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On the other hand in 1866 we exported 5,774 | The fruit, or rather cup, of the unopened flowers clocks, other than British, valued at 5,5187., besides British clock and watch movements of the value of 15,8187.

Clockmakers are obliged to engrave upon the dial-plate of all clocks made by them their names and the place of their residence. It is illegal to import except in transit, and subject to such regulations as the Treasury may direct, clocks and watches of any metal impressed with any mark or stamp appearing to be or to represent any legal British assay mark or stamp, or purporting by any mark or appearance to be of the manufacture of the United Kingdom. (16 & 17 Vict. c. 107 s. 44.)

It is said, however, not to be an uncommon practice among the less reputable portion of the trade to engrave their names and London' on foreign clocks and watches, and to sell them to the public as English work. The fraud may be detected by referring to any respectable watchmaker.

By a Treasury order of Sept. 4, 1828, clocks and watches for private use, though not marked in the manner now specified, may be admitted on payment of the duty, on the parties making affidavit of their entire ignorance of the law in question.

Persons hired by, or in the employment of, clock and watchmakers, who shall fraudulently embezzle, secrete, sell &c. any metal, material, or precious stone, with which they may happen to be intrusted, shall, upon trial and conviction before a justice of the peace, forfeit 207. for the first offence; and for the second, and every subsequent offence, they shall forfeit 404.; and, in default of payment, they are to be committed to the house of correction. (27 Geo. II. c. 7 s. 1.) [WATCH.]

CLOTH. [LINEN; WOOL; &c.]

CLOVER (Ger. klee; Dutch, klaver; Fr. trefile, luzerne; Ital. trifoglio; Span. trebol; Russ. trilistnik; Lat. trifolium). A very important species of grass. Some of the species in cultivation are annual, others biennial or triennial, and others perennial. The seed used formerly to be principally imported from Holland, but that which is raised in this country is now said to be of a superior quality. (Loudon's Encyclopædia of Agriculture.) Culture for seed is, however, very precarious, and of uncertain profit.

of the clove-tree, or Caryophyllus aromaticus, Nat. Order Myrtacea. It is not known when this spice was introduced into European markets. In the middle ages, however, it was brought by the Venetians and Genoese by the route over the highlands of Armenia, by that from Bagdal to Lycia, and by the Red Sea and the Nile. It was by far the costliest of Eastern spices. In 1329 the fellows of Merton College, Oxford, bought cloves at the rate of 11. 1s. 4d. per lb. (troy) in money of the time; that is, at not less than 121. 12s. in modern value. In 1719 cloves were purchased at 12s. per lb.

The clove-tree is a native of the Moluccas, Though its natural range was limited, it grew abundantly in all the islands; but the Dutch, for reasons given below, succeeded in extirpating the plant in all the islands except Amboyna and Ternate. A Frenchman, however, one Poirie, the governor of Mauritius and Bourbon, contrived to export several trees to the islands under his government: thence they have spread to Cayenne and the West Indies, to Brazil, to Sumatra, and Zanzibar.

They were first introduced into the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba about 1830 from the Mauritius: they throve, and the cultivation has now. almost entirely superseded that of sugar and rice, formerly the chief products of those islands. The average crop of Zanzibar cloves is about 200,000 furaslahs, or about 7,000,000 lbs., valued at about 85,000/ Owing to the increased production, the price has fallen about 70 per cent. within a few years. In Colonel Pelly's Report for 1860, published in 1863, the value of the cloves exported from Zanzibar is stated as 55,6667, the quantity having been 4,860,100 lbs. Export duties are not charged on the cloves shipped from Zanzibar.

Cloves are shaped like a nail; whence the name, from the French clou, nail; about 6 lines long, plump and heavy. They are imported from the Dutch settlements; the best in chests, and an inferior kind in bags. The best variety of the Amboyna cloves is smaller and blacker than the other varieties, very scarce, and, as a mark of pre-eminence, is termed the Royal clove. Good cloves have a strong, fragrant, aromatic odour; and a hot, acrid, aromatic taste, which is We have been for a lengthened period in the very permanent. They should be chosen large habit of importing considerable quantities of clover sized, perfect in all parts; the colour should be a seed; and there can be little doubt, despite the dark brown, almost approaching to black; and, improvement of the home produce, that the im- when handled, should leave an oily moisture upon ports would have been much greater but for the the fingers. Good cloves are sometimes adulheavy duty of 20s. a cwt. with which foreign terated by mixing them with those from which clover seed was formerly loaded. Such duty had oil has been drawn; but these are weaker than the mischievous effect of tempting farmers to use the rest, and of a paler colour; and whenever they seed of inferior quality, and fell with peculiar look shrivelled, having lost the knob at the top, severity on Scotland and those parts of the coun- and are light and broken, with but little smell or try which grow no seed. We are, therefore, glad taste, they should be rejected. As cloves readily to have to state that after being reduced to 10s. a absorb moisture, it is not uncommon, when a quancwt. in 1842, and to 5s. per do. in 1846, the duty tity is ordered, to keep them beside a vessel of was finally repealed in 1853. In 1866 we im-water, by which means a considerable addition is ported 226,014 cwt. clover seed, valued at 726,0047., of which nearly a half came from France, while our exports amounted to only 4,493 cwt. The price varied from 31. 3s. to 31. 7s. 6d. per cwt., that of France being 31. 5s. In 1867 the imports were 150,968 cwts., valued at 503,6697.

CLOVES (Ger. näglein, gewurznelken; Dan. nelliker, krudenelliker; Dutch, kruidnagelen; Pol. gozdrik; Fr. clous de girofle, girofles; Ital. chiovi di garofana, garofani, garoffoli; Span. clavos de especia, clavillos; Port, craros da India, craros girofes; Russ. gwosdika; Arab. kerenful; Malay, chankee; Chinese, ting hiang tsz' ting hiang).

made to their weight. Cloves contain a very large amount of volatile oil, the quantity being nearly 20 per cent. They are also, it is said, very rich in tannin. Every portion of the tree is aromatic, and has been subjected to distillation; but under existing circumstances the supply of this article, once so scarce and precious, is abundant. The use of cloves in cookery is familiar to every one, but they enter also largely into perfumery, and are used in the Pharmacopoeias of this country and the United States. (Thomson's Dispensatory; Milburn's Oriental Commerce; British Pharmacopaia, 1867.)

of 1,258 per cent.'
pp. 388-390.)

(Eastern Archipelago, vol. iii.

or prosecuted only to a trifling extent. (Temminck, Possessions Neerlandaises dans l'Inde Archipelagique, iii. pp. 202—241.)

Policy of the Dutch as to the Trade in Cloves.From the expulsion of the English from Amboyna in 1623, the Dutch have, a few short intervals But it would be most unfair to the Government only excepted, enjoyed the exclusive possession and people of Holland not to mention that this of the Moluccas, or Clove Islands. In their con- oppressive system has been entirely abolished. duct as to the clove trade they exhibited a degree As respects the culture of cloves, it is now carried of short-sighted rapacity which has been, we be- on upon nearly the same plan that has been lieve, seldom equalled even in the annals of mono- adopted in Java in respect to the culture of coffee poly. The object of the Dutch East India Com- and most other articles, and is not very different pany was not to encourage the growth and trade from that under which opium is raised in Bengal. of cloves, but to confine both within the narrowest A certain extent of land is assigned to each village limits. They preferred deriving a large profit for the growth of spices; and the produce, which from a stunted and petty trade, to a moderate the villagers are bound to raise, is delivered to the profit from a trade that might have afforded em- Government at certain fixed rates. And provided ployment for a very large amount of capital; and these are reasonable, which we are assured is the to prevent their narrow and selfish projects from case, we incline to think that this is the best plan being counteracted by the operations of the na- that can be pursued. If left to follow their own tives, they subjected them to the most revolting views, it is all but certain that the natives would contyranny. "That they might,' says Mr. Crawfurd, fine their attention to the culture of the few articles "regulate and control production and price just as necessary for their subsistence, and that the prothey thought proper, the clove-trees were extir-duction of spices would be either wholly neglected pated everywhere but in Amboyna, the seat of their power; and the surrounding princes were bribed by annual stipends to league with them for the destruction of their subjects' property and birthright. This plan was begun about the year 1551. The contracts are still in force, and an annual fleet visits the surrounding islands to suppress the growth of cloves, which in their native country spring up with a luxuriance which these measures of Satanic rigour, and of sacrilege towards bountiful nature, can scarce repress. By the plan on which the clove trade is now conducted-a plan carried into effect through so much iniquity and bloodshed-the country of spices is rendered a petty farm, of which the natural owners are reduced to the worst condition of predial slavery; and the great monopoliser and oppressor is that Government whose duty it should have been to insure freedom and afford protection. Human ingenuity could hardly devise a plan more destructive of industry, more hostile to the growth of public wealth, or injurious to morals, than this system framed in a barbarous age; and it reflects disgrace upon the character of a civilised people to persevere in it.

It is curious to remark how the monopolisers, in carrying the details of this system into effect, at once impose upon the natives and deceive themselves. The nominal price paid to the natives is actually above the natural price of the commodity, but they are cheated in the details. The cultivator brings his produce to the public stores, where it is subjected at once to a deduction of one-fifth for payment of the salaries of the civil and military officers. The price of the remainder is fixed at the rate of 9-6 Spanish dollars the picul: but before payment is made, another deduction of one-fifth is made; one-half of which is for the chiefs or rajas, and the other for the native elders, who are overseers of the forced culture. The real price, therefore, paid to the grower is 8 Spanish dollars per picul, or 34d. per lb. avoirdupois, instead of 1152 Spanish dollars per picul, or 4 d., which is pretended to be given.

100

It was supposed for a lengthened period that cloves were a product peculiar to the Moluccas, and that they could not be raised elsewhere; and this notion seems to have stimulated the Dutch East India Company to obtain the monopoly of the trade. This notion is, however, far from being so well founded as was at first supposed. It is true that the attempts to cultivate the clove-tree in Surinam have not been very successful, and that in Java, where its prospects were believed to be highly favourable, it has not answered. This, however, is not the case with the plantations that have been tried in other places. Those, for example, that have been formed in Prince of Wales Island (formerly Pulo Penang) have been singularly successful, and furnish considerable supplies of the finest cloves. (Thornton's East India Gazetteer, iv. 175.) They are also pretty extensively grown in the Isle de Réunion (ci-devant Isle de Bourbon), at Bencoolen, in Sumatra, and other places.

Of 900,057 lbs. cloves we imported in 1857, no fewer than 873,716 lbs. are said to have been supplied by the British East Indies; but of these, considerable quantities were no doubt derived indirectly from the Dutch possessions, and from the Isle de Réunion, the Mauritius &c.

10

The Duty on Cloves was considerably reduced in 1819; and there was, in consequence, a considerable increase in the consumption of the article, though not nearly so great as it would have been had it been supplied under a more liberal system. It was farther reduced in 1842 to 63d. per lb., and in 1853 to 2d. It was repealed in 1860. 1866 we imported 1,213,467 lbs., valued at 18,845l., and exported 1,441,817 lbs. In the London market, in June 1867, the price of cloves varied, Amboyna from 44d. to 5 d. per lb.; Penang and Bencoolen from 94d. to 1s. Od.; Zanzibar from 3d. to 34d. per do.

In

COACHES. Vehicles for commodious travelling. They have sometimes two, and sometimes four When cloves have been sold on the spot, the wheels. The body of the coach is generally susprice usually exacted has been about 64 Spanish pended, by means of springs, upon the framework dollars the picul, or 8 times the price paid to the to which the wheels are attached. They are cultivator. The average price in Holland, pre-nsually drawn by horses, or impelled by steam. viously to the war of the French revolution, was The forms and varieties of coaches are almost about 68. per lb., or 177.78 Spanish dollars per innumerable. picul, being 2,122 per cent. advance on the real cost of the commodity in the place of its growth. When brought direct to England, they cost at an average 3s. 8d. the lb., making 108.04 Spanish dollars per picul, an advance on the natural export price

1. Historical Notice.-Beckmann has investigated the early history of coaches with his usual care and learning. It is certain that a species of coaches were used at Rome; but whether they were hung on springs, like those now made use of

is not certain. After the subversion of the Roman
power, horseback was almost the only mode of
travelling. About the end of the fifteenth cen-
tury, however, covered carriages began to be em-
ployed by persons of distinction on great occasions.
In 1550 there were at Paris only three coaches;
one of which belonged to the queen; another to
the celebrated Diana of Poitiers; and the third to
a corpulent, unwieldy nobleman, René de Laval,
lord of Bois-Dauphin. Coaches were seen for the
first time, in Spain, in 1546. They began to be used
in England about 1580, and were in common use
among the nobility in the beginning of the seven-3
teenth century. (History of Inventions, vol. i. pp.
111, 127, Eng. trans.)

2. Manufacture of Carriages.—This is a department of considerable value and importance. The best built and handsomest carriages are made in London, where only the trade of a coach currier is carried on; but the carriages made at Edinburgh and some other places are also very superior. Down to 1825 a duty was laid on all carriages made for sale; and, supposing that at an average carriages may last for 10 years, an annual supply of from 29,000 to 30,000 new carriages would be required to keep up the stock of those that are now (1866) charged with duty, ex hackney carriages.

3. Duties on Carriages.-These duties have been long imposed, and have fluctuated considerably at different periods. The table on page 306 shows the number of four-wheeled and other carriages (exclusive of hackney coaches) charged with duties in 1856 and 1866.

4. Stage Coaches, Travelling by.-Owing to the improvement in the breed of horses and the building of carriages, but above all to the extraordinary improvements that were effected within the last half century in the laying out, construction, and keeping of roads, the ordinary rate of travelling by stage coaches, previously to their all but total extinction by railways, was seldom under 9 or 10 miles an hour, stoppages included, and, on some roads, was as much as 11 or 12. The stages having been shortened, this speed was not found to be materially more injurious to the horses than the slower rate at which they previously travelled. The surface of the roads being perfectly smooth, and most sharp turns or rapid descents having been got rid of, travelling even at this rate was comparatively safe; and it was surprising, considering the number of coaches, how few accidents occurred. They were occasioned, for the most part, by the misconduct of the drivers, and principally by their endeavouring to make up by increased speed for time lost at stoppages, or by their attempting to pass each other. It is, perhaps, needless to add that since the opening of railways between all the principal. places of the country, travelling by stage coaches no longer exists, except in a few remote districts, and has become a matter of history.

Law as to Stage Coaches.-This is chiefly embodied in the Acts 2 & 3 Wm. IV. c. 120, and 3 & 4 Wm. IV. c. 48.

Postmasters:-Licenses to Let Horses for Hire.

Persons keeping 1 horse or 1 carriage
Not exceeding 2

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The duty of 1s. 2d. per mile on every four pas sengers conveyed by railway, imposed by the 2 & Wm. IV. c. 129, having been found to operate unequally and oppressively, was repealed in 1842 by the 5 & 6 Vict. c. 59. This Act imposed, at the same time, a duty of 5 per cent, on all receipts from passengers (restricted by the 7 & 8 Vict. c. 85 s. 9 to those paying more than 1d. per mile) by railways.

An important alteration in the excise laws regulating stage carriages was effected in 1863, 26 & 27 Vict. c. 32, which inter alia enacted that the duties then payable for the licenses and stage carriages thereinafter described should be reduced, and in lieu of these duties there should be paid in Great Britain for every original license, to be taken out yearly, to keep a stage carriage to carry not more than 8 passengers at one time, the duty of 10s., and for every supplementary license for the same carriage, which shall be taken out in any case allowed by law during the period for which such original license was granted, the duty of 6d.

And for every mile which any such stage carriage shall be licensed to travel, the duty of Ad. Penalty on carrying more than 8 passengers 104 Licenses may be granted (at the discretion of the Commissioners of Inland Revenue) for short periods.

For a carriage with 1 horse, - 1 day.
2 horses
more than 2 horses,

1. d.

30

50

10 O

If for longer than one day, half the above rates for each additional day, up to six days.

Stage Coaches.-The duties levied on stage coaches by the Act 29 & 30 Vict. c. 36 are as

follow:

For every mile which any stage carriage shall be licensed to travel in Great Britain, the excise duty of d. In the Eleventh Report of the Commissioners of Inland Revenue it is stated that the result of the reduction of the duty to fd, was an increase in the mileage in the year ended June 30, 1867, to 34,054,798, or 1,179,000 over the return of the previous year; but the mileage duty fell from 130,0851. to 40,7421.

The following are the rates payable for horses &c. let to hire under this Act after July 6, 1866 :—

Definition.-A stage coach is any carriage travelling along the road at the rate of 3 miles or more an hour, without regard to form, provided the passengers pay separate fares for their places therein; but all carriages used wholly on a rail-in way, or impelled by steam, are excepted from this definition. (2 & 3 Wm. IV. c. 120 s. 4.)

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day of November.

Stage carriage licenses may be taken out for a pas-quarter of a year. Each quarter to be deemed to commence on April 1, July 1, October 1, January 1, and the license payable being one-fourth of the

Licenses, Duties &c.-The license duties imposed by this Act, and the mileage, or duty on sengers travelling by stage carriages, were repealed in 1853, and the following license duties imposed

in their stead, viz. :

annual sum due.

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COACHES

Stage carriage licenses during their currency may be transferred by endorsement. Want of License &c.-Keeping, using &c. any stage carriage without a license, or without plates, or with recalled plates, or contrary to their licenses, or with improper plates, are offences punishable each by a penalty of 201. (2 & 3 Wm. IV. ss. 27,

28.)

Penalty on Drivers of Coaches without Plates, if not the owner, 107.; if the owner, 201. (Sec. 30.) Forging Plates, a misdemeanor. (Sec. 32.) Names of Proprietors &c. to be painted outside, in legible and conspicuous characters; the names of the extreme places between which such carriage shall be licensed to go; and also the greatest number of passengers licensed to be carried inside and outside. Penalty for neglecting this particular, 51. (Sec. 36.)

Certain Carriages not to carry Outside Passengers or Luggage, viz. those the top or roof of which shall be more than 8 feet 9 inches from the ground, or the bearing of which on the ground, that is, the distance between the centres of the tracks of the wheels, shall be less than 4 feet 6 inches. Penalty, 51. (Sec. 37.)

Conduct of Drivers &c.-Drivers quitting the
box before a proper person shall stand at the head
of the horses; such person leaving the horses be-
fore some other person shall be placed in like
manner, or have the command of the horses, or be-
fore the driver has resumed his seat on the box
ger or other person to drive for him, or leaving the
and taken the reins; driver allowing any passen-
box without any reasonable occasion, or for a
or misplacing plates; guard discharging fire-arms
longer time than is absolutely necessary; concealing
unnecessarily; driver, conductor, or guard neglect-
ing to take care of luggage; asking more than
the proper fare; neglecting to account to his em-
ployer; or assaulting or using abusive language
to any person having travelled, or about to travel,
the same; shall in each and every such case for-
as a passenger, or to any person accompanying
feit 51. (Sec. 47.)

Drunkenness &c.-Drivers, conductors, or guards
having the care of any stage carriage, endangering
through intoxication, negligence, or wanton and
furious driving, the safety of any passenger or
carriage or other person, shall each person so
other person, or the property of the owner of such
offending forfeit 5l. (Sec. 49.)

Luggage on the Roof not to exceed a certain Owners liable for penalties, when driver or guard Height, viz. 10 feet 9 inches from the ground on a Mail coaches are under the regulations of carriage drawn by 4 or more horses; and 10 feet 3 is not known or cannot be found. (Sec. 49.) inches from ditto if on a carriage drawn by 2 or 3 in this Act as to plates, inscriptions, outside pashorses. Driver of any carriage where such offence the Postmaster-General; and the enactments is committed liable in a penalty of 5l. (Sec. 43.) The clauses in the Act 2 & 3 Wm. IV. c. 120 re-sengers, and luggage do not extend to them; lating to the distribution of outside passengers &c. but the other regulations as to the conduct coaches have only four outside passengers: one have been repealed by the Act 3 & 4 Wm. IV. c. 48, of drivers, guards &c. do apply to them. Mail which substitutes the following in their stead :Number of Outside Passengers &c.-Any licensed on the box, and three immediately behind the The rate of travelling, the time alstage carriage with 4 wheels or more, the top or box. No passenger allowed to sit beside the roof of which shall not be more than 8 feet 9 in-guard.

Rates of Duty on Carriages.-These are fixed by the 16 & 17 Vict. c. 90 as follows, viz.:

For every such carriage with 4 wheels:
Where the same shall be drawn by 2 or more
horses or mules.

And where the same shall be drawn by 1
horse or mule only

Annual Duty for each Carriage

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200

ches from the ground, and the bearing of which on lowed for stoppages, the quantity of luggage the ground shall not be less than 4 feet 6 inches from to be carried &c. are all regulated by the Postthe centre of the tracks of the wheels, if such car-master-General. riage shall be licensed to carry any number not more than 9 passengers, shall be allowed to carry not more than 5 of such passengers outside; and if licensed to carry more than 9 and not more than 12 passengers, shall be allowed to carry not more than 8 of such passengers outside; and if licensed to carry more than 12 and not more than 15 passengers, shall be allowed to carry not more than 11 of such passengers outside; and if licensed to carry more than 15 and not more than 18 passengers, shall be allowed to carry not more than 12 of such passengers outside; and if licensed to carry any greater number than 18 passengers, shall be allowed to carry not more than 2 additional passengers outside for every 3 additional passengers which such carriage shall be so licensed to carry in the whole; provided that in no case a greater number of passengers shall be carried on the outside than is authorised by the license. If more be carried, driver to forfeit 5l. (Sec. 2.)

Driver, Guard, and Children in lap not to be counted as passengers: 2 children under 7 years reckoned as one passenger. (Sec. 3.)

No person to sit on Luggage on the Roof, nor more than 1 person besides driver on the box. Penalty 51.

(Sec. 14.)

Justices, Road-surveyors, Toll-keepers &c. autho-
rised to cause stage carriages and luggage to be
measured; any passenger authorised to require the
driver to stop at a toll-gate and to require the
gate-keeper to measure the carriage and luggage,
and to count the number of inside and outside pas-
Penalty on driver refusing to stop, 5l.;
sengers.
(2 & 3
on gate-keeper neglecting to provide a measure,
or refusing to measure and count, 57.
Wm. IV. c. 120 s. 45.)

For every carriage with 4 wheels, each being of
less diameter than 30 inches:

Where the same shall be drawn by 2 or more
ponies or mules, neither of them exceeding
13 hands in height

And where the same shall be drawn by 1 such
pony or mule only

For every carriage with less than 4 wheels:
Where the same shall be drawn by 2 or more
hores or mules.

And where the same shall be drawn by 1
horse or mule only

And where the same shall be drawn by 1
pony or mule only, not exceeding 13 hands
in height

.

And where any such carriage shall be kept
and used solely for the purpose of being let
for hire
For every carriage used by any common carrier
principally and bona fide for and in the
carrying of goods, wares, or merchandise,
whereby he shall seek a livelihood, where
such carriage shall be occasionally only used
in conveying passengers for hire, and in
such manner that the stage carriage duty
or any composition for the same shall not
be payable under any license by the Com.
missioners of Inland Revenue:
Where such last-mentioned carriage shall
have 4 wheels -

And where the same shall have less than 4
wheels

115 O

100

200
015 O

0 10 0

One half of the above-mentioned duties respectively

268 168

Rules for charging the said Duties.

1. The said duties to be respectively charged for caravan, curricle, chair, or car, and for every other every coach, landau, chariot, chaise, sociable, carriage constructed for the like purposes, by

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whatever name or names the same shall be called or known, and upon all such carriages hired by the year or any longer period, and upon all such carriages kept to be let out to hire.

2. The duty on carriages kept to be let out to hire to be paid by the person keeping the same for such purpose, and to be charged on the greatest number of such carriages which shall have been kept at any one time, and which shall have been actually let during the preceding year; provided that if a due return thereof shall not be made by the hirer of any such carriage, according to the directions of the Acts in force, stating therein the name and place of abode of the person letting the same to hire, such hirer shall be chargeable with the said duties.

Numbers of Stage and Hackney Carriages.-In the year ending March 31, 1867, 9,099 stage and hackney carriages paid Excise license duty in Great Britain, to the amount of 13,1741, the proportion being about 36 in England for 1 in Scotland. The duty, for what reason it is not easy to divine, does not extend to Ireland. (For an account of HACKNEY COACHES, see the term; and Railway Carriages, see RAILWAYS.)

In 1866 we exported 798 carriages and carts, valued at 70,6981., besides 1,057 railway passenger carriages of the value of 165,7117., and 668 railway waggons and trucks worth 37,8467.

During the years ended April 5, 1856 and 1866, carriages were charged under Assessed Taxes, and produced as follows, viz. :

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COAL (Dutch, steenkoolen; Fr. charbon de terre; Ger. steinkohlen; Ital. carboni fossili; Lat. lithanthrax; Port. carvoes de terra, ou de pedra; Russ. ugolj, kamennoe; Span. carbones de tierra, carbones de piedra; Swed. stenkol). This highly important mineral is recognised by mineralogists under three heads : 1. Lignite, brown or boghead coal; 2. Common or Bituminous Coal; 3. Anthracite. The second of these kinds contains an endless number of varieties.

Lignite.-Bovey coal, so called from its being worked at Bovey Tracey in Devonshire. It is of comparatively little importance, being used chiefly for pottery. Some of the varieties of lignite are of considerable value, as the boghead or brown cannel of Scotland, and similar products in Prussia and Austria.

Bituminous coal is the commonest kind. It is very widely distributed in Great Britain, being worked from Somerset to Sutherlandshire.

The Somerset and Gloucester collieries are those of the Forest of Dean and the Bristol coal-field.

The produce of this region in the year 1864 was, inclusive of the Devonshire anthracite of Bideford, nearly 2,000,000 tons. The Bristol coal-field contains about 50 square miles.

South Wales Field.-This district, which supplied nearly 7,000,000 tons of coal and anthracite during the year 1864, is of great extent and thickness. It has been computed by S. W. Logan and Sir H. de la Bêche that the thickness of these carboniferous strata is not less than 11,000 to

12,000 feet.

Shropshire.-This contains the Coalbrook-dale field. The total thickness of the coal is from 16

feet to 55.

Produce in 1864, 1,150,000 tons.

Stafford and Worcestershire.-This coal-field, which has been described minutely by Mr. Beete Jukes (see the Birmingham Hardware Industries), contains a peculiar and important bed of thick coal. The area is about 130 square miles, and the bed of thick coal is about 30 feet in thickness. The produce of the coal in the two counties was 11,459,851 tons in the year 1864.

Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire. The produce from the first-named county was in the same year 4,470,750, that from the latter 796,700.

Leicestershire and Warwickshire.-The best coal of this district is that at Ashby de la Zouch.

The produce of Leicestershire was in the sameyear 890,600 tons. The Warwickshire coal, between Tamworth and Coventry, supplied 754,000 tons.

Yorkshire. This county comprises the important collieries of Barnsley, Halifax, Leeds, Bradford, Huddersfield &c. The produce was 8,809,600 tons.

Lancashire. The area of this coal-field is about 250 square miles. In certain districts the aggregate thickness of the coal strata is 93 feet. It contains the thick and valuable seams of cannel coal at Wigan. The produce was 11,530,000 tons.

Cheshire.-Produce in 1864, 822,750 tons. Monmouthshire. - Produce in 1864, 4,028,500

tons.

Cumberland. This district is a narrow region about Whitehaven; the workings in some parts being carried under the sea. The produce in 1864 was 1,380,795 tons.

Durham and Northumberland, This is the widest and most important area from which coal has been extracted, and that from which it has been longest obtained. The produce in 1864 was 23,248,367 tons.

North Wales.-This district comprises the coal measures of Flintshire and Denbighshire. In 1864 it supplied 1,987,060 tons.

Scotland.-There are three principal coal-basins in Scotland: 1, that of Ayrshire; 2, that of Clydesdale; 3, that of the valley of the Forth. It supplied 12,400,000 tons in 1864.

Ireland. Although the Irish supply is at present very small, the island having produced only 125,000 tons in 1864, the area over which coal is distributed is very large. Anthracite is found in the Leinster and Munster districts, bituminous coal in Connaught and Ulster.

Anthracite.-This exceedingly important kind of fuel, which is a modification of coal, is extensively used in blast furnaces, for which it is espe cially fitted, for its great heating power. It contains very little volatile matter, and the best varieties have only a slight amount of ash. In fact, it is nearly pure carbon igniting with some difficulty, and giving out intense heat during combustion. Its localities in the United Kingdom are Bideford, the western division of the South Wales

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