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Navigation was concluded between France and Belgium, securing mutually to each country reduced tariff rates and other concessions. All the advantages thus obtained by France were conceded to Great Britain by our treaty with Belgium of July 23, 1863. On November 13 of the same year a convention was signed between the two countries giving to joint stock companies in either of the two countries the right of appearing before the tribunals of the other. [TREATIES (Belgium).]

Money, Weights, and Measures.-The French system of moneys, weights, and measures has been adopted in Belgium. Formerly accounts were kept in florins, worth 1s. 84d. sterling. The quintal formerly in use, and still sometimes referred to, = 103 lbs. avoirdupois. In 1837, the Commercial Bank, a joint-stock association, was founded in Antwerp. It has a capital of 25,000,000 fr. (1,000,000l. sterling), divided into 25,000 shares of 1,000 fr. each, and transacts all sorts of banking business. Here, also, are two considerable insurance companies. The railway from Antwerp to Brussels, 284 miles in length, has been signally successful, and has been of great advantage to both cities, but especially to Antwerp.

Custom-house Regulations.-Captains of ships arriving at Antwerp, or any of the Belgian ports, must make, within 24 hours, a declaration in writing of the goods of which their cargo consists, specifying the marks and numbers of the bales, parcels, &c., their value, according to the current price at the time when the declaration is made, the name of the ship or vessel, as well as that of the captain, and of the country to which she belongs, &c.

The following is a pro formâ account of port charges at Antwerp, for a vessel measuring 200 tons, under the new system :

To pilotage from sea to Flushing on 38 palms
To ditto from Flushing to Antwerp, 38 ditto -
To ditte from Antwerp to Flushing, 28 ditto.
To ditto from Flushing to sea, 28 ditto
To the pilot for night on board and gratuity
Pilots for moving the vessel in and out the dock
Sea Protest and extending same at Tribunal of Com-

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These dues are reduced as follows on vessels making more than two voyages in the year

3rd voyage, reduction of one-fourth
4th voyage, reduction of one-half

5th and succeeding voyages, reduction of three-quarters Steam-vessels lading or discharging in harbour or at the quays will pay per ton, for the first ten voyages in one year 22 centimes, for the second ten voyages 15 centimes, and for each following Voyage 10 centimes.

Previously to the abolition of the Scheldt duties, the shipping charges were more than double what they are now.

Entry at Lillo.-(Lillo, the first Belgian customhouse, opposite Doel.) Here the custom-house officers come on board, and the master has to hand them :

1. A manifest of the cargo, with the exact number of boxes, bales, casks, cases, packages, &c., with the marks, number and contents as exact as possible.

2. A specification of the provisions, such as salt, beef, pork, bread, flour, groats, peas, fish, butter, wine, brandy, gin, beer, coals, firewood and planks for dunnage, pigs, canvas, new ropes, iron-ballast, &c. &c., also the number of the crew.

The vessel then proceeds for Antwerp with or without a custom-house officer, as may be prescribed.

The custom-house laws being very severe, every master of a vessel is recommended to be most particular in making this entry; but should a mistake have taken place, or there be goods in dispute, he should inform his broker at Antwerp on his arrival, so as to be enabled immediately to take the needful steps to obtain a rectification.

Draft of Water.-On the arrival of a vessel before the town, the pilot-boat goes alongside, to ascertain the draft of water in palms or decimeters; it is therefore advisable for the master or the mate to be present at the hooking, to convince himself of the real draft of water, according to which the sea and river pilotage are settled.

Vessels remaining in the River. These must ride with two anchors or have a pilot on board, which costs from 4 francs 24 cents. per every twenty-four hours.

Docking the Vessel.-Every vessel must have a Belgian pilot, to bring her into the dock, as well as going out. The harbour-master assigns to each vessel her place in the dock, and no hauling can be done without his permission.

Fire and Light.-Vessels lying in the docks are prohibited to have fire and light on board, except during the winter season, when permission is usually granted by the police.

Water Bailiff.-A list containing the names of the crew, passengers and their passports, is handed to him on arrival. Sailors are paid off and engaged before this officer, who also orders the arresting of sailors on written demand of the master.

Flag.-On Sundays and holidays it is customary to have the colours hoisted.

Cleanliness.-Lying alongside the quay, the crew must take care that the place before the vessel be swept every day, and the rubbish put up against the poles, it being forbidden to throw any rubbish into the docks.

Ballast.-Sand ballast is brought alongside in lighters, and costs 2 francs 25 cents. per last of about 2 tons in the dock and 2 francs 10 cents. in the river. The lighters are discharged by the ship's crew or by labourers paid by the master. A tarpaulin or sail must be put between the vessel and the lighter, to prevent the sand from falling into the dock. Discharging ballast into lighters, costs in the dock 1 franc 55 cents.in the river 1 franc 40 cents. per last. Fifteen per cent. additional on all these rates.

Brokerage.-Fixed by law at 75 centimes per ton measurement, which include reporting and clearing at the custom-house.

Survey inwards.-For the whole time of discharging, a vessel under 100 tons, 12 francs. 100 to 200 tons, 20 francs. 201 to 300 tons, 30 francs. 301 to 400 tons, 45 francs. 401 to 800 tons, 55 francs. 800 to 1,200 tons, 82 francs 25 cents. above 1,200 tons, 110 francs.

Mooring.-Masters must be particular, in mooring

their vessels, to have the chains or hawsers well secured with chafing gear so as not to injure the quays.

Cooking-house charges.-For vessels of all nations under 36 tons 1 franc, 36 to 100 tons 2 francs, 101 to 200 tons 3 francs, 201 to 300 tons 4 francs, 301 or above 5 francs, all with 15 per cent. additional.

A part of a week is reckoned as a whole. Vessels laid up in the dock pay after the first 2 months only of the tax until they fit out again. Careening dues.-Vessels of all nations under 100 tons 16 francs per day, 100 to 149 tons 14 cents. per ton a day, 150 to 199 tons 13 cents., 200 to 249 tons 12 cents., 250 to 299 tons 11 cents.. 300 to 349 tons 10 cents., 350 to 399 tons 9 cents., 400 and above 8 cents. per ton a day.

N.B.-All vessels leaving Antwerp must be provided with a surveyor's certificate that they are sca-worthy. When in ballast, this certificate costs from 6 francs to 13 francs 50 cents.; when loaded, from 10 francs to 30 francs, according to the burden of the vessel, besides 11 francs 40 cents. for certificate of tribunal. The cooking-house duties depend on the size of the vessel, and must be paid whether the house be used or not.

About 85 ships of from 11,000 to 12,000 tons burden belong to Antwerp; and from 4,000 to 5,000 passengers arrive annually at the city by the steam-packets from England.

In 1863, 2,553 vessels of 608,353 tons arrived at Antwerp; of these, 917 vessels of 236,758 tons were British. The number of vessels which arrived at all the Belgian ports in the same year was 3,893, the tonnage of which amounted to 712,373 of these, 597 of 62,525 tons were Belgian ; 1,581 of 281,510 tons British; and the remainder Swedish, French, Dutch, &c.

The total number of vessels entering from Belgium into ports of the United Kingdom in 1866 was 2,916, with a tonnage of 674,956.

The commerce of Belgium is almost exclusively confined to European countries; the trade with those countries being about 95 per cent. of the whole.

Fisheries.-In 1863 there were 275 smacks

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Comparative Statement of the Mineral and Metallurgic Produce of Belgium during the following years; in metrical tons of 1,000 kilogrammes, each weighing 36 lbs. less than an English ton.

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Account of the Declared Values of the Principal Articles the Produce and Manufacture of the United Kingdom exported to Belgium in each of the 3 Years ending with 1866.

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Account of the Quantities and Computed Values of the Principal Articles imported from Belgium into the United Kingdom in each of the 3 years ending with 1866.

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are Hereford, Monmouth, Gloucester, Worcester, of the existing rights, privileges, or bye-laws of Somerset, and Devon. Mr. Marshall estimated the different corporations; but wherever these do the produce of the first four at 30,000 hogsheads a not interpose, the formation of apprenticeships, year, of which Worcester is supposed to supply and their duration, are left to be adjusted by the 10,000; but it is now probably much greater. parties themselves. Half a hogshead of cider may be expected, in ordinarily favourable seasons, from each tree in an orchard in full bearing. The number of trees on an acre varies from 10 to 40, so that the quantity of cider must vary in the same proportion, that is from 5 to 20 hogsheads. The produce is, however, very fluctuating; and a good crop seldom occurs above once in three years. (Loudon's Ency. of Agriculture, &c.)

Besides the immense consumption of native apples, we import, for the table, large supplies of French and other foreign apples. In 1842, the duty, which had previously been an ad valorem one of 5 per cent., was fixed at 6d. per bushel on raw, and 28. per bushel on dried apples; and in 1853 the duties were further reduced to 3d. per bushel on raw, and 1s. per bushel on dried apples. This duty is now repealed. During 1865 the entries for consumption amounted to 515,732 bushels. The apples produced in the vicinity of New York are universally admitted to be the finest of any; but unless selected and packed with care, they are very apt to spoil before reaching England. The exports of apples from the United States during the year ended June 30, 1864, amounted to 183,697 barrels, valued at 487,140 dollars. Of these, 50,606 barrels besides 3,164 bushels of dried fruit were shipped for the United Kingdom. (Papers laid before Congress.)

APPRAISER. By the 13 & 14 Vict. c. 97, every person except a licensed auctioneer, who for hire exercises the occupation of an appraiser to value property, repairs and labour, must take out an annual 40s. license, under a penalty of 507. for non-compliance.

Appraisers omitting to write and set down in figures every valuation made by them, with the full amount on paper duly stamped, and within 14 days deliver the same to their employers, are subject to a penalty of 50%. No person may pay for or receive an appraisement unless the same be written on stamped paper under penalty of a tine of 201 One stamp only is required for the whole appraisement. The amount received in 1865-6 for appraisers' licenses granted in the United Kingdom was 7,5027.

APPRENTICE. A person of either sex, bound by indenture to serve some particular individuals, or company of individuals, for a specified time, in order to be instructed in some art, science, mystery, or trade.

According to the common law of England, everyone has a right to employ himself at pleasure in every lawful trade. But this sound principle was almost entirely subverted by a statute, passed in the fifth year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, commonly called the Statute of Apprenticeship. It enacted that no person should, for the future, exercise any trade, craft, or mystery, at that time exercised in England and Wales, unless he had previously served to it an apprenticeship of seven years at least; so that what had before been a bye-law of a few corporations, became the general and statute law of the kingdom. Luckily, however, the courts of law were always singularly disinclined to give effect to the provisions of this statute; and the rules which they established for its interpretation served materially to mitigate its injurious operation. But though its impolicy had been long apparent, it was continued till 1814, when it was repealed by the 54 Geo. III. c. 96. This Act did not interfere with any

Merchant ships of 80 tons and upwards were formerly obliged to carry a certain number of apprentices in proportion to their tonnage (7 & 8 Vict. c. 112). But this obligation was suppressed in 1849, by the 12 & 13 Vict. c. 29. And as the obligation to have a certain proportion of the crew British subjects has also been put an end to (16 & 17 Vict. c. 131 s. 31), the manning of ships is now quite free.

The Merchant Shipping Act of 1854 regulates, by the following sections, apprenticeships to the Sea Service.

Apprenticeships to the Sea Service. Sec. 141.-All shipping masters appointed under this Act shall, if applied to for the purpose, give to any board of guardians, overseers, or other persons desirous of apprenticing boys to the sea service, and to masters and owners of ships requiring apprentices. such assistance as is in their power for facilitating the making of such apprenticeships, and may receive from persons availing themselves of such assistance such fees as may be determined in that behalf by the Board of Trade, with the concurrence, so far as relates to pauper apprentices in England, of the Poor Law Board in England, and so far as relates to pauper apprentices in Ireland, of the Poor Law Commissioners in Ireland.

Sec. 142. In the case of every boy bound apprentice to the sea service by any guardians or overseers of the poor, or other persons having the authority of guardians of the poor, the indentures shall be executed by the boy and the person to whom he is bound in the presence of and shall be attested by two justices of the peace, who shall ascertain that the boy has consented to be bound, and has attained the age of twelve years, and is of suthicient health and strength, and that the master to whom the boy is to be bound is a proper person for the purpose.

Sec. 144. Subject to the provisions hereinbefore contained, all apprenticeships to the sea service made by any guardians or overseers of the poor, or persons having the authority of guardians of the poor, shall, if made in Great Britain, be made in the same manner and be subject to the same laws and regulations as other apprenticeships made by the same persons, and if made in Ireland shall be subject to the following rules; (that is to say,) 1. In every union the guardians of the poor, or

other persons duly appointed to carry into execution the Acts for the relief of the destitute poor, and having the authority of guardians of the poor, may put out and bind as an apprentice to the sea service any boy who or whose parent or parents is or are receiving relief in such union, and who has attained the age of twelve years, and is of sufficient health and strength, and who con

sents to be so bound:

2. If the cost of relieving any such boy is chargeable to an electoral division of a union, then (except in cases in which paid officers act in place of guardians) he shall not be bound as aforesaid unless the consent in writing of the guardians of such electoral division or of a majority of the guardians (if more than one) be first obtained, such consent to be, when possible, indorsed upon the indentures:

3. The expense incurred in the binding and outfit of any such apprentice shall be charged to the union or electoral division (as the case

may be) to which the boy or his parent or parents is or are chargeable at the time of his being apprenticed:

sist principally of sugar, coffee, spices, salt, woollens, hardware, &c.

The following Tables exhibit the principal features of the trade of Archangel. Its most important trade is, as will be seen, with this country. Value of Exports from Archangel.

1859

4. All indentures made in any union may be
sued upon by the guardians of the union or
persons having the authority of guardians
therein for the time being, by their name of
office, and actions brought by them upon
such indentures shall not abate by reason of
death or change in the persons holding the
office: but no such action shall be commenced
without the consent of the Irish Poor Law Whereof to Great Britain-
Commissioners:

5. The amount of the costs incurred in any
such action, and not recovered from the
defendant therein, may be charged upon the
union or electoral division (as the case may
be) to which the boy or his parent or parents
was or were chargeable at the time of his
being apprenticed.

AQUA FORTIS. [ACIDS (Nitric Acid).]
AQUAMARINE. [BERYL.]

AQUA VITE (Ger. aquavit; Fr. eau de vie; Ital. acqua vite; Span. agua de vide; Russ. wodka; Lat. aqua vitæ). A name familiarly applied to all native distilled spirits; equivalent to the eau de vie, or brandy, of the French, the whisky of the Scotch and Irish, the geneva of the Dutch, &c. In this way it is used in the excise laws relating to the distilleries.

ARANGOES. A species of beads made of rough cornelian.

1860

1861

1862

1863

1859
1860
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1862
1863

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£ 1,297,879

906,851

1,157,345

1,128,965

796,898

1,007,796

552,268

738,682

762,869

556,173

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They are of various forms, as barrel, bell, round, &c., and all drilled. The barrel-shaped kind cut from the best stones, are from two to three inches long, and should be chosen as clear as possible, Table of Shipping cleared at the Port of Archangel whether red or white, having a good polish and free from flaws. The bell-shaped are from one to two inches long, being in all respects inferior. Considerable quantities were formerly imported from Bombay, for re-exportation to Africa; but since the abolition of the slave trade, the imports and exports of arangoes are comparatively trifling. (Milburn's Orient. Com.)

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ARCHANGEL. The principal commercial city of the north of Russia, in lat. 64° 32′ 8′′ N., long. 40° 33′ E., on the right bank of the Dwina, about 35 English miles above where it falls into the White Sea. The growth of the town is steady. The harbour is at the island of Sollenbole, about a mile from the town. The bar at the mouth of the Dwina has from 13 to 14 feet water; so that ships drawing more than this depth must be partially loaded outside the bar from lighters. The Dwina being a navigable river, traversing a great extent of country, and connected by canals with the Wolga on the one hand, and the Neva on the other, Archangel is a considerable entrepôt. It was discovered in 1554, by the famous Richard Chancellor, the companion of Sir Hugh Willoughby in his voyage of discovery; and from that period down to the foundation of Petersburg, was the only port in the Russian empire accessible to foreigners. Though it has lost its ancient im- Highest and lowest rates of Freight to Great portance, it still enjoys a pretty extensive commerce. The principal articles of export are wheat and oats, rye and rye-flour, tallow, flax, hemp, timber, linseed, potash, mats, tar, &c. Deals from Archangel, and Onega in the vicinity of Archangel, are considered superior to those from the Baltic. Hemp not so good as at Riga, but proportionally cheaper. Tallow is also inferior. Iron, Bank.-There is a branch of the Imperial Bank which is sometimes exported, same as at Peters- of Russia at Archangel. Exporters generally pay burg, sometimes cheaper and sometimes dearer. cash for produce. The money is generally obThe quality of the wheat exported from Arch-tained from the Archangel bank on bills drawn angel is about equal to that from Petersburg, on St. Petersburg at 40 days' date. The disThe imports, which are not very extensive, con- count charged on these bills is 14 per cent. (equal

Tin
Other goods
Total
From Great Britain

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