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Lloyd's Table showing the Minimum Weights (ex. Stock) of Anchors of unobjectionable form and proportions; Sizes and Lengths of Chain Cables; and the Proof Strain to which they are to be tested; and Sizes and Lengths of Hawsers and Warps.

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Mem. - For steamers the anchors and cables wi'l not be required to exceed in weight and length those of a sailing vessel of two-thirds their total tonnage.

Two of the bower anchors must not be less than the weight set forth above, but in the third a reduction of 15 per cent. will be allowed. All anchor stocks must be of acknowledged and approved description.

+ Unstudded close-link chains of 1 inch in diameter and under, will be admitted as cables, if proved to two-thirds the test required for stud-chains. But in all such cases a short length, not less than twelve links, must be tested up to the full strain for stud-link chains.

In cases where parties are desirous of using or supplying chains of smaller size than is set forth above, a reduction will be allowed not exceeding 1-16th of an inch in chains of 1 inch to if inch diameter, and 8th of an inch in chains above 15 inch diameter, provided they he subjected to the Admiralty strain for the size for which they are to be substituted; and, further, that a few links, not less than twe've, to be selected by the tester, shall be proved to the breaking strain, and show a margin of at least 10 per cent. beyond the Admiralty proof for a chain of the full size required by the table.

Table showing the correct proportions and dimen- | Spain. It is also a product of China, whence it is sions of an Admiralty Anchor.

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ANCHOVY (Fr. anchois; Ital. acciughe: Lat. encrasicolus). A small fish (Clupea encrasicolus, Lin.), common in the Mediterranean, resembling the sprat. Those brought from Gorgona in the Tuscan Sea are esteemed the best. They should be chosen small, fresh pickled, white outside and red within. Their backs should be round. The sardine, a fish which is flatter and larger than the anchovy, is frequently substituted for it. About 120,000 lbs. were entered for consumption in 1852. But being then subject to a duty of 2s. 10d. per lb., repealed in 1853, the imports have increased to 783.419 lbs, in 1865.

ANGELICA (Lat. Archangelica officinalis). A large umbelliferous plant, with hollow jointed stalks, of which there are several varieties. It grows wild, and is cultivated in moist places near London, and in most European countries from Lapland to Spain. Its roots are thick, fleshy, and resinous, have a fragrant agreeable smell, and a bitterish pungent taste, mixed with a pleasant sweetness glowing on the lips and palate for a long time after they have been chewed. To preserve them they must be thoroughly dried, and kept in closely stopped bottles. The other parts of the plant have the same taste and flavour as the roots, but in an inferior degree. The leaves and seeds do not retain their virtue when kept. The London confectioners make a sweetmeat of the tender stems. The faculty used to direct that none but the root of Spanish angelica should be kept by the druggists. In Norway the roots are sometimes used as bread, and in Iceland the stalks are eaten with butter. Here the plant is used only in confectionary and the materia medica. (Lewis's Mat. Med.; Rees's Cyclopædia, &c.)

exported. It should be chosen fresh, large, plump, newly dried, of a good smell, and a sweetish aromatic taste.

A duty of 5s. per cwt. on aniseed was repealed in 1845. In 1865, 2,257 cwts. were imported, the exports during the same year being 1,502

cwts.

ANISEED STARS (Fr. badiane; Chinese syn. tá hurie and páh-kioh, i.e. eight horns; the broken is known as páh-kioh-chá). This name is given to the fruit of a small evergreen tree, Ilicium amisatum, which grows in Fuhkien and the neighbouring provinces, in Japan and the Philippines. They are prized for their aromatic taste resembling anise. The name of star is applied to them on account of the manner in which they grow, the pods being in small clusters formed together at one end and diverging in six or seven rays. The husks have a more aromatic flavour than the seeds, but are not so sweet. Those which are bruised or mouldy should be rejected. They are chiefly exported to England and the continent of Europe. The average value in China is 15 dollars per picul.

Oil of Aniseed (Chinese, páh-kioh-yú).—This is made by distilling the pods and seeds. A picul of the raw material produces about 7 catties of oil. It is put up in tin cases inclosed in wood, and exported chiefly to Europe and the United States. The average export is about 250 piculs annually, and the value 150 dollars per picul. It is used in perfumery, medicine, and confectionary. (Extracted from 6th edit. of Dr. Williams's Chinese Guide.)

ANKER. A liquid measure at Amsterdam. It contains about 10 gallons English wine measure. ANNATTO or ARNATTO (Fr. rocou; Ger. orlean; Ital. oriana). A species of red dye formed of the pulp enveloping the seeds of the bixa orellana, a plant common in South America and the East and West Indies; but dye is made, at least to any extent, only in the first.

It is prepared by macerating the pods in boiling water, extracting the seeds, and leaving the pulp to subside; the fluid being subsequently drawn off, the residuum, with which oil is sometimes mixed up, is placed in shallow vessels and gradually dried in the shade. It is of two sorts, viz. flag or cake, and roll annatto. The first, which is by far the most important article in a commercial point of view, is furnished almost wholly by Cayenne. It is imported in square cakes, weighing 2 lbs. or 3 lbs. each, wrapped in banana leaves. When well made, it should be of a bright yellow colour, soft to the touch, and of a good consistence. It imparts a deep but not durable orange colour to silk and cotton, and is used for that purpose by the dyers. Roll annatto is principally brought from Brazil. The rolls are small, not exceeding 2 oz. or 3 oz. in weight; it is hard, dry, and compact, brownish on the outside, and of a beautiful red colour within. The latter is the best of all ingredients for the In Commerce, the wild angelica (Angelica colouring of cheese and butter; and is now exsylvestris) is sometimes substituted for the culti-clusively used for that purpose in all the British vated variety, which has much more taste and odour.

A duty of 4s. per cwt, on angelica was repealed

in 1845.

ANILINE, formerly called Crystalline. A derivative from coal tar, largely used in the preparation of mauve and magenta dyes. It is a colourless oil-like liquid, of a strong odour and hot aromatic flavour. The value of the exports of aniline in 1865 was, however, but 1,9147. (Watt's Dictionary of Chemistry; Úre's Dictionary of Manufactures.)

ANISEED (Fr. anis; Ital. anise; Lat. anisum). A small seed of an oblong shape. It is cultivated in Germany, but the best comes from Alicant in

and in some of the continental dairies. In Gloucestershire it is the practice to allow 1 oz. of annatto to 1 cwt. of cheese; in Cheshire, 8 dwts. are reckoned sufficient for a cheese of 60 lbs. When genuine, it neither affects the taste nor the smell of cheese or butter. The Spanish Americans mix annatto with their chocolate, to which it gives a beautiful tint. (Gray's Supplement to the Pharmacoparias; Loudon's Ency. of Agriculture, and Private Information.)

Previously to 1832 the duty on flag annatto was 188. 8d. a cwt., and on other sorts 5l. 12s. The duty was then reduced to 1s. a cwt. on the former

and to 4s. on the latter, and was finally repealed in 1845.

In 1865, 3,647 cwts, were imported chiefly in the form of flag annatto. Of this the greater part came from France. The average value of roll was 41. 5s., of flag 81. 38. per cwt.; 722 cwts. were exported.

ANNUITIES. [INTEREST AND ANNUITIES.] ANTIGUA. [COLONY TRADE; ST. JOHN's; SUGAR.]

ANTIMONY (Ger. and Dutch spiesglas; Fr. antimoine; Ital. antimonio; Russ. antimonia; Lat. antimonium). A metal which, when pure, is of a greyish white colour, and has a good deal of brilliancy, showing a radiated fracture when broken; it is converted by exposure to heat and air into a white oxide, which sublimes in vapours. It is found in Saxony and the Hartz, also in Cornwall, Spain, France, Mexico, Siberia, the Eastern Islands, and Martaban in Pegu. We are at present wholly supplied with this metal from Singapore, which receives it from Borneo.

It is also said to exist in considerable quantities in the province of Victoria, and in Tulare county, California. It is found in large quantities in the territory of Sarawak in Borneo, from which about 6,5001, worth was exported in 1863.

It is imported in the shape of ore, and commonly as ballast. It is about as hard as gold; its specific gravity is about 67; it is easily reduced to a very fine powder; its tenacity is such that a rod of th of an inch diameter is capable of supporting 10lbs. weight. Antimony is used in medicine, and in the composition of metal types for printing. The ores of antimony are soft, and vary in colour from light lead to dark lead grey; their specific gravity varies from 44 to 68; they possess a metallic lustre, are brittle, and occur in the crystallised massive forms. (Thomson's Chemistry, and Private Information.)

of Antwerp were extremely high. This was in consequence of the Belgians having charged themselves with a payment to indemnify the Dutch for consenting to abolish the duties they had been in the habit of levying on the vessels and goods ascending the Scheldt. To reimburse themselves, the Belgians imposed heavy tonnage, pilotage, and other duties on vessels entering Antwerp (which has more than three-fourths of the entire shipping trade of the country), Ostend, and other ports, and these, of course, were much objected to by the foreigners on whom they fell. At length, after a great deal of negotiation, the precedent set in the case of the Sound Duties was followed; the different powers agreeing to pay the Belgian Government certain sums proportioned to the extent of their trade with this city, &c., stipulating per contra that the tonnage duty should be abolished, and the charges for pilotage reduced at from 25 to 30 per cent. (Treaty of July 16, 1863, Art. 3). And though the trade of Antwerp has more recently been accidentally depressed, there can be no doubt that this effectual reduction of the charges on vessels entering her port will powerfully contribute to its advancement. Our contribution to the purchase, which was much the largest, amounted to 8,782,320 fr. Ships of the largest burden come up to the town, and goods destined for the interior are forwarded with the greatest facility by means of canals and railways.

From the principal part of the commerce of Belgium carried on by sea centring in Antwerp, it has again become a place of much commercial importance. The great articles of export are corn, especially wheat; flax, butter, cattle, sheep, and pigs; cast and wrought iron; muskets, fowling-pieces, and small arms, vast quantities of which are produced at Liége; woollen fabrics; linen ditto; clover and other seeds; coal, spelter,

The great articles of import are raw cotton, sugar, coffee, and other colonial products; indigo and all sorts of dyewoods; spices, wine, machinery, rice, ashes, fish, oils, &c.

Goods may be warehoused in Antwerp, en entrepôt, at the rates of charge specified in a fixed tariff.

The imports into the United Kingdom of anti-books, &c. mony in 1863, were, ore of antimony 1,948 tons, crude 1,171 cwts. and regulus 295 cwts. The value of the whole was about 23,500l. Antimony is also found in Tuscany at Pereta in the Maremme and also at Castagneto Mecciano in the Volterrano. The mines at Pereta yielded in 1845 according to Pilla 48 tons. A small amount (about 800 quintals) is annually produced in Spain. The production of the French antimony mines amounted in 1858 to 6,729 quintals, the total value of which was 144,759 francs. The mines from which these supplies were principally drawn were those of Corsica (3,750 quintals) and the Department of Cantal (2,000 quintals).

ANTOL. A Hungarian wine-measure containing about 116 imp. gallons.

ANTWERP. The principal seaport of Belgium, lat. 51° 13′ 16′′ N., long. 4° 24′ 10′′ E. A large, well-built, and strongly fortified city, on the Scheldt. Pop. in 1861, 114,669.

Previously to its capture by the Spaniards, under Farnese, in 1585, Antwerp was one of the greatest commercial cities of Europe; but it suffered much by that event. In 1648, at the treaty of Westphalia, it was stipulated by Spain and Holland that the navigation of the Scheldt should be shut up; a stipulation which was observed till the occupation of Belgium by the French, when it was abolished. In 1803, Napoleon I., who intended to make Antwerp a great naval establishment, undertook the construction of docks on a grand scale, for the accommodation of ships of war; and of late years new and convenient docks and warehouses have been opened for the use of the steamers and other vessels connected with the trade of the port. Down to 1863 the port charges

In 1864 the values of the imports into Belgium amounted to 688,878,101 francs, and those of the exports to 596,892,863 francs. The trade with England is the most extensive carried on with Belgium by sea, and next to it that with the Baltic, the United States, France, Holland. &c. The trade of France with Belgium generally is, however, much greater than that of any other country. But it is principally carried on by land, across the frontier between the two countries. A considerable proportion of the imports into Antwerp not being intended for home consumption, but for transit to other countries, their amount is commonly a good deal better than that of the exports.

The value of our imports from Belgium amounted in 1866 to 7,906,8677., and of the exports of British productions to 2,861,6654 In the same year we exported to Belgium 3,920,9081, value of foreign and colonial merchandise.

Conditions under which Goods are sold.-On goods generally 2 per cent. is allowed for payment in twenty days, and 14 per cent, on credit of six weeks or two months. On cottons at twenty days' credit, 3 per cent. are allowed, and 14 per cent. on a credit of two or three months. ashes, hides, and sugar, 3 per cent, for twenty days, and 14 per cent. for three months' credit.

On

On May 1, 1861, a Treaty of Commerce and

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