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Account of the Quantities and Computed Values of the Principal Articles Imported from the Netherlands into the United Kingdom during each of the 5 Years ending with 1865.

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The warehousing system has been long esta-warehousing goods imported by sea or intended blished in Amsterdam; and all goods, whether for home consumption or transit, may be deposited in bonded warehouses. Speaking generally, goods can only be kept in bonded warehouses for 2 years; but grain of all kinds may be kept for an unlimited period. The warehouse rent chargeable per month on a quarter of wheat is, on an upper loft, 12d.; on an under loft 14d. On a ton (Eng.) of sugar in casks the charge is 8d.; in bags, 6d.

The dock and its adjacent warehouses, belonging to the Entrepôt General, or establishment for

to be re-exported by sea or by the Rhine, are large and commodious. The dock has water to float the largest ships, and the dues and ether charges are exceedingly moderate. Merchants may employ their own men or those of the dock in loading or unloading; and may either place their property in separate vaults or floors of which they keep the key, or entrust it to the care of the dock officers.

Dutch Trading Company, or Netherlands Trading Society, Nederlandsche Handel Maasschappij. The general opinion as to the trade of the Dutch

[The above has been taken from an English translation of the Dutch tariff published at the Hague in 1862, and the London Gazette.]

The following are the principal articles of the Netherlands Customs law above referred to:Art. 2.-No duty is to be paid on articles not mentioned in the tariff, except that they could be classed, according to their nature or destination, under one of the articles of merchandise mentioned in the list.

East Indian possessions being a government mo- | Dutch harbours the common duty, for lighthouses, nopoly is erroneous. As landlord of the greater buoys, &c. part of Java the Dutch government obtains a tare proportion and in some articles the whole of the produce of the crown lands. The whole of the government produce, except the very small portion sold in the island, is exclusively exported by the Netherlands Trading Society. This company having the monopoly of the export of the crown produce has been erroneously considered a government institution, but has had no concern in the government of the colony or any other connection with the state than as a mere agent of the Dutch government. It is in fact nothing but a chartered joint stock company with limited liability. It has its head office in Amsterdam and its principal factory in Batavia, with agencies at the chief ports in Java, and in other parts of Netherland India.

The company was established at Amsterdam in 1824. Its original capital was 37,000,000 florins, or 3,000,0004. sterling. This capital was reduced in 1827 to 24,000,000 florins, and in 1835 to 23,000,000. The company's first charter was for a term of 25 years, and an interest of 4 per cent. per annum was guaranteed by King William I. of Holland, who was himself one of the largest shareholders. The early adventures of the company appear not to have been successful. In 1827 part, and in 1830 the whole, of the guaranteed interest had to be paid by the King. It was in this year that the new Java culture system was introduced by General Van den Bosch, and from this period dates the prosperity of the company.

In return for the advances made by the society, the company was appointed the sole agent of the government in buying and importing into Java all government supplies, and in exporting the government produce from Java and selling it in Holland. (The above is abridged from ch. viii. vol. i. of Mr. Money's excellent work on Java.) [BATAVIA.]

Art. 3.-No import-duty is to be paid on:

a. Merchandise, re-landed within two years from Dutch colonial possessions, after being exported from the Netherlands.

b. Merchandise of certified Dutch origin, relanded within two years, after being exported to foreign markets.

c. Merchandise re-landed, after being exported from the Netherlands to places where they cannot be imported in consequence of prohibition or augmentation of import-duty, which could not be known when exported.

Art. 4.-When merchandise mentioned by Art. 3 is exported from the Netherlands, with drawback allowed, it cannot be re-landed before the drawback is repaid.

Art. 5.-No import-duty is to be paid on provisions and victuals for consumption on board of inward-bound ships, save merchandise are declared as such, and this must not surpass the quantity fixed by the Law.

When they exceed the fixed quantity, freedom. of import-duty will be granted, when they are to be exported in the same ship. In this case they must remain, until the exportation, under the care of the custom-house.

These articles are free of excise.

Art. 6.-No import-duty is to be paid on:

a. Utensils and cordages belonging to and used on rafts of wood descending the rivers, save that this use must be duly stated by an inventory when

An abridged and clearly defined tariff has long been wanting, and has at length been obtained. The law of August 15, 1862, unites the disposi-imported; tions necessary for a tariff of duties, and all former laws are annulled.

The new tariff is so far distinct that almost all duties are made ad valorem. Only those articles are excepted which cannot be taxed as by measure, the duty on these being calculated so as not to surpass 5 per cent., the maximum fixed in the tariff. The articles not mentioned are duty free, and those articles which are not classed, but which are of use for manufacture, have to pay from 2 to 3 per cent. Only a few articles of luxury are higher charged. The 13 additional cents on the duty are abolished.

b. Goods belonging to ambassadors of Foreign States in the Netherlands, but only for those States where the goods of Dutch ambassadors are also exempted from duty;

c. Carriages wherewith Dutchmen return from a journey, or wherewith foreigners enter the country to make a journey;

d. Luggage for the use of travellers;
e. Furniture in use;

9. Empty bags, barrels, baskets, and objects used for the transport of merchandise when exported; Art. 8.-For the calculation of the import-duty, the parts of the pound, the litre, the cubic ell or the In the new tariff all the export-duties are re-florin, shall be counted for the whole. pealed, except 5 guilders per 100 lbs. of rags. The fee for registering to naturalise foreign ships, before 4 per cent., is reduced to 2 per cent.

The difference of duties on importation of some tropical products from the Dutch colonies is annulled, likewise the distinction of flags, fixed by the law of August 8, 1850, relative to the navigation between the colonies and the Dutch harbours.

It is known that in 1850 the duty on transit was abolished. In 1851 (Law of September 2) the navigation taxes on the Maese were abolished; and a royal resolution of February 7, 1852, decreases the rates of pilotage. These liberal measures were followed by the suppression of the tonnage-taxes for sea-ships (Law of July 14, 1855).

The Dutch government also assimilates foreign ships with national ships, as well for direct as for mdirect navigation. They have only to pay in

Fractions of cents are counted for whole cents. Art. 9.-The import-duty is at least five cents for every declaration, however trifling the quantity or value may be.

Art. 10. For merchandise, of which the tare is not fixed by the tariff, the following tare may be subtracted from the gross weight:

a. For merchandise packed in barrels, or wooden boxes, fifteen per cent.;

b. For merchandise packed in leather, mats, baskets, canisters, linen, or such objects, eight per cent.

Art. 11.-When the importers are not content with the tare, as fixed by the preceding article, then they may pay the import-duty of the net weight, which shall be determined by the custom-officers at the expense of the importers.

Art. 12.-When there is a great number of barrels, casks, baskets, canisters, bales or packets

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of the same size and sort, then the tare may be determined by weighing the empty objects, which shall be indicated by the custom-officer. The tare shall be fixed then according to the result.

Art. 13.-When ad-valorem goods are packed with those whereof duty is to be paid according to the weight, then the net weight can be determined by the custom-officers at the expense of the importer.

Art. 14.-For the determination of the importduty for liquids which do not pay excises, the following deduction will be allowed for leakage.

a. When imported by sea, from the harbours of the North Sea and Baltic, of France, Portugal and Spain, from this side of the Strait of Gibraltar six per cent.; b. when imported from elsewhere twelve per cent.

Art. 15.-When the importer is not content with the deduction as fixed by the preceding article, he may pay duty for the real quantity, to be determined at his own expense.

Art. 16.-When liquids which do not pay excise, and which are charged according to the measure, are imported by land or by the rivers, no deduction will be allowed.

The duty is to be paid for the whole contents of barrels, except when the importer should prefer to have the real contents determined by the custom-officers, at his own expense.

Art. 19.-Importations prohibited are:

a. Reprints of books, the copyright of which exists in the Netherlands or in foreign states with which they have concluded copyright treaties. b. Copper coin and plates for copper coin. Copper-plates for coin, however, may be imported for the use of the mint, by paying the import duty as fixed by the tariff for beaten copper, leaves or plates.

Art. 20.-An export duty of 5 guilders per 100 lbs. shall be paid on linen and cotton rags, including old useless paper, torn or not, linen and cotton, worn clothes of linen and cotton, sold by weight, likewise pulp for paper, and all those objects when they are mixed with woollen rags.

An export duty of 5 guilders 50 cents per 100 lbs. shall be paid on unmixed woollen rags. The following is the Royal resolution of October 6, 1862, for the execution of the Law of August 15, 1862, concerning the freedom of import-duty for ships' victuals and provisions.

Art. 1.-The quantity of ship-victuals and provisions for the consumption on inward-bound ships, which are, according to Art. 5 of the said Law, free of import duty or excises, is fixed:

a. For sailing-ships arriving along sea-side or by the rivers and for rafts per head of the crew: 5 ounces salt, 1 litre wine, litre spirits, 2 litres beer, 5 ounces soap, 4 litre vinegar, 5 ounces sugar, 10 pounds pit-coals, 1 pound meat.

b. For every sea and river-steamer at once: 5 pounds salt, 10 litres wine, 20 litres beer, 5 pounds soap, 3 litres vinegar, 5 pounds sugar, 20 pounds meat, 5 pounds pit-coals per horse-power of the engine and per hour distance from the first office or the first expedition-office till the unloading place; c. For other goods, which are imported by sailing-vessels, steamers, or rafts, at a quantity whereof the duty is no more than one guilder.

Art. 2.-The captain has to give a declaration at the first office of the quantity and sort of the victuals and provisions which are on board, with indication of the barrels, chests, and other packages.

Art. 3.-The captain has the disposal of the quantity of victuals and provisions, as said by Art. 1.

Art. 4.-When the victuals or provisions surpass the quantity fixed by Art. 1, then the customofficers may apply such measures, either by mentioning on the general declaration, or by guarding or sealing, that the arrival on the unloading-place is secured.

When the goods arrive along the rivers, and no general declaration is made, then the captain is obliged to follow the prescriptions as fixed by Art. 1 of this resolution for the surpassing quantity. In that case shall be mentioned on the documents that those goods belong to victuals or provisions.

Art. 5.-The captain when arrived on the unloading place is obliged to put the victuals and provisions which he has not at his disposal, under the management of the custom-officers. The goods can be sealed by them on board of the ship or in bond, till they are exported again. When this cannot be done the captain is obliged to submit the goods to the usual formalities of the in and export or transito.

Art. 6.-This resolution takes effect on the 1st November 1862.

The business of insurance is extensively practised at Amsterdam: the premiums are moderate, and the security unexceptionable. The high duty formerly imposed in this country on policies of insurance contributed to the increase of this business in Holland.

Credit, Discount, &c.-The credit allowed on most articles is 3 months; some articles, however, are always sold for ready money; a discount is generally given in prompt payments; but the terms of credit on most articles and the discount allowed for ready money have been fixed by usage, and are regarded as essential conditions in every bargain. Some of the more important of these terms and discounts are specified in the following table. In consequence of the preference given in Holland to ready-money transactions, it is not a country in which adventurers without capital have much chance of speedily making a fortune. Rien, en effet, de plus facile que de s'établir à Amsterdam; mais rien de plus difficile que s'y soutenir sans des grandes ressources. Dans cette ville, où l'argent abonde, où on le prête contre des sûretés à si bon marché, il est pourtant impossible de s'en procurer à crédit; et sans argent il n'y a plus de possibilité d'y travailler, que de trouver quelqu'un qui veuille de se charger d'un papier nouveau qui ne seroit pas appuyé d'un credit que l'opinion, la protection, ou des effets réels feroient valoir à la bourse. Les Hollandois suivent là-dessus des maximes très-austères, même à l'égard des maisons d'une certaine consideration.' (Encyclopédie Méthodique de Commerce, t. ii. p. 650.) But this austerity is not a disadvantage, but the reverse. It prevents commerce from degenerating, as it has too often done in other places, into gambling adventures, and puts it on a comparatively solid foundation. And it should be mentioned to the honour of the Dutch, and as a proof of the excellence of this system, that notwithstanding the distress and loss of trade occasioned by the invasion and occupation of their country by the French, the bankruptcies in 1795 and subsequent years were not, comparatively, so numerous as in England in ordinary seasons! The regulations in the Code Napoléon as to bankruptcy are enforced in Holland.

It has long been the practice in Holland to make, on selling articles, considerable deductions from their weight, particularly from those of large bulk, as compared with their value. These tares and drafts, as they are termed, are now fixed by ancient usage, and the most important amongst them are here specified.

Tares and Allowances on the principal Articles sold | officers, and the tare for the whole quantity will at Amsterdam,

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Discount

cash 1 per cent.;

3 kilos. per bale, 12
per cent, and 2 per

cent.

24 kilos. per cask, and
13 per cent.
23 kilos. per half cask,
and 14 per cent,
nett weight, 1 per
cent., 2 per cent.
3 per cent., and S
per cent.

3 per cent. -
ditto.

2 kilos, per bale -
according to agreement
7 kilos. per firkin
8 kilos. per firkin, and
4 kilos. per half

firkin

1 per cent..

2 per cent.

3 per cent.

1 per cent. and 2 per

cent. real tare

12 kilos. per mille, 2
per cent. and 3 per
cent.

Neth. Trading
Comp., 1 per

cent.

per cent. and 1 per cent. for cash.

ditto.

ditto.

1 per cent. and 1
per cent. for cash.

ditto.
ditto.

1 per cent. for cash.

none.
none.

1 per cent. for cash.

ditto.

ditto.

dirto.

2 per cent. and I
per cent. for cash.
2 per cent. and 1
per cent.for cash.

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then be reckoned according to the average weight.

When goods on which the duty is to be paid according to their weight, are packed together with goods taxed according to their value, the nett weight of the first can be taken by the customhouse officers at the expense of the importers.

For all liquids free or excisable, rated by the measure, on importation by sea, a reduction is granted for leakage as follows:

Coming from ports in the North and Baltic Sea, France, Portugal, and Spain on this side of the Straits of Gibraltar, 6 per cent.; from other ports, 12 per cent.

If the importers think that this reduction for leakage is insufficient, or if they should assert a claim to a reduction in those cases in which the law does not grant it, they will be at liberty to pay duty according to the actual quantity, which is to be determined by the custom-house officers at the expense of the importers.

Money-Accounts are kept in guldens and cents, of which 5 cents are equivalent to 1 stiver, and 100 cents, or 20 stivers, to 1 gulden or florin. The florin is equal to 1s. 8d. sterling par of exchange. Generally speaking, however, the rate of exchange is below par, varying from 11 florins 65 cents to 11.95. The coins in circulation are the rijksdaalder, or 250 cents, the gulden, or 100 cents, the halve gulden, or 50 cents, the kwart gulden, or 25

1 per cent. for cash. cents, the dubbeltje, or 10 cents, the stuiver, or 5
cents, the cent and the halve cent, all of which are
of silver excepting the two last named, which are
of copper.
The bank notes in circulation are
those of 1,000, 300, 200, 100, 60, 50, 40, 25 and 10
gulden. There is no gold coinage. Formerly
gold and a great variety of silver coins were in
circulation, but these have been called in.

2 per cent. and 1
per cent. for cash.

1 per cent. for cash.
ditto.

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The above are the customary tares and other allowances made by the merchants in their transa tions with each other. But in paying the import-duties at the custom-house, the tare upon goods paying duty by weight is, with the exception undermentioned, fixed at 15 per cent. for such as are in casks or cases made of wood, and at 8 per cent. for such as are in packages, canisters, mats, baskets, leather, linen, &c.

Exception: Tea.-Of ordinary tea-chests weighing 55 kilos or more, 18 per cent.; ordinary teachests weighing less than 55 kilos, 25 per cent.

In case the importers are not satisfied with the tare fixed as above by the law of 1862, they can pay the duty according to the nett weight of the goods, in such a way as it shall be settled by the custom-house authorities, at the expense of the importers.

In case there are a great number of casks, cases, or packages of the same kind and size, the tare can be fixed by weighing a part of the empty casks &c., to be pointed out by the custom-house

Weights and Measures.-In 1820 the French system of weights and measures was introduced into the Netherlands, the names only being changed.

The pond is the unit of weight, and answers to the French kilogramme. Its divisions are the ons, lood, wigtje, and korrel. 1015 kilogrammes, or Netherlands' lbs., are equal to 2-240 English lbs., or 50 kilogrammes are equal to 1 cwt.

The elle, which is the unit or element of long measure, equals the French mètre. Its decimal divisions are the palm, duim, and streep; and its decimal multiples, the roede and mijle.

The vierkante elle, or square ell, is the unit of superficial measure; and answers to the centiare or mètre carré of France. Its divisions are the vierkante palm, vierkante duim, and the vierkante streep; and its multiples, the vierkante roede and. vierkante bunder.

The kubicke elle is the unit of measures or capacity; and equals the French stère. Its divisions are the kubicke palm, kubicke duim, and kubicke streep.

The term wisse is given to a kubicke elle of firewood.

The kop is the unit of measures for dry wares, and is the cube of the palm; answering to the French litre. Its division is the maatje, and its multiples the schepel and mudde; the latter is also called the zak, and equals the French hectolitre. 30 mudden make 1 last.

The kan is the unit for liquid measure, and is the cube of the palm; it corresponds to the French litre. Its divisions are the maatje and vingerhoed, and 100 kans make a vat or cask, which equals the French hectolitre.

The apothecary's new lb. is 12 oz., 96 dr., 288 scr., or 5,760 gr.; and answers to 375 gram., or 5,787 English grains.

By the old method of calculating, which is not Magnitude of the Commerce of Holland in the yet entirely superseded, the lb. of Amsterdam Seventeenth Century: Causes of its Prosperity and was to 109 lbs. avoirdupois, or 100 lbs. Amster-Decline.-We believe we need make no apology dam108-923 lbs. avoirdupois. for embracing this opportunity to lay before our readers the following details with respect to the commerce and commercial policy of Holland. It forms one of the most instructive topics of investigation; and it is to be regretted that so little attention should have been paid to it in this country.

The last or measure for corn 30 mudden: 10 11-40ths quarters Winchester measure. The aam 1 quid measure=4 ankers=8 steckans 21 viertels=64 stoops or stoppen =281 mingles=256 pints=41 English wine gallons.

The stoop contains 5 pints English measure. 100 mingles are equal to 32 English wine gallons, or 26 1-5th English beer gallons, or 263 imperial gallons.

French wine is sold per hogshead of Spanish and Portuguese wine per pipe of

French brandy, per hogshead of
Beer, per barrel (equal to the aam)
of

Vegetable oils, per aam, of
Whale oil,
per ditto

180 mingles.

349 ditto.
30 viertels.

Previously to the commencement of the longcontinued and glorious struggle made by the Dutch to emancipate themselves from the blind and brutal despotism of Old Spain, they had a considerable marine, and had attained to distinction by their fisheries and commerce; and the war, instead of being injurious to the trade of the republic, contributed powerfully to its extension. 128 mingles. After the capture of Antwerp by the Spaniards, in 1585, the extensive commerce of which it had been the centre was removed to the ports of Holland, and principally to Amsterdam, which then attained to the distinction she long enjoyed, of the first commercial city of Europe.

120 ditto.

16 ditto. Rum is sold per anker of 2 steckan=104 English wine gallons.

=12

The foot of Amsterdam 11 1-7th English inches.
The Rhineland foot
ditto.
The ell, cloth measure=27 1-12th ditto.
Rock salt is sold per hondert of 404 maaten,
making 20 tons, or 4,000 lbs. Dutch.

Pit coal is sold per hoed of 38 maaten; 9 hoeds are 5 chaldrons of Newcastle, or 6 hoeds are 5 chaldrons of London.

Butter is sold per barrel; the barrel of Leyden is 320 lbs. nett-that of Friesland 28 lbs. nettand the common Dutch barrel 336 lbs. gross. A last of herrings is reckoned at 12, 13, or 14 barrels.

A last of pitch is 12 barrels.

A last of tar, 13 barrels.

A bag of seed=24 Winchester quarters.

8 hogsheads (or oxhofts) of wine

12 barrels of pitch

13 barrels of tar

20 chests of lemons, &c.

4,000 lbs. of iron, copper, and colonial produce

4,000 lbs. of almonds

2,000 lbs. of wool or feathers

are reckoned
as one last
in settling
the freight
of ships.

In 1602 the Dutch East India Company was formed; and notwithstanding the pernicious influence of that association, the Indian trade increased rapidly in magnitude and importance. Ships fitted either for commercial or warlike purposes, and having a considerable number of soldiers on board, were sent out within a few years of the establishment of the company. Amboyna and the Moluccas were first wrested from the Portuguese, and with them the Dutch obtained the monopoly of the spice trade. Factories and fortifications were in no long time established, from Bussorah, near the mouth of the Tigris, in the Persian Gulf, along the coasts and islands of India as far as Japan. Alliances were formed with several of the Indian princes; and in many parts, particularly on the coasts of Ceylon, and in various districts of Malabar and Coromandel, they were themselves the sovereigns. Batavia. in the large and fertile island of Java, the greater part of which had been conquered by the Dutch, formed the centre of their Indian commerce; and though unhealthy, its port was excellent, and it was admirably situated for commanding the trade of the Eastern Archipelago. In 1651 they planted a colony at the Cape of Good Hope, which had been strangely neglected by the Portu

A last of wheat is considered 10 per cent. higher than one of rye, and the latter 20 per cent. higher than oats, and 12 per cent. higher than seed. A last of ballast is only 2,000 lbs.guese. These details have been derived from the answers by the British consul to the circular queries; the Dictionnaire du Commerce (Ency. Method.), tom. ii. pp. 554-650; Kelly's Cambist, private information, &c.

A last for freight is 2,000 kilogrammes, equivalent to about 1 ton, 19 cwts. 1 qr. 18 lbs. English.

According to the tariff of the Netherlands' Trading Company the last, in settling freights from the Netherlands' East Indies, varies as follows:

For Arrack
Cochineal
Sugar
Coffee, in bags

kilos.

kilos,

Every branch of commerce was vigorously prosecuted by the Dutch. Their trade with the Baltic was, however, by far the most extensive and lucrative of which they were in possession. Guicciardini mentions that the trade with Poland, Denmark, Prussia. &c., even before their revolt was so very great, that fleets of 300 ships arrived twice a year at Amsterdam from Dantzic and Livonia only; but it increased prodigiously during the latter part of the sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth centuries. The great population of Holland, and the limited extent and unfruitful nature of the soil, render the inhabitants dependent on foreigners for the greater part The countries round 2,000 of their supplies of corn. 100 the Baltic have always furnished them with the 900 principal of those supplies; and it is from them 1200 that they have been in the habit of bringing tim1,100 ber, iron, hemp and flax, pitch and tar, tallow, 2,000 ashes, and other bulky articles required in the 1,500 building of their houses and ships, and in various 800 manufactures. Nothing, however, redounds so 930 much to the credit of the Dutch, as the policy 900 they have invariably followed with respect to the trade in corn. They have, at all times, had a

it equals For Gum benzoin it equals 1,750

Gum copal

1,500

1.400 **

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1,500 2,000

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Camphor
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1,300

950

1,000

2,000

2,000

650

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