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sea, or if any coasting ship shall touch at any place over the sea, or deviate from her voyage, unless forced by unavoidable circumstances, or if the master of any coasting ship which shall have touched at any place over the sea shall not declare the same in writing under his hand to the collector or comptroller at the port in the United Kingdom where such ship shall afterwards first arrive, the master of such ship shall forfeit the sum of 1002. (Sec. 153.)

Times and Places for Landing and Shipping.-If any goods be unshipped from any ship arriving coastwise, or be shipped or water-borne to be shipped to be carried coastwise, on Sundays or holidays, or unless in the presence or with the authority of the proper officer of the Customs, or unless at such times and places as shall be appointed or approved by him for that purpose, the same shall be forfeited, and the master of the ship shall forfeit the sum of 50l. (Sec. 154.)

such cargo book, or to produce the same, or if at any time there be found on board such ship any goods not entered in such book as laden, or any goods noted as delivered, or if any goods entered as laden or any goods not noted as delivered be not on board, the master of such ship shall forfeit the sum of 201. (Sec. 155.)

Collector.-Before any coasting ship shall depart Account previous to Departure to be delivered to from the port of lading, an account, with a duplicate thereof, in the form or to the effect following, and signed by the master, shall be delivered to the collector or comptroller; and the collector or comptroller shall retain the duplicate, and return the original account, dated and signed by him; and such account shall be the clearance of the ship for the voyage, and the TRANSIRE or PASS for the goods expressed therein; and if any such account be false, the master shall forfeit the sum of 201.

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Ship's name

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Here state the Particulars according to the above Headings.

Foreign goods,
under bond

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Here state the Particulars according to the above Headings.

Master of Coasting Vessel to keep a Cargo Book. -The master of every coasting ship shall keep or cause to be kept a cargo book, stating the names of the ship, the master, and the port to which she belongs, and of the port to which she is bound on each voyage, and shall at every port of lading enter in such book the name of such port, and an account of all goods there taken on board such ship, stating the descriptions of the packages and the quantities and descriptions of the goods goods removed therein, and the quantities and descriptions of any goods stowed loose, and the names of the respective shippers and consignees, so far as such particulars are known to him, and shall at every port of discharge of such goods note the respective days on which the same or any of them are delivered out of such ship, and the respective times of departure from every port of lading and of arrival at every port of discharge; and such master shall, on demand, produce such book for the inspection of any officer of Customs, who shall be at liberty to make any note or remark therein; and if upon examination any package entered in the cargo book as containing foreign goods shall be found not to contain such goods, such package, with its contents, shall be forfeited, or if any package shall be found to contain foreign goods not entered in such book, such goods shall be forfeited; and if such master shall fail correctly to keep

Cleared the

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Provided always that the Commissioners of Customs may, whenever it appears to them expedient, permit general transires to be given, under such regulations as they may direct, for the lading and clearance and for the entry and unlading of any coasting ship and goods, and the same may be revoked by notice in writing under the hand of the proper officer delivered to the master or owner of any ship, or any of the crew on board. (Sec. 156.)

Account of the Number and Tonnage of British and Foreign Vessels (Sailing and Steam) Entered and Cleared, Coastwise, in 1866, with Cargoes only, at Ports in the United Kingdom, distinguishing the Vessels Employed between Great Britain and Ireland.

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In 1867 the total tonnage of vessels (sailing and steam) entered with cargoes coastwise at ports in the United Kingdom was 18,445,981 tons, of which 18,348,998 were British, and 96,983 foreign. Transire to be delivered in 24 Hours after Arrival. Within 24 hours after the arrival of any coasting ship at the port of discharge, and before any goods be unladen, the transire, with the name of the place or wharf where the lading is to be discharged noted thereon, shall be delivered to the collector or comptroller, who shall note thereon the date of delivery; and if any of the goods on board such ship be subject to any duty of

excise, the same shall not be unladen without the authority or permission of the proper officer of excise; and if any goods on board any coasting ship arriving in Great Britain or Ireland from the Isle of Man shall be the growth or produce of that isle, or manufactures of that isle from materials the growth or produce thereof, or from materials not subject to duty in Great Britain or Ireland, or from materials upon which the duty shall have been paid and not drawn back in Great Britain or Ireland, the same shall not be unladen until a certificate be produced to the collector or comptroller, from the collector or comptroller at


the port of shipment, that proof had there been
made in manner required by law that such goods
were of such growth. produce, or manufacture, as
the case may be; and if any goods shall be un-
laden contrary hereto, the master shall forfeit the
sum of 201.; and if any goods shall be laden on
board any ship in any port or place in the United
Kingdom, and carried coastwise, or, having been
brought coastwise, shall be unladen in any such port
or place contrary to this or any other Act relating
to the Customs, such goods shall be forfeited.
(Sec. 157.)


prohibited, along with a number of other articles, Its use in adulterating beer is illegal, being by the 56 Geo. III. c. 58, under a penalty of 2001, upon the brewer and of 5004, on the seller of the drug, over and above the confiscation of the beer and brewing utensils. But a statute of this sort had much better be repealed. It is binding only on such tradesmen as choose to respect the law, and is no check on those of a different character. Cocculus Indicus is imported in bags of about 1 cwt. each. In 1866 there were but 394 cwts. imported, valued at 707.; and 203 ewts. exported.

chenilje; Fr. cochenille; Ital. cocciniglia; Span.
COCHINEAL (Ger. koschenilje; Dutch, con
cochinilla, grana; Port. cochenilha; Russ. konsse-
found in Mexico, Central America, and New Gra-
The female insect of the Coccus cacti,
nada, the Canary Islands, Brazil &c. It has been
introduced into Java, and promises to become an

Officer may go on board and examine any Coasting Ship-Any officer of the Customs may go on board any coasting ship in any port or place in the United Kingdom, or at any period of her voyage search such ship, and examine all goods on board, and all goods then lading or unlading, and demand all documents which ought to be on board such ship; and the collector or comp-important product of that rapidly impring troller may require that all or any such documents shall be brought to him for inspection, and the master of any ship refusing to produce such documents on demand, or to bring the same to the collector or comptroller when required, shall forfeit and pay the sum of 201. (Sec. 158.)

COBALT (Ger, kobalt; Dutch, kobal; Swed. cobolt; Fr. cobalt; Ital, cobalto; Russ. kobolt; Lat. cobaltum). A mineral of a grey colour, with a shade of red, and by no means brilliant. It has scarcely any taste or smell; is rather soft; specific gravity about 86. Sometimes it is composed of plates, sometimes of grains, and sometimes of small fibres adhering to each other. The oxide of cobalt is extensively used as a means of dyeing glass, and for glazing and colouring porcelain. The principal ores of cobalt are the arsenates, called arsenical cobalt and grey cobalt, are found in Sweden, Saxony, Saalfeld, Hessia, They and in England in Cumberland and Cornwall. A very small amount of oxide is sufficient to tinge a large quantity of glass. [SMALT.] In 1866 3 cwts. of cobalt, 429 tons of ore, and 14 tons of oxide, of the aggregate value of 24,6084, were imported into the United Kingdom.


colony. Formerly it was in Mexico only that it was reared with care, and formed a valuable article of commerce; but its culture is now more or less attended to in many other places, and especially of late in the Canary Islands. Here its which amounted in 1832 to only 120 lbs., had ingrowth has been so very rapid that the exports, creased in 1856 to no fewer than 1,511,716 lbs.! (Consular Reports, 1857, p. 149.) It is a small insect, seldom exceeding the size of a grain of barley; and was generally believed, for a considerable time after it began to be imported into Europe, to be a sort of vegetable grain or seed. There are two sorts or varieties of cochineal: the best or domesticated, which the Spaniards call grana fina, or fine grain; and the wild, which they call sylvestra. The former is nearly twice as large as proved by the favourable effects of human care, the latter, probably because its size has been imand of a more copious and suitable nourishment, derived solely from the Cactus cochinillifer, during many generations. Wild cochineal is collected six times in the year; but that which is cultivated is only collected thrice during the same period. The pound, being detached from the plants on which insects, of which there are about 70,000 in a dipped in boiling water to kill them, after which they feed by a blunt knife, are put into bags, and they are dried in the sun. It is principally used in the dyeing of scarlet, crimson, and other esteemed colours. The watery infusion is of a violet crimson; the alcoholic, of a deep crimson; and the

COCA. A stimulating drug masticated by the Indians of the Peruvian,and Bolivian Andes. COCCULUS INDICUS or INDIAN BERRY (Fr. coque de Levant; Ger. kokkels körner, fisch körner; Ital. galla di Levante; Sans, kakamari; Malay, tubabidgi). The fruit or berry of the Menispermum Cocculus, Nat. Order Menispermacea, a strong climbing tree or shrub found on the Mala-alkaline, of a deep purple, or rather violet hue. It bar coast, in Ceylon &c.

and has the appearance of small, dry, shrivelled, is imported in bags, each containing about 200 lbs.; rugose berries or seeds, of a deep brown, purple, or mulberry colour, with a white matter between the

from length of keeping. Dr. Bancroft says that that cochineal is the best which is large, plump, In this state they suffer no change dry, and of a silver-white colour on the surface.

The berry is kidney-shaped, dark brown, about the size of a large pea; but when dried and imported it is shrivelled and smaller. The outer layer encloses a woody shell, containing a yellow-wrinkles. ish kernel. Cocculus Indicus is acrid and intensely bitter. In some parts of the East it is used, when formed into a paste with moistened rice, as a bait by fishermen and bird-catchers, but especially the former. Being thrown into the sea, or scattered is supposed by Dr. Bancroft to be principally The species of cochineal called granilla, or dust, on the ground, it is greedily devoured by the fish formed of grana sylvestra. The insects of which and birds, which it either kills or stupefies, so that it consists are smaller than those composing the they are easily captured. It is said not to render fine cochineal; and it does not yield more than a the flesh of such animals poisonous, as strychnine third part of the colouring matter that is yielded does. Its effects on man have not been accurately by the latter. The cochineal insect was introdetermined; but if taken in large doses it would, duced into India in 1795; but a very inferior sort no doubt, be fatal. When added to malt liquors only is produced. It has also been introduced it increases their intoxicating power; and pro-into Java and Spain; but with what success vided it be not administered in excess, or does not remains to be seen. exceed 3 lbs. cocculus to 10 qrs. malt, its use in Bancroft On Colours; &c.) this way is not supposed to have any injurious in(Thomson's Dispensatory; fluence. (Pereira's Materia Medica, 3rd ed. p. 2153; Thomson's Materia Medica; Ainslie's Materia Medica, p. 131; &c.)

1842 to 1s. per cwt., were finally abolished in 1845. The duties on cochineal, after being reduced in

In 1866 the imports and exports of cochineal,. including granilla and dust, were respectively

32,751 and 21,238 cwts.; the imports being valued at 594,8181. The consumption may, perhaps, be estimated at about 12,000 cwts. or 1,342,000 lbs. The price of cochineal fluctuated very much during the war, partly on account of the obstacles which it occasionally threw in the way of importation, and partly on account of its being an article of direct Government expenditure. In 1814 the price of the best cochineal was as high as 36s. and 398.; and it has since gone on regularly declining, with hardly a single rally, till, in 1850, it settled down to from 4s. to 6s. 4d. per lb. Previously to the war terminated in 1815, it had never been under 12s. or 13s. Lac dye has been employed to some extent in dyeing scarlet; but notwithstanding this circumstance, the consumption of cochineal, occasioned, no doubt, partly by its cheapness, and partly, perhaps, by some change of fashion, has been materially increased since 1835. This, however, has not had any material influence on its price, and it would appear, from the long continuance of low prices not only without any diminution, but with a large increase of imports, that they are quite sufficient to remunerate the growers of the article. (Tooke &c. On High and Low Prices.) In October, 1866, the price of cochineal in the London market varied from 3s. 4d. to 4s. 10d. per lb.

COCOA, or, more properly. CACAO (Fr. and Span, cacao; Ger. kakao). The seed or nuts of the cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao), Nat. Order Malvacea, Jussieu; Sterculiacea, Lindley; growing in the West Indies and in many parts of South America. It is said, by Mr. Bryan Edwards, to bear some resemblance, both in size and shape, to a young blackheart cherry.

The introduction of this article into Europe was due to Columbus, and for a long time the cultivation was carried on by the Spaniards in South America and the West Indies. Before the European occupation of the New World, it was used familiarly by the Mexicans, Cocoa attracted the attention of the English in Jamaica before the close of the 17th century.

The tree, if unchecked, reaches the height of about 30 feet, and will grow between the 25th parallels, but flourishes best within the 15th parallels, and at a height of not less than 500 feet above the level of the sea. The flowers are very small, and in clusters; the calyx is composed of 5 sepals; petals 5; stamens 5, with double anthers. The fruit is five-celled, without halves, about 7 to 9 inches in length, and 3 to 4 in breadth, of an elliptic oval pointed shape, something like the vegetable marrow, only more elongated and pointed at the end; tough and quite smooth; the colour varying, according to the season, from bright yellow to red and purple. The rind of the fruit is very thick, but quite tasteless.

The seeds

contained in each pod number from 20 to 40, embedded in a soft, pinkish white acid pulp. (Maugin's excellent and valuable work, Le Cacao et le Chocolat, Paris, 1860.)

The shell of the nut is of a dark brown colour, brittle, and thin; the kernel is, both internally and externally, brownish, divided into several unequal portions adhering together, but separating without much difficulty; it has a light, agreeable smell, and an unctuous, bitterish, rather rough and peculiar, but not ungrateful taste. The nuts should be chosen full, plump, and shining, without any mustiness, and not worm-eaten. They yield, by expression, a great deal of oil; but they are cultivated only that they may be employed in the preparation of the excellent beverage cocoa, and the manufacture of chocolate, of which they form the principal ingredient. The finest cocoa is said

to be that of Xoconocho or Sonocusco. The principal importations were formerly derived from the Caracas and Guayaquil, particularly the former, and now chiefly from the West India Islands, New Granada, Ecuador, and Brazil.

Von Humboldt estimated the consumption of cocoa in Europe, in 1806, at 23,000,000 lbs., of which from 6,000,000 to 9,000,000 were supposed to be consumed in Spain. The production of cocoa was languishing in the Caracas for several years previously to the commencement of the disturbances in South America; and latterly the cultivation of coffee seems to have been in most parts gaining the ascendancy. (Humboldt, Pers. Narrative, vol. iv. pp. 236-247, Eng. trans.) Duties.

Consumption in England.-Down to a late period the consumption of cocoa in England was confined within very narrow limits; a result which we are inclined to ascribe to the oppressiveness of the duties with which it has been loaded, and not to its being unsuitable to the public taste. It is now many years since Mr. Bryan Edwards. declared that the ruin of the cocoa plantations, with which Jamaica once abounded, was the effect of the heavy hand of ministerial exaction' (History of West Indies, ii. 363, ed. 1819); and, unaccountable as it may seem, this pressure was not materially abated till 1832, when the duties on cocoa from a British possession were reduced from 6d. to 2d. per lb. And such was the influence of this judicious measure, that the consumption of cocoa, which, at an average of the 3 years ending with 1831, amounted to 440,578 lbs. a-year, had increased, at an average of the 3 years ending with 1842, to 2,072,335 lbs.! The duty on foreign cocoa continued from 1830 down to 1842 to be (generally 6d. per lb.) three times as great as that on coffee from a British possession; and in consequence of this discrepancy, none of it was entered for home consumption under the duty, though it is worthy of remark that cocoa for the navy, paying no duty, was almost always taken from a foreign stock. In 1842 the duty on cocoa from a British possession was farther reduced 1d. per lb.; and it might have been expected that the ratio of protection in favour of plantation cocoa would then, also, have been diminished; but it was not till 1846 that the duty on foreign cocoa was reduced to 21 d. per lb.

In 1853 the duties were finally equalised, and fixed at 1d. per lb., and on paste or chocolate at 2d. per do. The duties on husks and shells were then, also, fixed at d. per lb., but were reduced to 2s. per cwt. in 1855.

In 1866, 4,053,133 lbs. and in 1867, 4,235,917 lbs. of cocoa were retained for home consumption.

In 1866 the imports of cocoa from the British West Indies amounted to 5,366,853 lbs., of which 3,619,081 lbs. were supplied by Trinidad, and 1,511,904 lbs. by Grenada. In the same year we imported 1,263,252 lbs. from Ecuador, and 1,870,374 lbs. from New Granada: the total imports being 10,308,298 lbs., valued at 346,5797. In 1867 they were 11,954,862 lbs., valued at 346,8697.

No abatement is made from the duty on cocoa on account of damage. (16 & 17 Vict. c. 107 s. 76.)

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Cocoa husks and shells are brought not only
from the West Indies, but from other places,
being the refuse of the chocolate manufactories
carried on in them.

British plantation cocoa was worth in bond in the
London market, in 1866, from 6d. to 84d. per lb.
A bag of cocoa usually weighs 1 cwt., and a
cask about 14 cwt.

COCO, COKER, or, more properly, COCOA
NUTS (Ger. kokonüsse; Dutch, kokosnooten; Fr.
and Span. cocos; Ital. cocchi; Russ, kokos; Sans.
narikela). The fruit of a species of palm tree (Cocos
nucifera, Linn.).


tained from the Cocos nucifera, but from another species of palm. It is chiefly imported from the The palm oil met with in the market is not obcoast of Guinea. [PALM OIL.]

in Ceylon, forming, with their products-oil, ar-
rack, and coir-important articles of export from
Cocoa nuts are produced in immense quantities
Maldive Islands, Siam, and on several places of
the coast of Brazil. Cocoa oil is in very extensive
that island. They are also very abundant in the
use all over India, and large quantities are manu-
factured in the lower provinces of Bengal. This
latter is said to be superior to that imported from

117,440 gals. of cocoa-nut oil were exported from
At an average of the 3 years ending with 1866,

United Kingdom, after being reduced in 1832, was suppressed in 1845. In 1866 we imported 3,329,163 A duty on cocoa nuts when imported into the nuts, which were almost wholly retained for consumption. They are used, instead of wedges, to fill up the interstices between casks and packages in the cargoes of ships, so that their freight costs but little. In the same year our imports and exports of cocoa-nut oil amounted respectively to 110,046 and 154,178 cwts.

This tree is common almost everywhere within the tropics, and is extremely valuable; being to the palmivorous inhabitants of many parts of Ceylon, Brazil, and other intertropical regions, not merely their principal wealth, but almost their entire dependence. Every part of the tree is appropriated to some peculiar purpose; and an Indian with a garden containing 12 cocoa-nut trees and 2 jack trees is said to be comparatively independent! But we may observe that this facility of obtaining subsistence is not an advantage, but the reverse; indolence and a want of civilisation being its invariable accompaniment. The tree grows to the height of from 50 to 90 feet; it has no branches, but the leaves are from 12 to 14 feet in length, with a very strong middle rib. The fruit is nearly baukaelja; Dan. kabliau, skreitorsk, bakelau; Swed. as large as a man's head; the external rind is thin, kabeljo, bakelau; Fr. morue, cabillaud; Ital. bacCOD (Ger. kabljau, bakalau; Dutch, kabeljaauw, tough, and of a brownish red colour. Beneath cala, baccalare; Span. bacalao; Port. bacalhão; this there is a quantity of very tough fibrous mat- Lat. gadus). A species of fish, too well known to ter, which is used in the manufacture of cordage require any description. It is amazingly proand coarse sail-cloth. It is buoyant, and extremely lific. Leuwenhoek counted 9,384,000 eggs in a well suited for ropes of large diameter; and until cod-fish of a middling size: a number that will the introduction of chain cables most of the baffle all the efforts of man to exterminate. In ships which navigated the Indian seas were sup- our seas they begin to spawn in January, and deplied with cables of this material. [COIR.]posit their eggs in rough ground, among rocks. Within the fibrous coating is the shell of the nut, which is nearly globular, very hard, susceptible of a high polish, and used for many domestic purposes; the kernel is white, in taste and firmness resembling that of a hazel nut; it is hollow in the interior, the hollow being filled with a milky fluid. While the nut is green, the whole hollow of the shell is filled with fluid, which is refreshing, agreeable, and pleasant to the taste. The solid part of the ripe kernel is extremely nutritious, but rather indigestible. The kernels yield by expression a great deal of oil, which, when recent, is equal to that of sweet almonds; but it soon becomes rancid, and is then employed by painters. A tree generally yields about 100 nuts, in clusters near the top of about a dozen each. The wood of the tree is made into boats, rafters, the frames of houses, and gutters to convey water. are used for thatching buildings, and are wrought The leaves into mats, baskets, and many other things for which osiers are employed in Europe; so that every part of it is applied to some useful end.

If the body of the tree be bored, there exudes from the wound a white liquor, called palm wine or toddy. It is very sweet when fresh; kept a few hours it becomes more poignant and agreeable; but next day it begins to grow sour, and in the space of 24 hours is changed into vinegar. When distilled, it produces the best species of Indian arrack; it also yields a great deal of sugar. Toddy is obtained from several species of palms, but that of the Cocos nucifera is the best. (Marshall On the Coco-Nut Tree; Ainslie's Materia Indica; Rees's Cyclopædia; &c.)

An improvement effected in the preparation of cocoa oil has made it of much importance in the arts, by rendering it available in the manufacture of candles and soap, and for various purposes to which it was not previously applicable.

Some continue in roe till the beginning of April.

the world: it is an ocean fish, and never met with
in the Mediterranean. The great rendezvous of
'The cod is only found in the northern parts of
the cod-fish is on the banks of Newfoundland, and
the other sand-banks that lie off the coasts of Cape
Breton, Nova Scotia, and New England. They
prefer those situations by reason of the quantity
of worms produced in these sandy bottoms, which
tempt them to resort there for food.
cause of the particular attachment the fish have to
these spots is their vicinity to the polar seas, where
they return to spawn: there they deposit their
But another
roes in full security; but want of food forces them,
as soon as the more southern seas are open, to
repair thither for subsistence. Few are taken to
the north of Iceland, but they abound on its south
on the coasts of Norway, in the Baltic, and off the
and west coasts. They are also found to swarm
Orkney and Western Isles; after which their
numbers decrease in proportion as they advance
before they reach the mouth of the Straits of
towards the south, when they seem quite to cease

greater fisheries of cod were on the seas of Iceland,
and off our Western Isles, which were the grand
'Before the discovery of Newfoundland the
resort of ships from all the commercial nations; but
it seems that the greatest plenty was met with near
Iceland. The English resorted thither before the
year 1415; for we find that Henry V. was dis-
posed to give satisfaction to the King of Denmark
for certain irregularities committed by his subjects
English were excluded from the fishery by treaty.
In latter times we find Queen Elizabeth con-
on those seas. In the reign of Edward IV. the
descending to ask permission to fish in those seas
from Christian IV. of Denmark. In the reign of
her successor, however, no fewer than 150 English


ships were employed in the Iceland fishery; which indulgence might arise from the marriage of James with a princess of Denmark.' (Pennant's British Zoology.)

Cod is prepared in two different ways: that is, it is either gutted, salted, and then barrelled-in which state it is denominated green or pickled cod; or it is dried and cured-in which state it is called dried cod. Ready access to the shore is indispensable to the prosecution of the latter species of fishery.

Cod Fishery, British.-This fishery, including under the term not only that of common cod, but of haddock, ling, hake, torsk &c., is of very considerable value and importance. It consists of two grand departments, which may be respectively termed the home, and the distant or colonial fishery. The first is carried on in a great variety of places contiguous to the shores of the British islands; but the most productive and valuable of the adjacent fisheries are those in the neighbourhood of the Shetland and Orkney islands, and off the shores of Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Lincoln &c. Formerly the principal part of the cod brought to London was taken round the edges of the Dogger-bank, or rather in the hollows between it and the Wellbank; and the finest is still brought thence. But for a number of years the London market has been in great part supplied with cod taken

between Yarmouth and the Nore; and in consequence of its being procured so much nearer home, the average price of cod has fallen from 30 to 50 per cent. below what it was from 1815 to 1820. (Report on the Channel Fisheries, p. 85.) This change has occasioned a great increase in the number of fishing smacks belonging to Barking, Gravesend, and other ports on the Thames; while those belonging to Harwich and the more distant ports have been materially reduced. The cod taken by the fishermen of Shetland and the Western Isles is mostly cured dried, but it is partially also cured green or in pickle; and it is sometimes, though much seldomer now than formerly, conveyed alive in welled vessels to London. The haddocks taken on the Aberdeenshire coast, and cured at the village of Finnan, near Aberdeen, are held in the highest estimation. The haddocks taken in Dublin Bay are the largest of any taken on the British coasts.

There are no means by which to form any estimate either of the number of fishing vessels, or of the quantity or value of the fish annually taken in the home cod fishery; by far the larger portion being landed without account or notice of any kind, and disposed of fresh. The following account contains such particulars only as have been brought under the notice of the Commissioners for the Improvement of the British Fisheries:

Account of the Total Quantity of Cod, Ling, or Hake, cured, punched, or branded, and exported, from 1830 to 1866, in so far as the same has been brought under the Cognisance of the Officers of the Fishery Board.

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Since this date for Scotland and the Isle of Man only.

+ The branding and punching of cod and ling was discontinued on January 5, 1850, as well as the collection of returns for England.

ceased altogether, and have not since been renewed.

N.B.-The books of the Fishery Board do not exhibit the total quantity of cod, ling, or hake cured till the year commencing April 5, 1825. Cod Fishery, Iceland.-The large cod remain The bounty from the commencement of this near the island during the winter, the chief station abstract to April 5, 1830, was near 4s. per cwt. being Faxebay. The earliest and best fishings for fish cured and dried, and 2s. 6d. per barrel commence in February or March, and extend to for fish cured in pickle, taken by the crews of May or June. The Icelanders capture the fish vessels or boats not on the tonnage bounty; either by small driftnets, deep sea or hand lines, while the bounty for vessels licensed for cod, or the ordinary long lines. The line fishing is ling, or hake fishery was 50s. per ton for ton-carried on in from 18 to 20 fathoms water; but nage and cargo to July 5, 1826; 45s. from it would be possible to fish successfully in deeper thence to July 5, 1827; 40s. to July 5, 1828; water, were the islanders wealthier and more and 358. to April 5, 1830; when the bounties adventurous.


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