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in many minerals, as lepidolite, spodumene, petalite, | &c., in the ashes of plants, particularly the tobacco plant, and in mineral waters, and in some of the pits of Cornwall in considerable quantity.

Carbonate of Lithia.-The only salt of this alkali of any commercial importance: it is used in the preparation of artificial mineral waters and in medicine for gout.

Casia and Rubidia.-Lately discovered and very rare alkalies; they occur in minute quantities in some mineral waters, and in a very few minerals, lepidolite for instance. They are of no commercial importance.

Richardson and Watts's Chemical Technologythe principal store of information on alkalies-has, been freely used.

Alkaloids or Vegeto-Alkalies-may be divided into two classes, natural and artificial, the former being found ready formed in plants; the latter known only as the result of chemical manipulation. Amongst the natural alkaloids the following are the principal:- aconitine, atropine brucine, cinchonine, codeine, conine, daturnine, digitaline, hyoscyamine, meconine, morphine, narcotine, nicotine, quinine, strychnine, theine, veratrine, &c. The artificial alkaloids are too numerous to mention here; amongst those known to commerce are aniline, toluidine, naphthylamine, &c.

We are indebted to Dr. Angus Smith, the eminent chemist, and the government inspector of alkali works, for the above article.

Average tare is when a few packages only among several are weighed, their mean or average taken, and the rest tared accordingly.

Super-tare is an additional allowance, or tare where the commodity or package exceeds a certain weight.

When tare is allowed, the remainder is called the nett weight: but if tret be allowed, it is called the suttle weight.

Tret is a deduction of 4 lbs. from every 104 lbs. of suttle weight.

This allowance, which is said to be for dust or sand, or for the waste or wear of the commodity. was formerly made on most foreign articles sold by the pound avoirdupois; but it is now nearly discontinued by merchants, or else allowed in the price. It is wholly abolished at the East India warehouses in Londen; and neither tret nor draft is allowed at the Custom House.

Cloff, or Clough, is another allowance that is nearly obsolete. It is stated in arithmetical books to be a deduction of 2 lbs. from every 3 cwt, of the second suttle; that is, the remainder after tret is subtracted; but merchants, at present, know cloff only as a small deduction, like draft, from the original weight, and this only from two or three articles. (Kelly's Cambist, art. 'London.')

For an account of the tares and allowances at London, see TARE; for the tares and allowances at the great foreign trading towns, see their


ALKANET or ANCHUSA (Ger. orkanet; ALMONDS (Ger. mandeln; Dutch, amandelen: Dutch, alkanna; Fr. orcanette; Ital. ancusa; Fr. amandes; Ital. mandorli; Span, almendras ; Span. alcaneta). A species of bugloss (Anchusa Port. amendoas; Russ, mindal: Lat. amygdala tinctoria, Linn.; Lithospermum tinctorium (Dec.). amaræ, dulces). A kind of medicinal fruit, conIt has been cultivated in England; but is found tained in a hard shell, that is enclosed in a tough of the finest quality in Siberia, Spain, and more sort of cotton skin. The tree (Amygdalus comparticularly in the South of France, in the vicinity munis) which produces this fruit nearly resembles of Montpelier. The roots of the plant are the the peach both in leaves and blossoms; it grows only parts that are made use of. When in per- spontaneously only in warm countries, as Spain, fection, they are about the thickness of the finger, and particularly Barbary. It flowers early in the having a thick bark of a deep purplish red colour. spring, and produces fruit in August. Almonds This, when separated from the whitish woody are of two sorts, sweet and bitter. They are not pith, imparts a fine deep red to alcohol, oils, wax, distinguishable from each other but by the taste and all unctuous substances. To water it gives of the kernel or fruit. The Valentia almond is only a dull brownish hue. It is principally em- sweet, large, and flat-pointed at one extremity, ployed to tint wax, pomatum, and unguents, oils and compressed in the middle. The Italian alemployed in the dressing of mahogany, rose-wood,¦monds are not so sweet, smaller, and less depressed &c. The alkanet brought from Constantinople yields a more beautiful but less permanent dye than that of France. (Lewis's Mat. Med.; Magniem, Dictionnaire des Productions.)

The duty, which was previously very oppressive, was reduced in 1832 to 2s, a cwt.; was reduced (1842) to 1s. a cwt. and is now repealed. The imports are inconsiderable. The price varies from 278. to 32s. a cwt.

in the middle. The Jordan almonds come from Malaga, and are the best sweet almonds brought to England. They are longer, flatter, less pointed at one end and less round at the other, and have a paler cuticle than those we have described. The sweet almonds are imported in mats, casks, and boxes; the bitter arrive in boxes.' (Thomson's Dispensatory.)

Previously to 1832 almonds were grossly overtaxed; but the duties were then considerably reduced, and they were also still further reduced in 1842 and 1853. The duty on all varieties (ine. Jordan) of sweet almonds was fixed in the last mentioned year at 10s. a cwt., that on bitter almonds having been previously repealed. That

ALLOWANCES, TARES, &c. In selling goods, or in paying duties upon them, certain deductions are made from their weights, depending on the nature of the packages in which they are inclosed, and which are regulated in most instances by the custom of merchants, and the rules laid down by public offices. These allow-on sweet almonds was repealed in 1860. In 1865, ances, as they are termed, are distinguished by the epithets, Draft, Tare, Tret, and Cloff.

Draft is a deduction from the original or gross weight of goods, and is subtracted before the tare is taken off.

Tare is an allowance for the weight of the bag, box, cask, or other package, in which goods are weighed.

Real or open tare is the actual weight of the package.

Customary tare is. as its name implies, an established allowance for the weight of the package. Computed tare is an estimated allowance agreed upon at the time.

32,037 cwts. were imported chiefly from Spain and Morocco, valued at 103,9097. The Morocco almonds are mostly shipped at MOGADORE,

ALMONDS, BITTER OIL OF. [Ons.] ALMONDS, DIKA. The fruits of the Mangifera gabonensis, which grows on the west coast of Africa. They yield on pressure froin 65 to 70 per cent. of a grease resembling the butter of cocoa, which is stated to be fitted for the manufacture of soap.


ALOES (Dutch aloe; Fr. aloes; Ger. and Lat. aloe; Russ, sabir; Sp. aloè; Arab. mucibar). A bitter, gummy, resinous, inspissated juice, obtained

from the leaves of the plant of the same name. | countries and islands of the east coast of the Gulf There are four sorts of aloes met with in commerce; viz. Socotrine, Hepatic, Caballine, and Cape.

1. Socotrine. So called from the island of Socotra, in the Indian Ocean, not very distant from Cape Guardafui, where the plant (aloe spicata), of which this species is the produce, grows abundantly. It is in pieces of a reddish brown colour, glossy as if varnished, and in some degree pellucid. When reduced to powder it is of a bright golden colour. Its taste is extremely bitter; and it has a peculiar aromatic odour, not unlike that of the russet apple decaying. It softens in the hand, and is adhesive, and yet is sufficiently pulverulent. It is imported by way of Smyrna and Alexandria, in chests and casks, but is very scarce in England. 2. Hepatic.-The real hepatic aloe, so called from its liver colour, is believed to be the produce of the Aloe perfoliata, which grows in Yemen in Arabia, from which it is exported to Bombay, whence it finds its way to Europe. It is duller in the colour, bitterer, and has a less pleasant aroma than the Socotrine aloes, for which, however, it is sometimes substituted. Barbadoes aloes, which is often passed off for the Hepatic, is the produce of the Aloe vulgaris. It is brought home in calabashes, or large gourd shells, containing from 60 to 70 lbs. It is duskier in its hue than the Bombay, or real hepatic aloes, and the taste is more nauseous, and intensely bitter. The colour of the powder is a dull olive yellow.

of Siam. This article is in high repute for fumigations, and as incense, in all Hindu, Mohammedan, and Catholic countries. It formerly brought a very high price, being at one time reckoned nearly as valuable as gold. It is now comparatively cheap, though the finest specimens are still very dear. The accounts of this article in most books, even of good authority, are singularly contradictory and inaccurate. This is more surprising, as La Loubère has distinctly stated that it consisted only of 'certains endroits corrumpus dans des arbres d'une certaine espèce. Toute arbre de cette espèce n'en a pas; et ceux qui en ont, ne les ont pas tous en même endroit.' (Royaume de Siam, t. i. p. 45. 12mo. ed.) The difficulty of finding the trees which happen to be diseased, and of getting at the diseased portion, has given rise to the fables that have been current as to its origin. The late Dr. Roxburgh introduced the tree which yields this production into the Botanical Garden at Calcutta, from the hills to the eastward of Sylhet, and described it under the name of Aquilaria Agalocha.

ALPACA, LLAMA, AND VICUNA WOOLS. These wools are derived from various quadrupeds of the genus llama inhabiting the Cordillera of the Andes, below the line of perpetual snow. They are found principally in Peru and Chili, and exist also, but rarely, in Columbia and Paraguay. The race represents the camel of the new world (Au3. Caballine or Horse Aloes.-This seems to be chenia camelus paco, Cuv.), and constitutes, accordmerely the coarsest species or refuse of the Barba- ing to Dr. Gray and others, four varieties, the does aloes. It is used only in veterinary medicine, guanaco, llama, alpaca, and vicuna. The wool of and is easily distinguished by its rank foetid smell. the two former animals is principally used in the Cape Aloes.-The produce of the Aloe spicata, manufacture of coarse native fabrics; that of the which is found in great abundance in the interior latter is fine and beautiful, and is rapidly becoming of the Cape Colony, and in Melinda. The latter employed in Europe in the manufacture of dress. furnishes the greater part of the extract sold in The first references to these animals are in GarciEurope under the name of Socotrine aloes. The lasso, quoted by John de Laet (folio, Leyden, 1633), odour of the Cape aloes is stronger and more and the manufacture of their wool is mentioned disagreeable than that of the Socotrine: they have, by Acosta (Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias), also, a yellower hue on the outside; are less glossy,This wool the barbarians clean, spin, and weave softer, and more pliable; the colour of the powder into garments.' According to Hill (Travels in is more like that of gamboge than that of the true Mexico and Peru, vol. i. p. 104), the guanaco, or Socotrine aloes. (Ainslie's Mat. Indica; Thom-huanacu, the largest of the llama species, is about son's Dispensatory and Mat. Medica.) 3 feet 6 inches in height, and its wool, which is of a light brown colour, is inferior to that of the llama.

975,456 lbs. of aloes, chiefly from the Cape and Bombay, were imported in 1865. Duties repealed

in 1845.

ALOES-WOOD (Ger. aloeholz; Dutch, aloëhout, paradyshout; Fr. bois d'aloés; Ital. legno di aloe; Span. aloè chino; Sans. aguru; Malay, agila; Siam, kisna). The produce of a large foresttree, to be found in most of the countries between China and India, from the 24th degree of north latitude to the equator.

Dr. Mason says with relation to this subject (see Mason's Burmah, London, Trübner 1860): It is imported into Mergui by the Selungs, who, as they profit from the trade, endeavour to keep all in ignorance of the tree from which they obtain it.' Sir J. Bowring states that only one species of the tree possesses the odorous element, and that the dark wood, which alone is valuable, is sold at about 10s. per lb. Every Christian family in the district where it grows is bound to pay to the King of Siam a tribute of 2 lbs. of eagle wood. It is principally found in the islands situated in the Gulf of Cambodia. (Bowring's Siam, p. 204.)

It seems to be the result of a diseased action confined to a small part of a few trees, of which the rest of the wood is wholly valueless. It appears to be more or less frequent according to soil and climate, and from the same causes to differ materially in quality. It is produced both in the greatest quantity and perfection in the

The llama is about three feet in height: the male is usually employed in carrying burdens, and is able to perform a day's journey with a weight varying from 100 to 150 lbs. Its wool is generally of a dirty brown colour, and occasionally a speckled grey. The wool of the female is finer than that of the male.

The vicuna, which is most highly prized for its wool, is smaller than the llama, and is about 2 feet 9 inches high. The wool is fine, short, and curly. The colour of the greater part of the body is reddish-yellow with a white breast. Their skins are worth, according to Mr. Hill, about 4 dollars each, and are stated to belong to the priests.

Various unsuccessful attempts have been made to introduce these animals into Europe. It was considered possible to introduce them into the Australian colonies; and recently Mr. Charles Ledger (notwithstanding the Peruvian edict intended against their exportation) succeeded, after immense difficulties, in shipping a flock from Copiapo in Chili for Sydney. For some time the experiment was thought likely to be successful, but later accounts are unfavourable. See an able paper read by Mr. C. Ledger before the Society of Arts (Jour. of Soc. of Arts, vol. ix. p. 212).

The number of hands employed by Mr. Salt, of

Saltaire, near Bradford, is about 3,000, and of these about two-thirds are engaged in the various processes by which alpaca and mohair are made into cloth.

Some of the goods supplied by this great manufactory are woven from pure alpaca and mohair yarns; some have mixed alpaca, mohair, and wool. Mohair and alpaca cloths have always a warp of either cotton or silk, never of wool. In some instances mohair yarns are mixed with silk, in others with a vegetable substance called Rhea fibre. The yarn made for the Velours and Utrecht trade is mostly pure mohair.


1851 1864

Alpaca Imports.

560,000 lbs. 2,186,180,

- 2,968,400 "

Beckmann has shown (History of Inventions, vol. i. art. Alum') that the ancients were unacquainted with alum, and that the substance which they designated as such was merely vitriolic earth. It was first discovered by the Orientals, who established alum works in Syria in the thirteenth or fourteenth century. The oldest alum works in Europe were erected about the middle of the fifteenth century. Towards the conclusion of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Sir Thomas Chaloner established the first alum work in England, in the vicinity of Whitby, in Yorkshire, where the principal works of the sort in this country are still carried on; the shipments of alum from Whitby in 1811 amounted to 3,237 tons. There is, also, a large alum work at Hurlett, near Paisley, the produce of which may be estimated at about 1,200

Price 10d. per lb. in 1836-3s. 4d. per lb. in 1862. tons a-year. Alum is largely manufactured in

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Price 1s. 10d. per lb. in 1854-3s. 6d. per lb. in 1863.

Weight. In many districts the packages have to be carried by mules, in which case they are generally from 60 to 80 lbs. each. In other districts, where better roads or railways are available, the packages vary from 125 to 200 lbs., but few are so heavy as the greater weight.

Quality. The indications of the best qualities are, length of staple, fineness and evenness of quality, softness and brilliancy of colour. The colours are black, white, brown, grey, and particolours. These colours are packed separately, each shipment containing a proportion of all; but no difference is made in the price of the respective colours. The average weight of a fleece of alpaca is from 3lbs, to 4lbs., that of a llama from 5lbs. to 6lbs. Length. The ordinary length of a staple of good alpaca is about 6 inches. The average length of a staple of llama is about 7 to 8 inches, and the fibres of the wool are not so regular, and are mixed with a coarse hair which renders it much less valuable than the true alpaca,

Price. The average value of alpaca may be quoted about 2s. 6d. per lb., and of llama 18. per lb. ALUM (Ger. alaun; Dutch, aluin; Fr. alun; Ital. allume; Span. allumbre; Russ, kwasszë; Lat. alumen; Arab. sheb). A salt of great importance in the arts, consisting of a ternary compound of alumina, or pure argillaceous earth, potass, and sulphuric acid. Alum is sometimes found native; but by far the greater part of that which is met with in commerce is artificially prepared. The best alum is the Roman, or that which is manufactured near Civita Vecchia, in the Papal territory. It is in irregular, octahedral, crystalline masses, about the size of a walnut, and is opaque, being covered on the surface with a farinaceous efflorescence. The Levant, or Roch alum, is in fragments, about the size of the former, but in which the crystalline form is more obscure; it is externally of a dirty rose-colour, and internally exhibits the same tinge, but clearer. It is usually shipped for Europe from Smyrna; but it was anciently made at Roccha, or Ldessa, in Syria; and hence its name Roch alum. English alum is in large, irregular, semi-transparent, colourless masses, having a glassy fracture; not efflorescent, and considerably harder than the others. It is very inferior to either the Roman or Roch alum. The principal use of alum is in the art of dycing, as a mordant for fixing and giving permanency to colours which otherwise would not adhere at all, or but for a very short time; but it is also used for a great variety of other purposes.

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China, and is thence exported to all the western Asiatic countries.

Of alum and vitriolic schist the produce in Austria is about 40,000 cwts.; it is chiefly procured from Bohemia, Styria, and Moravia. In Spain about 80,000 kilogrammes are obtained from the province of Murcia. In Prussia about 425,000 cwts, of alum ore were produced in 1861.

Alum is both largely produced in, and exported from, China to India, and other Eastern countries. As an indication of the extent of this branch of Chinese industry and commerce, we extract the following from the sixth edition of Dr. Williams's valuable Chinese Commercial Guide: Alum is exported to India and the Archipelago, where it is regarded as superior to the native product. About 75,000 piculs have been annually exported. It is found in argillaceous schist, or, ulum shale, in the provinces of Ngánhwi, Húnán, and Chekiáng, and finds its way chiefly to Ningpo and Shanghai; the markets of Swatow and Amoy also furnish large quantities drawn from neighbouring districts.

The mineral is extensively worked in the Sungyang hills in the district of Pingyang in Wanchau fú, near the borders of Fuhkien, and not far from Pihkwan harbour. The supply seems to be inexhaustible, and the daily product was estimated by a visitor, in 1853, at 18 tons of alum, which would amount to not less than 6,000 tons per annum.

This alum is equal to the best Roman. It is chictly employed by the Chinese for bleaching purposes.

In 1862 there were exported from the port of Tien-tsin 951 piculs (1 pic=1334 lbs. avoir.), valued at 1,902 taels (1 tael=6s. 2d, sterling). From the port of Tamsuy the exports in the same year were 1000 piculs, and from the port of Amoy 186,666 lbs., and 891 piculs from the port of HanKow. The Chinese market price in the same year was from 9s. 10d. to 10s. per picul.

The imports of alum into Great Britain are not large; they amounted in 1863 to 10,335 cwts., value 3,0077.

AMBER (Ger, bernstein; Dutch, barnsteen: Dan. bernsteen, Rav.; Fr. ambre jaune; Ital. ambra gialla; Span, ambar; Russ, jantar; Pol, bursztyn; Lat. succinum, electrum). A brittle, light, hard substance usually nearly transparent, sometimes nearly colourless, but commonly yellow, or even deep brown. It has considerable lustre. Specific gravity, 1065. It is found in nodules or rounded masses, varying from the size of coarse sand to that of a man's hand. It is tasteless, without smell, except when pounded or heated, when it emits a fragrant odour. It is highly electric. Amber is undoubtedly of vegetable origin, and, as is clear from the insects, &c. often preserved in it, was originally exuded in a fluid state from some extinct species of pine.

On the Prussian coast of the Baltic, between Konigsberg and Memel, amber is more abundant than in any other known locality, and the Prussian government are stated to derive a revenue of about 3,5004. per annum from its collection. The chief amber beds in the north of Prussia are near New Kechren, Brusterort and Lapöhnen. In the United States it is found principally at Amboy, New Jersey; at Gayhead and at Cape Sable in Maryland.

Amber is used in the manufacture of various kinds of varnish, dissolved with drying linseed oil, asphaltum, and resin; it is used as a coach-maker's varnish, and the spirit varnishes, which are prepared from the solution of amber in alcohol or ether, are used for photographic purposes. (Ure's Dict. of Arts &c. by Hunt.)

The quantities of amber imported into the United Kingdom in 1863 were:

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Amber has been recently discovered in the Lake of Anserche, in the duchy of Courland, and in other parts of the district. It is mostly transparent, and some pieces have been discovered of considerable size.

Amber is also found in considerable quantities on the shores of several islands of the Indian Archipelago and on the eastern shores of Africa, and at one period constituted a considerable article of export from Aden. It is largely in demand for court beads in China, where the transparent lively yellowish brown variety is most prized, foul and opaque pieces being almost valueless. The price in China varies from 8 dollars to 14 dollars per catty. False amber, brought from India, is also largely used, and is sold at Canton for prices nearly equal to those of the genuine article. (Dr. Williams's Chinese Guide.) See an interesting account of the ideas entertained by ancient Eastern nations, in Asiatic Researches.

AMBER GRIS or AMBER GREASE (Ger. amber; Dutch, amber; Fr. ambergris; Ital. ambragrigia; Span. ambar gris; Lat. ambra, ambra grisea). A solid opaque, generally ash-coloured fatty, inflammable substance, variegated like marble, remarkably light, rugged, and uneven in its surface, and has a fragrant odour when heated; it does not effervesce with acids, melts freely over the fire into a kind of yellow resin, and is hardly soluble in spirits of wine. It is found on the sea-coast, or floating on the sea near the coasts of India, Africa and Brazil, usually in small pieces, but sometimes in masses of 50 or 100lbs. weight. Various opinions have been entertained respecting its origin; but it is now well established that it is a concretion formed in the stomach or intestines of the Physeter macrocephalus, or spermaceti whale.' (Thomson's Chemistry.) Ambergris ought to be chosen in large pieces, of an agreeable odour, entirely grey on the outside, and grey with little black spots within. The purchaser should be very cautious, as this article is easily counterfeited with gums and other drugs.

'Persons engaged in the whale fishery look for Ambergris in the intestines of the spermaceti whale, and are most successful in finding it in those that appear torpid, sick, and lean; from whence it would appear that it is the product of disease. The lumps of it are from 3 inches to a foot in diameter, and from 1 lb. to 30 lbs. in weight; its value in this country is about 16s. per oz.

According to Mr. Emanuel (Diamonds and Precious Stones), 'the Oriental amethyst is a ruby or sapphire possessing an amethyst colour, which may be distinguished from the ordinary amethyst by its superior brilliancy and play, as well as by its hardness,' &c. It is a gem of rare occurrence, and even jewellers frequently confound it with the ordinary amethyst. There are some fine specimens in the Grüne Gewölbe at Dresden, and there are also in the Vatican one or two engraved intaglios of this stone of very early date.


The common or Occidental amethyst is a violet coloured quartz. It is, according to the same authority, found in India, Ceylon, the Brazils, Persia, Silesia, Hungary, Saxony, Spain, and also at Reboy in Ireland. Many years ago,' says Mr. Emanuel, such amethysts were of considerable value, ranking next to the sapphire, and worth as much as 30s. the carat when very fine. Large quantities, however, were sent from Brazil, and the stone declined in public estimation. The taste, however, is still reviving. A fine deep-coloured amethyst of the size of a two-shilling piece is worth from 10l. to 151.; smaller pieces and in poorer qualities are sold from 2s. to 51. The best cutting of amethyst is in a brilliant form, with the table slightly domed. Most amethysts are cut in Germany, owing to the price of labour being cheaper in that country than in England.' (Emanuel On Diamonds &c. 114, 156, sqq.)

AMIANTHUS, ASBESTOS or MOUNTAIN FLAX (Lat. amianthus-abestinum; Ger. asbert; Fr. amiante; Span. asbesto, alumbre de pluma; Port. asbestos; Ital. asbesto). A mineral of which there are several varieties, all more or less fibrous, flexile, and elastic. It is inconsumable by a high degree of heat; and in antiquity the art was discovered of drawing the fibres into threads, and then weaving them into cloth. Pliny says that he had seen napkins made of this substance, which, when soiled, were thrown into the fire, and that they were better cleaned by this means than they could have been by washing! Hence it obtained from the Greeks the name of 'Auíarros (undefiled). Its principal use, as stated by Pliny, was to wrap round the bodies of the dead previously to their being exposed on the funeral pile, that the ashes of the corpse might not be mixed with those of the wood. And in corroboration of this statement we may mention, that in 1702 a skull, some calcined bones, and a quantity of ashes were found at Rome, in a cloth of amianthus nine Roman palms in length by seven in width. Its employment in this way was, however, confined to a few of the very richest families, incombustible cloth being very scarce, and bringing an enormously high price. Rarum inventu, difficile textu propter brevitatem. Cùm inventum est, æquat pretia excellentium margaritarum. (Pliny, Hist. Nat. lib. xix. ch. 1.) The disuse of the practice of cremation, or of burning the dead, caused the manufacture of amianthine cloth to be neglected.

In the Tarentaise of Savoy a variety of amianthus exists, of which the threads are entirely separated and of a brilliant whiteness, and capable of being elongated to upwards of ten times their original length. Cloths and even lace have been prepared from the amianthus derived from this locality, and there exists in the Institute of France a work printed entirely on paper made from this material.

There are several varieties of amianthus: the twisted asbestos, which is of a dirty grey or AMETHYST (Ger. eisenkeisel; Fr. amethyste; whitish yellow colour, sometimes exists in thick Ital. amatista; Span. ametisto; Lat. amethys-spongy pieces, and is then vulgarly called fossil tus). A precious stone, of which there are two flesh; sometimes it resembles and is called species differing widely in quality and value. fossil cork; occasionally, when of a hard mem

branous character, it is called fossil leather, and the thinner and more flexible kinds of the same character are termed fossil paper. The woody asbestos is of a reddish brown colour, and resembles splinters of wood.

Asbestos is now employed to a considerable extent for burning in gas stoves. (Bulletin du Musée de l'Industrie.)

According to M. Bezon (Dictionnaire général des Tissus), the art of making cloth from amianthus was, in modern times, revived by Madame Candida Lena Perponti (Journal de la Société d'Encouragement des Arts et des Sciences, Milan, No. 30). She attempted to render the fibre flexible by treating it with oil and water, but finding the former means not so efficacious as the latter, she made her future experiments with water, and succeeded in getting filaments of such length and tenacity as were available for spinning and weaving. Her first successful attempt was the manufacture of a pair of gloves. The amianthus was supplied from the Vulteline. She also made paper of excellent quality, and, in order to supply an ink which should be equally indestructible, used a fluid containing sulphate of iron to black oxide of manganese. Latterly, however, the manufacture of this article into a fabric has been revived; a M. Aldini having succeeded in manufacturing it without the aid of any foreign substance: the cloth is made loose in its fabric, and the threads are about the fifteenth part of an inch in diameter. Asbestos is found in Piedmont, Savoy, Saltzburg, the Tyrol, Dauphiné, Hungary, Silesia, Corsica, at Staaten Island in New York Harbour, St. Kevern in Cornwall, and in various parts of the north of Scotland, the Cape of Good Hope, and at Metchursk in Siberia.

AMMONIAC, SAL. [ALKALIES (Muriate of Ammonia).]

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The town of Amoy was visited soon after the Europeans became acquainted with China. 1544, the Portuguese resorted thither, but were forcibly expelled by the authorities, in consequence, it is said, of their misconduct towards the native traders. The Dutch traded at the port in 1624. Up to 1730 it appears that the English visited Amoy; but at this time the Spaniards were alone permitted to make use of this port, all other foreign trade having been centred at Canton. Amoy was captured in 1841 by Gough and Parker, and was thrown open to foreign trade by the treaty of Nanking.

According to Dr. Williams, Amoy is the most accessible of all the consular ports in China, no pilots being required on entering or departing, though boatmen often board the ship to offer assistance. Some regulations were once issued requiring British merchantmen to engage pilots to and from the Chan Chat rocks, but their use is now optional. The water communication with the interior is not, however, equal to that enjoyed by the other ports.

The harbour is a bay, and an inner harbour, The inner harbour is one of the best on the coast. There is good holding ground in the outer harbour, and vessels can anchor in the inner, within a short distance of the beach, and be perfectly secure. The tide rises and falls from 14 to 16 feet. The western side of the harbours, from 675 to 840 yards wide, is formed by the island of Kulangsu,

AMMONIACUM (Fr. gomme ammoniaque; Ital. gomma ammoniaco; Span. goma ammoniaco; Lat. ammoniacum; Arab. feshook). A concrete resinous juice obtained from the Dorema ammoniacum, a plant resembling fennel, found in the north of Africa, Arabia, Persia, the East, Indies, &c. The name is supposed to be corrupted from Armeniacum, and to indicate the route by which the drug was originally imported into Europe. Pliny says that it derived its name from its being produced in the vicinity of the temple of Jupiter Ammon in Africa. (Hist. Nat. lib. xii. c. xxiii.) It has a faint but not ungrateful The channel round the island of Amoy is so smell, and a bitter, nauseous, sweet taste. The narrow and winding that directions would be fragments are yellow on the outside and white useless, the chart being the best guide. Besides within, brittle, and break with a vitreous fracture; the excellent shelter that this harbour affords, the their specific gravity is 1207. The best ammoni-Chinese have docks for repairing and building acum is brought from Persia by Bombay and Calcutta, packed in cases and chests. It is in large masses, composed of small round fragments or tears; or in separate dry tears, which is generally considered a sign of its goodness. The tears should be white internally and externally, and free from seeds or other foreign substances. Reject that which is soft, dark-coloured, and foul. It is used principally in the materia medica, and the quantity imported is but sinall. (United States Dispensatory.)

AMMUNITION. A term expressive of the various implements used in war.

their largest junks.

Native emigration from Amoy is considerable. The arrangements are under the management of the British West Indian Emigration Agency, and the official supervision of the British consul.

The docks of Amoy are worthy of notice. Vessels of almost any size can obtain anything necessary for repairs. The company's large granite dock is 286 feet long on the blocks, and at average springs can take vessels drawing from 16 to 17 feet. The dock is fitted with a caisson gate, and with a centrifugal steam pump of great power, ensuring despatch at all states of the tide.

Customs Regulations.-The limits of the port are defined within lines drawn from the southernmost point of Amoy island, south-eastward to the nearest island, and thence, in the direction of the high pagoda, to the point of Lam-tai-hoo hill, and fron the northernmost point of Amoy island to the opposite point on the mainland.

Sec. 45 of the Customs Consolidation Act of 1854 (16 & 17 Vict. c. 107) provides that the importation of arms, ammunition, gunpowder or any other goods, may be prohibited by proclamation or order in council, and by sec. 150, that by the same means such articles, and all military and naval stores may be prohibited to be exported or carried coastwise under penalty of forfeiture; and dThe shipment and discharge of cargo can be

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