480; C. B. & Q. car 24701 would be entered on page 1 as C.B.&Q.-2470. These numbers combined with the number appearing on the page would give the complete car number.

Inks of various colors may be used to distinguish inbound movements from outbound movements. Purple ink, for example, might be used to designate the former, and red ink to designate the latter. Appropriate columns could then be ruled to provide for shipping points, destinations, date of shipment, date of arrival, and date of delivery.

The car order clerk should be furnished with information respecting carload shipments to and by the industry so that they may be entered in this book. In addition, he should prepare a daily chart indicating the cars in transit and cars at terminals so, where necessary, steps can be taken thru the tracing clerk to expedite their movements, or to hasten their loading or unloading. In the latter case, particularly, unnecessary demurrage charges can be avoided.

He should also be required to maintain statistical reports indicating the average loading of inbound and outbound cars, as frequently this may be of value in rate cases,

CHAPTER XI

THE SHIPPING ROOM

The Shipping Room: Packing; Packing Foreign Orders;
Keeping Accurate Record; Rates and Space; Packing to
Save Charges; Standardized Packing Instructions; EM-
cient Packing Dependent on Container; Measuring Ship-
ments; Containers; Definitions; Materials; Waste in Use
of One-Trip Containers; The Problem; Strong Containers
but Low Rates; Marking; Weighing; Weighing Agree-
ment.

Since lax methods in the shipping room offset the effectiveness of the work of the traffic department, the shipping room should be placed under the control of the industrial traffic manager.

The shipping room is concerned with the actual preparation of goods for shipment, and with the receipt of goods coming into the plant. The administration of this department should be vested in the traffic department in order that the labor of the shipping room employees may be intelligently directed, and that standard practice rules may be established to govern them in the handling of their work.

PACKING

American industry has scarcely begun to consider the economical and effective packing of shipments. The rule often has been to make the shipment fit available containers rather than to build a container to fit the shipment. As a result, American shippers have gained the unenviable reputation in other countries of being the poorest merchandise packers in the world.

PACKING FOREIGN ORDERS

With our advent into foreign fields on a large scale, however, comes the need of extensive reform. Mr. B. Olney Hough, Editor of The American Exporter, in his work entitled Elementary Lessons in Exporting, says:

Probably 999 out of every 1,000 differences that arise between shipper and foreign consignee are based upon a claim that the goods are not exactly what were ordered or shipped exactly as instructed. There is positively no latitude allowed the shipper in the case of foreign orders. If the order cannot be executed and shipped in exact accordance with every detail of the order, then the customer should be so written, with a full explanation of what can be done, and the order meanwhile held, awaiting definite instructions to ship in accord with the manufacturer's modifications of the original details.

Many manufacturers are so anxious to execute orders received and believe so thoroly in their own ideas as to what goods will suit, or what details in shipping will be preferable that they are tempted to take the chance and forward the goods in their own way. This may occasionally result to the customer's satisfaction, but the chances are at least 100 to 1 against it, and it will be found far preferable in the end to risk losing the order thru delay rather than to ship any other way than that specifically instructed by the customer.

The great general rule of exactitude is the basis also for a second consideration. In packing goods for export the contents of each case must be checked and controlled with very special care. It will probably be acknowledged that shipping

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