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is made; the carrier's claim number; the date on which the claim was filed; the kind of claim-overcharge, loss, or damage; the amount of the claim; the disposition of the claim-paid or declined; and the date on which the investigation was concluded, or payment received.

In passing, it should be stated that the form indicated in Fig. 27 is somewhat condensed and the columns, or. at least some of them, particularly those headed “Consignor," "City," “Description of Shipment,” would have to be somewhat wider to accommodate the information that might have to be shown therein.

This form is a daily register and can be added to as the occasions may warrant without disturbing the previous records of claims.

The footings appearing on the bottom of the sheet enable the industry to carry forward, from sheet to sheet, the number of claims and the amount involved so that the financial status of the department can be determined at any time.

Plan of Index

The territorial plan of index is recommended for use in connection with the overcharge or loss and damage claim. A shipment consigned to James Noble, Hopkinsville, Ky., would be indexed as indicated in Fig. 28.

KENTUCKY

Date of Kind of

Claim Destination Consignee Shipment Claim

Carrier Number Hopkinsville James Noble

1-22 Loss

Ill. Cent.

IC-14133 Louisville H. H. Mudge

1-30 Overcharge Lou. & Nash. C-17147 Covington N. J. Doble

2-20 Damage C. C. C. & St. L.C-18160 Ashland National Steel Co. 3-4 Overcharge C. & O.

C-18176

FIG. 28.-Claim Index

VOCATIONAL TRAINING

Both orercharge and loss and damage investigators should be encouraged to take courses of training in traffic work and in legal procedure to bring to them a fuller realization of what is required in the discharge of their duties, and to develop such latent talent as they possess.

Periodical statements should be drawn off indicating the volume of business handled in the department so that the efficient and worthy may be rewarded.

CHAPTER X

SERVICE DIVISION

Bills of Lading-Various Forms-Shipping Receipts-Rates
-Routes-Drafts — Manifests — Export Licenses -- Filing
Records—Index Systems—Car Order Clerk-Ordering
Cars: Forms-Car Record Book-Record Movements-
Daily Record.

This chapter contemplates an exemplification of certain phases of the work of the industrial traffic department too limited in their scope to require an extended discussion. For the purpose of maintaining the balance of the chapter, they are grouped under this general head.

BILLS OF LADING

Various shipping forms are used to establish delivery to the carrier, and to furnish the carrier with the necessary shipping instructions, information as to the consignee, his address, and the route to employ.

The form most generally used is the so-called “bill of lading," which is quite ably treated in a textbook, The Bill of Lading, by Mr. F. A. Larish, of the Western Freight Traffic Association, and published by LaSalle Extension University, Chicago.

As applied to rail carriage, bills of lading fall into two classes-the order form and the straight form. Each of these forms in turn is arranged in pads containing four sets of the bill of lading: (1) the original bill of lading, (2) the duplicate, (3) the shipping order, and (4) the memorandum.

The original bill of lading is usually sent to the consignee, or, if it be an order shipment, to the bank at his place of business so that he can obtain possession of it and, by this means, possession of the goods.

The carrier retains the shipping order as a station record of the shipment, and as the shipper's instructions from which its billing is made and to which, in the event of controversy, reference is to be made.

The duplicate and the memorandum are returned to the shipper.

Where shipments are made for the account of some jobber, these four sets are used as follows: the original is sent to the consignee, and the duplicate to the jobber; the memorandum is retained by the shipper, and the billing instructions, or shipping order, is retained by the carrier.

In instances where jobbers are not involved, sets of three will be sufficient, namely, the original bill of lading, the shipping order, and the memorandum.

The forms are arranged alike and bear the same conditions; so it is possible, and, in fact, customary to make out the several forms at one operation by the use of carbon paper or other manifold processes.

Since the bill of lading serves a dual purpose, in that it is a receipt for the goods shipped and sets forth the contract of shipment between the shipper and the carrier, great care should be taken in making out these documents. If the activities of the department warrant it, it is recommended that a bright young man be employed in a junior clerical capacity for this sole purpose.

It has been said before that service and rates are

the controlling essentials with respect to transportation offerings. But a customer may wish to get his goods with all possible dispatch, and as a consequence rates become secondary; or he may be in no particular hurry for the goods, and expects them to be forwarded in the least expensive manner.

Many clients, however, leave this matter entirely to the judgment of the firm. Some industrial concerns express themselves on the subject in this way: When the matter of shipment is left to us, we always choose the cheapest method. This includes not only the selection of routes but packing as well. When this responsibility rests with the industry, it is well to have the quotation clerk insert on the bill of lading the rate of freight applying from point of shipment to destination, and the route over which the rate applies.

In this connection, attention is directed to the slip, Fig. 29, that is sent to customers of the Baker-Vawter Company with their bills of lading. It may well be inferred that the practice adds materially to the satisfaction of their clientele.

SHIPPING RECEIPTS

Many commercial houses and industrial enterprises are concerned with limited items of shipment. The outbound shipments of a patent medicine plant, for example, are jugs and advertising matter. Or, on the other hand, the individual shipments of a wholesale grocery house might be so numerous and diversified that it will be impracticable, if not impossible, to indicate them in the spaces provided for that purpose on the bill of lading.

As a result of this condition, individual lines of

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