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Masters of merchant vessels must deposit their ships' papers and import manifest with their consul (if they have no consul, with the customs) within 48 hours after entering the port.

The import manifest must contain a true account of the cargo on board, and must be handed to the customs before any application to break bulk can be attended to.

The landing and discharging of cargo must be carried on within the limits of the inner-anchorage, and can only take place between sunrise and sunset, and cannot go on, without special provision, on Sundays and holidays. Cargo boats employed for the shipment and landing of merchandise cannot make use of other jetties than those specified above.

When ready to discharge cargo, the consignee must send to the customs an application in Chinese and English, giving full particulars of the cargo to be discharged, when he will be furnished with a permit to insure his consignment from the ship by which imported, and to place the same in a cargo boat. The cargo boat must then repair to one of the authorised jetties, in order that the goods may be examined and assessed for duty. A customs 'memo.' will thereupon be issued, to be taken to the bank by the consignee, who, upon payment of the duty therein noted, will be supplied with a 'duty receipt:' upon the presentation at the office of customs of the duty receipt, a duty-paid order will be issued. The goods imported may be removed from the customs jetty, and placed in the merchants' godown.

only carried on in the inner harbour between | situated on the Y, an arm of the Zuyder Zee, in Kulang-su and Amoy, northern and southern lat. 52° 22′ 17′′ N., long. 4° 53′ 15′′ E. From limits. The authorised customs' jetties for the 1580 to 1750, Amsterdam was, perhaps, the first examination, landing, and shipment of goods, are commercial city of Europe; and though her trade those known as the Taou-mei-ma-tau, Kang-ah- has experienced a great falling off since the lastkow, Sin-lo-tow, and Sai-hong wharves. mentioned epoch, it is still very considerable. In 1785, the population is said to have amounted to 235,000; in 1815 it had declined to 180,179; but in December 1863 it had risen, according to the Almanach de Gotha, to 266,679. The harbour is spacious and the water deep; and it has recently been much improved by the construction of docks, two of which are already completed, and a third in a very advanced state. Owing, however, to a bank (the Pampus) where the Y joins the Zuyder Zee, large vessels going or coming by that sea are obliged to load and unload a part of their cargoes in the roads. The navigation of the Zuyder Zee is also, by reason of its numerous shallows, very intricate and difficult; and as there were no hopes of remedying this defect, it became necessary to resort to other means for improving the access to the port. Of the various plans suggested for this purpose, the preference was given to the scheme for cutting a canal capable of admitting the largest class of merchantmen, from the north side of the port of Amsterdam to Newdiep, opposite to the Texel, and a little to the east of the Helter. This canal has fully answered the views of the projectors, and has proved of signal service to Amsterdam, by enabling large ships to avoid the Pampus, as well as the difficult navigation of the Zuyder Zee, where they were frequently detained for three weeks, and to get to and from Newdiep without any sort of risk in less than 24 hours. The canal was begun in 1819, and completed in 1825. It has 5 sluices large enough to admit ships of the line; the dues and charges on account of towing, &c. being at the same time very moderate. At Newdiep the water is deeper than in any other port on the coast of Holland, and ships are there in the most favourable position for getting expeditiously to sea. This canal having been found insufficient in depth of water for large steamers, it was resolved to make a more direct communication between Amsterdam and the North Sea at Wky aau Zee, by draining a portion of the river Y, and cutting a canal through the sandhills. This was begun by the Amsterdam Canal Company in 1865, and its completion is expected in about seven years. [CANALS.] The imports principally consist of sugar, coffee, spices, tobacco, cotton, tea, indigo, cochineal, wine and brandy, wool, grain of all sorts, timber, pitch and tar, hemp and flax, iron, hides, linen, cotton and woollen stuffs, hardware, rock salt, tin plates, coal, dried fish, &c. The exports consist partly of the produce of Holland, partly and principally of the produce of her possessions in the East and West Indies, and other tropical countries, and partly of commodities brought to Amsterdam, as to a convenient entrepôt from different parts of Europe. Of the first class are cheese and butter (very important articles), madder, clover, rape, hemp, and linseeds, rape and linseed oils, Dutch linen, &c. Geneva is principally exported from Schiedam and Rotterdam; oak bark and cattle principally from the latter. Of the second class are spices, coffee, and sugar, principally from Java, but partly also from Surinam, Brazil, and Cuba; indigo, cochineal, cotton, tea, tobacco, and all sorts of Eastern and colonial products. And of the third class, all kinds of grain, linens from Germany, timber and all sorts of Baltic produce; Spanish, German, and English wools; French, Rhenish, and Hungarian wines, brandy, &c. The trade of Amsterdam may, indeed, be said to comprise

In the case of goods to be shipped, the shipper must send to one of the authorised jetties for examination, with an application in Chinese and English for a permit to ship, containing all necessary particulars. The goods will then be examined, and a customs memo. issued, and on the production at the office of the duty receipt,' a duty-paid order' will be issued authorising the shipment.

Cargo for which a shipment permit has been issued, but which cannot be received on board, must be brought to one of the authorised jetties for examination before being relanded.

No transhipment can take place without special written permission.

Drawback exemption, or coast-trade duty certificates will be issued simultaneously with the permit for the shipment of goods covered by them; exemption or coast-trade duty certificates for goods imported must be presented simultaneously with the consignee's application for the permit to

land.

Before application is made for the customs clearance,' the export manifest must be handed in. All dues and duties having been paid, the clearance will be issued.

Cargo boats must be registered at the customs, and must have their respective numbers conspicuously painted on them in English and Chinese characters. No cargo can be transhipped, shipped, or landed, without special permission, except in duly registered cargo boats.

For further particulars on the trade, &c. of Amoy, see Dr. Williams's Chinese Commercial Guide (1863) and Messrs. Mayers, Dennys, and Kings' Treaty Ports of China and Japan (1867). Both these works are published at Shanghae.

AMSTERDAM. The principal city of Holland,

every article that enters into the commerce of Europe. Her merchants were formerly the most extensive dealers in bills of exchange, and though London be now, in this respect, far superior to Amsterdam, the latter still enjoys a respectable share of this business.

The Bank of the Netherlands was established at Amsterdam in 1814. It is not, like the old Bank of Amsterdam, which ceased in 1796, merely a bank of deposit, but a bank of deposit and circulation formed on the model of the Bank of England. Its capital, which originally amounted to 5,000,000 fl., was doubled in 1819. It has the exclusive privilege of issuing notes. Its original charter, which was limited to 25 years, was prolonged in 1838 for 25 years more, and again in 1863 for an additional period of 25 years.

Public Works.-Many steps have been taken for the important project of cutting a canal through the narrowest part of North Holland for the purpose of having a shorter and more direct communication between Amsterdam and the North Sea. The great difficulty from first to last has been to convince capitalists of the feasibility of the undertaking.

Happily in the latter end of November 1864, after much exertion, the required sum was subscribed. On August 16, 1857, a permanent exhibition building (Palace of Industry) was opened in the city with great ceremony.

estimated at 442,438,906 florins, and the exports at 374,730,947. The United Kingdom, the German Customs Union, Belgium, Java, France, and Russia, are the countries with which she carries on the most extensive trade.

Dutch Commercial Policy.-The policy of Holland, civil, religious, and commercial, has long been of the most liberal and enlightened description (see post); and she was the first country to follow the example we set in repealing the navigation laws in 1849. The Dutch law on this subject was passed in 1850. Previously to that period discriminating duties were imposed on most articles imported on foreign bottoms; and also on those imported by foreigners into Java and her other colonies. But these preferences no longer exist. The following is an extract from the law relative to these matters:

Differential duties are abolished on the vessels of those states which

a. Place the Dutch flag on the same footing with their national flag trading to and from their own ports (coasting trade and fisheries excepted); b. Which place the Dutch flag on the same footing with their national flag trading to and from their colonies, if they possess any; and

c. Which do not levy other differential duties to the disadvantage of the produce of the Netherland colonies, or to the prejudice of produce imported from other parts of the world, from Netherland ports, than those which are levied in favour of the produce of their own colonies, when imported direct.

It is contemplated to enlarge Amsterdam, as the population has been of late on the increase. Unlike most European towns, it has no suburbs, and is girded around by a canal, the overstepping of The fisheries and the coasting trade of Holland which has been dreaded on account of polder and of her colonies are reserved to Dutch ships. malaria. As house-rent is exorbitant, the proposed But it is no longer necessary that the latter should enlargement would be a great boon. New hotels be of Dutch build. Foreign-built ships have, have been designed on the principle now adopted however, to pay on being registered an ad valorem in other parts of the continent, and one has been duty of 2 per cent. over and above the fee commenced. The present establishments are any-charged on the registration of Dutch-built ships. thing but good. As Holland is about the most heavily taxed country in Europe, the cost of living is high, and to the inhabitants of a city like The navigation dues or tolls that were formerly Amsterdam it is more so through the local or charged on vessels or goods passing through Holland town dues. The duty on coal and turf was ex- by the Rhine and the Yssel, and transit duties of cessive, and, though recently reduced, calls still kinds, have also been repealed. And though it for reduction. The duties on other articles of con- may be said, and truly, that these wise and liberal sumption are proportionately high, excepting co-measures will be much more advantageous to the lonial produce, such as tea, coffee, sugar &c. coming from the Netherlands East Indian possessions, and Dutch tobacco, the only really cheap article in Holland.

The average rate of wages for carpenters, masons, painters, plumbers &c. is about 2s. per day of nine hours in summer, and 1s. 6d. per day

of seven hours in winter.

The rate of exchange on London during 1864 has varied from 11 florins 68 cents to 11 florins 95 cents, and for bills at two months from 11 florins 53 cents to 11 florins 77 cents per 17. sterling.

The Almanach de Gotha gives the population, on the 31st of December 1863, as 266,679.

For an account of the Dutch fisheries, see the arts. HERRING FISHERY and WHALE FISHERY.

About 311 ships with a tonnage of 115,410 belong to Amsterdam; they are employed in the East and West India trades, and in trading to the Baltic, the Mediterranean &c. There is comparatively little coasting trade at Amsterdam, the communication with most other ports in the vicinity being principally kept up by canals, and that with Friesland by regular packets.

There belonged to Holland on January 1, 1865, 1,837 ships, of the aggregate burden of 388,684 tons, ex river craft and small coasters.

The total imports into Holland in 1863 were

Several important reductions were at the same time made in the tariff of import duties.

Dutch than to any other people, still they are of the greatest importance to all commercial nations, and especially to those who, like ourselves, have an extensive intercourse with them.

We are glad to have to state that this liberal policy has in Holland, as in England, had its appropriate reward. Commerce has been largely extended. The mercantile marine is in a highly prosperous state, and is daily receiving large additions. Many Dutch ships have latterly been chartered by English merchants.

Besides these exports, a considerable amount of foreign and colonial produce is exported by Great Britain to Holland. During the years 1861-5, these amounted to 4,554,830Z., 4,594,861, 6,339,3227, 7,168,2234, and 6,823,196, respectively. Of these commodities the largest in value was cotton, representing on an average twofifths of the whole amount. Coffee, indigo, oils, ice, silk, wool, and seeds were also considerable objects of trade. Tea is also becoming an important article of export from Great Britain to Holland.

The greater portion, however, of the trade between the United Kingdom and Holland is carried on with Rotterdam, which is much more conveniently situated for such intercourse than Amsterdam. But the latter continues to engross by far the larger share of the commerce with the flourishing colony of Java and the other Dutch

Account of Quantities and Values of the principal Articles, the Growth and Produce of Great Britain and Ireland, exported from the United Kingdom to the Netherlands during the 5 years ending with 1865

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Coals, cinders, & culm tons Copper, wrought and

269,025

254,314

unwrought

cwt.

26,589

20,463

216,202 241,332 237,602
41,628 -32,825 45,234

76,980 76,540 111,608 106,932

78,624 89,719 102,193 92,733 101,329 108,669)

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Cotton yan

120,168 93,279 184,731 154,613 199,266 lbs. 37,376,580 18,593,422 11,213,155 13,113,916 20,835,590 2,073,120 1,243,758 1,179,483 1,383,027 2,053,216 - yds. 37,700,094 26,366,371 15,498,101 17,399,586 28,440,378 692,470 545,228 436,264 536,480 784,951 44,636 74,919 63,571 76,770 74,865

Cottons, entered by the

vard

Cottons entered at val. val. Drugs and chemical

products Earthenware and por

celain

Grease

Hardwaresandcutlery,

unenumerated

Iron, wrought and un

wrought

Jute yarn

Lead and shot

Leather, wrought and

unwrought

Linen yarn

Linens, entered by the

yard

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- yds. 1,875,949 2,191,613 1,173,529 724,498 632,730 Linens, entered at val. val.

Machinery:

Steam engines

All other sorts

Oil, seed

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4,558

4,704

14,355

15,650

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652,362 1,203,368 1,718,157

219,953 140,717

21,954 162,965 156,321

51,646 37,086 121,040 163,835 207,150] 228,782 107,114 170,723 231,107

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possessions in the East; and is, consequently, | 55 to 60 cents per ton; discharging the same, from the principal continental mart for Eastern produce. The following is a memorandum of expenses on a ship of 360 register, or about 400 Dutch tons, drawing 12 feet English, or 36 palms, from and to the East Indies, with a full cargo, inwards and outwards.

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Equivalent to about 877. at 12 fl. per 11. Ships are also towed by horses through the canal, which is far cheaper, but the wear and tear of ropes make the steamer preferable.

If a ship clear in ballast, and does not draw more than 9 or 10 feet water, she can depart through the Zuyder Zee, and in that case her expenses from Amsterdam to sea would amount to about 41. or 54. Ballast costs in Amsterdam 70 cents per ton, and 15 to 20 cents per ton for putting it on board.

Taking in ballast whilst in the canal, and putting it on board, cost 50 cents per ton.

Loading and stowing a general cargo cost from

Ships laden from Great Britain, the Baltic, and north of the Canaries pay 9 cents per ton for lights and beacons, and 3 cents per ton outward bound; ships in ballast pay half of the dues for lights and beacons, and half of the canal dues inward and outward bound, and in these two instances (when laden and in ballast) the clearance at the custom-house is reduced to 3 fls.

Ships laden with timber or coals pay only half of the canal dues, and 8 cents per ton for dock and sluice dues, and half the towage dues across the river. Pilotage is likewise a little less when steam tugs are employed.

No ships are exempted from pilotage. Quarantine.-The quarantine station is at the island of Wierengen, near the Helder.

Commission.-The usual rate of the commission or factorage on the purchase or sale of goods is 2 per cent., and on bill transactions and per cent. according to their nature.

Provisions of all sorts are abundant at Amsterdam, and reasonably cheap. The wages of ships' carpenters vary from 1 flor. 20 cents to 1 flor. 80 cents; that is, from about 2s. to 3s. a day.

For an account of the corn trade of Amsterdam, see CORN TRADE AND CORN LAWS.

Custom-house Regulations.-Captains of ships are bound to make, within 24 hours of their arrival at Amsterdam, or any Dutch port, a declaration in writing of the goods of which their cargo consists. If the captains be not acquainted with the goods of which the cargo consists, they must make their declaration under the general term of merchandise, and exhibit the bills of lading along with the declaration. The custom-house officers are instructed to inform the captains of almost all formalities required by law.

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