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The fruit is a woody, dark brown pod, about the | The wood of the tree abounds in astringent matter thickness of the thumb, and nearly 2 feet in length. Those brought to this country come principally from the West Indies, packed in casks and cases; but a superior kind is brought from the East Indies, and is easily distinguished by its smaller smooth pod, and by the greater blackness of the pulp. In 1866, 14,321 lbs. were imported, 8,747 exported. (British Pharmacopœia, 1867.) 4. Cassia Senna. [SENNA.]

The duties on cassia were 1d. and 3d. per lb. They are now repealed.

In 1866 the imports of cassia buds amounted to 78,048 lbs. and the exports to 22,881 lbs. Cassia buds are worth in the London market about 97. per cwt. The imports of Cassia lignea in 1866 were 349,449 lbs., and its price from 41. 158. to 51. 4s. 7d. per cwt.; that from China being 41. 18s. 6d. Of Cassia vera 115,782 lbs. were imported from Holland.

CASTOR (Fr. castoreum; Ger. bibergeil, kastoreunt; Dutch, beevergeil; Russ. babrowaja struja: Ital. castoro; Span. castoreo). The produce of the beaver. In the inguinal region of this animal are found four bags, a large and a small one on each side in the two large ones there is contained a softish, greyish yellow, or light brown substance, which, on exposure to the air, becomes dry and brittle, and of a brown colour. This is castor. It has a heavy but somewhat aromatic smell, not unlike musk; and a bitter, nauseous, and subacrid taste. The best comes from Russia, and is obtained in autumn and winter, but of late years it has been very scarce; and all that is now found in the shops is the produce of Canada. The goodness of castor is determined by its sensible qualities: that which is black is insipid, inodorous, oily, and unfit for use. It is said to be sometimes counterfeited by a mixture of some gummy and resinous substances flavoured with castor; but the fraud is easily detected. In 1866 the imports were 4,989 lbs., valued at 1,1224; the exports 3,696 lbs.

CASTOR OIL (Fr. huile du ricin; Ger. rizinusohl; Ital. olio di ricino; Span. aceite de ricino) is obtained from the seeds of the Ricinus communis, or Palma Christi, an annual plant found in most tropical countries, and in Greece, the south of Spain &c. The oil is separated from the seeds either by boiling them in water or by subjecting them to the action of the press. It is said that though the largest quantity of oil may be procured by the first method, it is less sweet, and more apt to become rancid, than that procured by expression, which in consequence is the process now most commonly followed. Good expressed castor oil is nearly inodorous and insipid, but the best leaves a slight sensation of acrimony in the throat after it is swallowed. It is thicker and heavier than the fat oils, being viscid, transparent, and colourless, or of a very pale straw colour. That which is obtained by boiling the seeds has a brownish hue; and both kinds, when they become rancid, thicken, deepen in colour to a reddish brown, and acquire a hot, nauseous taste. It is very extensively employed in the materia medica as a cathartic. (Thomson's Dispensatory.)

The duty of 1s. 3d. per cwt, on castor oil was repealed in 1845. In 1866 the imports amounted to 23,037 cwt., and the exports to 6,103 cwt.

CATECHU (Fr. cachou; Ger. kaschu; Hind. cutt; Mal. gambir). An extract prepared from the wood of the Acacia Catechu. The acacia which produces it is a small tree about 12 feet in height, growing abundantly in Hindostan and the Burmese empire. It is said to be also common in Jamaica.

which is extracted by boiling and inspissating the product. Before its source was discovered it was supposed to be a kind of earth. Hence its commercial name, terra japonica. After it was found to be of vegetable origin, it was taken to be an extract of the betel nut; but the real nature of the drug was first determined by Mr. Kerr, of the Bengal Civil Hospital, an eye-witness of the manufacture. Catechu, or terra japonica, is also called cutch by the English traders, who have derived this name from the Hindostanee cutt.

Catechu has several uses. It has long been employed as an astringent medicine, being the most powerful of the kind. It is consumed in large quantities by the natives of tropical Asia, who mix the substance with a small quantity of lime and aromatic drugs, and wrapping it in the leaf of the piper betel, use it as a masticatory. It is used for this purpose in France, made into small pills or lozenges.

But its most important economical use is as a dye and tauning drug. It owes these properties to the large amount of tannic acid it contains, amounting occasionally to more than half the weight of the substance. It is said that a pound of catechu has as much tanning power as seven or eight pounds of oak bark.

Catechu is derived from many countries and in various forms. The following have been enumerated: 1. Cake catechu, in quantities weighing from a few ounces to 2 pounds. This is resinous in its fracture, and bears marks of having been inspissated in saucers or similar flat vessels. 2. Pegu catechu, imported in masses of large size, sometimes nearly a hundred weight. This is of excellent quality, compact, dark brown in colour, and resinous in character. 3. Bengal catechu, in quadrangular cakes, about 2 to 3 inches in length and breadth, and similar in character to those mentioned above; and 4. A catechu in balls, the quality of which is generally inferior.

As the plants producing catechu are so widely distributed, the cost of the article depends in great degree upon the cost of labour and carriage. The quantities sent to Europe are increasing. The price of catechu varies at the Eastern ports from 10s. to 15s. the cwt. (Wood and Bache, United States Dispensatory, from which excellent and exhaustive work the above has been chiefly compiled.)

CAT'S EYE. A mineral of beautiful ap pearance. Its colours are grey, green, brown, red, of various shades. Its internal lustre is shining, its fracture imperfectly conchoidal, and it is translucent. It has derived its name from a peculiar play of light, arising from white fibres interspersed. The French call the appearance chatoyant. Among jewellers this gem is also known by the names of cat's eye, chr soberyl, and cymophane. It is found in Ceylon, Brazil, Moravia, the Ural Mountains (where a beautiful variety is known as Alexandrite), and in the United States. Good cat's eyes, according to Mr. Emanuel, are worth from 100% to 3007, and are becoming more valuable than formerly. It scratches quartz, is easily broken, and resists the blow-pipe. It is set by the jewellers as a precious stone.

CAT SKINS. The skin or fur of the cat is used for a variety of purposes, but is principally dyed and sold as false sable. It appears from evidence taken before a Committee of the House of Commons (1859) that it is a common practice in London to decoy the animal and kill it for the sake of its skin. The fur of the wild cat is, however, far more valuable than that of the domestic cat. The

wild cat skins imported into this country are brought almost wholly from the territories of the Hudson's Bay Company. The animal from which they are taken is a good deal larger than the English wild cat, and is sometimes called the loup cervier, or Canadian lynx. It is very cou-1710, the average weight of the nett carcase of rageous. At an average about 30,000 cat skins are annually imported, of which more than a half are retained for home consumption.

CATTLE. A collective term applied to designate all those quadrupeds that are used either as food for man or in tilling the ground. By neat or horned cattle is meant the two species included under the names of the ox (Bos) and the buffalo (Bubulus); but as the latter is hardly known in this country, it is the former only that we have here in view.

possible that the herd may have improved during the century and a half which follow on the period comprised in the work referred to. (Agriculture and Prices in England, vol. i. p. 53.) According to an estimate of Dr. Davenant in black cattle was only 370 lbs., of calves 50 lbs., and of sheep only 28 lbs.; but according to Sir F. M. Eden (History of the Poor, vol. iii. Appendix p. 88) and Mr. Middleton (Agriculture of Middlesex, 2nd ed. p. 541), the average nett weight of the carcase of bullocks killed in London might be taken, about the end of the last or the beginning of this century, at 800 lbs., calves at 140 lbs., sheep at 80 lbs., and lambs at 50 lbs.

Consumption of Butchers' Meat in London.-The number of head of cattle, sheep, and lambs sold in The raising and feeding of cattle, and the pre-Smithfield market, each year from 1732 to 1852, has paration of the various products which they yield, been as follows:have formed, in all countries emerged from the savage state, an important branch of industry.

It would be quite inconsistent with the objects and limits of this work to enter into any details with respect to the different breeds of cattle raised in this or other countries. They are exceedingly various. In Great Britain they have been vastly improved, in the weight of carcase, the quality of the beef, and the abundance of the milk, by the extraordinary attention that has been given to the selection and crossing of the best breeds, according to the objects in view. This sort of improvement began about the middle of last century, or rather later, and was excited and very much forwarded by the skill and enterprise of two individuals-Mr. Bakewell of Dishley, and Mr. Culley of Northumberland. The success by which their efforts were attended roused a spirit of emulation in others; and the rapid growth of commerce and manufactures since 1760 having occasioned a corresponding increase in the demand for butchers' meat, improved systems of breeding, and improved breeds, have been very generally introduced.

But the improvement in the size and condition of cattle has not been alone owing to the circumstances now mentioned. Much of it is certainly to be ascribed to the great improvement that has been made in their feeding. The introduction and universal extension of the turnip and clover cultivation has had, in this respect, a most astonishing influence, and has wonderfully increased the food of cattle, and consequently the supply of butchers' meat.

It was stated in the First Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons on Waste Lands (printed in 1795), that cattle and sheep had, at an average, increased in size and weight about a fourth part since 1732; but there are strong grounds for supposing that the increase had been much more considerable than is represented by the committee.

The average price of oxen, during part of the thirteenth and the whole of the fourteenth cen

turies, as exhibited in Mr. Rogers's work On Agriculture and Prices in England, 1259-1400, was 13s. 14d., of cows 9s. 6d., of bulls 10s. 43d. These averages have been derived from many thousand entries, and indicate that the oxen were on the whole intended to be used as meat, since the price is considerably in excess of that at which cows were sold, and that no general attempt was made to improve the herd, since bulls were cheaper than


The average weight of an ox in the year 1547, if we can rely on a victualling bill of the navy, preserved in the Public Record Office, and containing the weights of 40 oxen, was 4 cwts. It is



Year Cattle 76.210 80,169

Sheep Year 514,700




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1735 83,894 1736 87,606 1737 89,562 1738 87,010 1739 86,787 1740 84,810

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1761 82,514 666,010 1752 102,831 1763 80,851 1764 75,168 556,360 1765 81,630 537.000 1766 75,534 574,790 1767 77.324 574,050 1768 79,660 626,170 1769 82,131 642,910 1770 86,590 649,090 1771 93,573 1772 89,503 1773 90,133 1774 90,419 1775 93,581 1776 98,372 172,435 1777 93,714 1838 183.362 1778 97,360 658,540 1839 180.780 1779 97,352 676,540 1810 177,497 1780 102,383 706,830 1841 166,922 1781 102,543 743,336 1842 173,317 1782 101,176 728.970 1843 175.133 1783 101,840 701,610 1844 186,191 1784 98,143 616,110 1845 192.180 1785 99,047 641,470 1846 199,875 1786 92,270 663,910 1847 220,562 1787 94,946 668,570 1848 220,193 1788 92,829 679,100 1849 223,560 1,914,130 1789 93,269 693,700 1850 229,744 1.555.270 1790 103,708 749,660 1851 243,541 1,377,950 1791 101,164 740,360 1852 256,948 1,575,340 1792 107,348 760,859






















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The contract prices of butchers' meat per cwt. | used as food, and the hogs killed in town, may be at Greenwich Hospital, since 1730, have been as considered as fully equivalent to the butchers' below:

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But it should be remarked that since January 1, 1860, the quality of the meat contracted for has been 'prime.' The mutton for the hospital now (1868) consists entirely of legs and loins, and the beef of buttocks and thick flanks free from bone. We suspect, from what we have heard from practical men of great experience, that the weights assigned by Sir F. M. Eden and Mr. Middleton to the cattle sold in Smithfield were, at the time when their estimate was framed, decidedly in excess; but the great improvements since made in the breeding and feeding of cattle in all parts of the empire have materially increased their average size; so that the above weights are now, we have been well assured, not far from the mark. In order to be within bounds, we shall take the nett weight of the cattle at 750 Ibs.; and supposing this and the other estimates to be nearly right, we should be able, provided we knew the respective numbers of sheep and lambs, to estimate the total quantity of butchers' meat furnished for London by Smithfield market, exclusive of hogs and pigs. Sheep and lambs are not, however, distinguished in the returns; but it is known that the former are to the latter nearly as 3 to 1; so that we may estimate the average weight of the sheep and lambs at about 70 lbs.

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This quantity, estimated at the average price of 6d.. would cost 7,426,7881.; at 8d. it would cost 9,902,3847.

But exclusive of the above, or of the beef properly so called, a large portion of the offal, including the head and tongue, heart, tripe, fat &c., is used as food.

A part of the cattle sold in London go to supply the towns in the vicinity; but, on the other hand, many cattle are sold in the adjoining towns, and slaughtered for the use of London, of which no account is taken. We have reason to think that the latter quantity rather exceeds the former; but, supposing that they mutually balance each other, the above quantity of 297,071,530 lbs. may be regarded as forming the annual supply of butchers' meat required for London (in 1853); exclusive, however, of the offal used as food, and of hogs, pigs, suckling calves &c., and exclusive also of bacon, hams, and salted provisions brought from a distance. The quantities thus omitted from the account are very large indeed; and since the introduction of steam navigation great numbers of cattle and sheep are killed in Scotland and other distant parts of the empire, the carcases of which are sent up for sale in the London market. We have no means of forming any correct conclusion on such a subject, but we are inclined to think that the carcases so sent up, added to the offal

meat used in the victualling of ships. On this hypothesis there will remain 297,071,530 lbs. of butchers' meat for the supply of the metropolis, which, taking the population (for 1853) at 2,400,000, gives 1233 lbs. for the consumption of every individual, exclusive of bacon, hams, and salted provisions, and also of poultry. If the population of the metropolis be taken at 3,000,000, the quantity required, on the preceding calculation, will be 371,121,530 lbs.

This, though not nearly so great as has been sometimes represented, is, we believe, a larger consumption of animal food than takes place any where else by the same number of individuals. Mr. Middleton (Agriculture of Middlesex, p. 643) estimates the consumption of animal food in London, exclusive of fish and poultry, at 234 lbs. a-year for every individual! And he further estimates the total average annual expense incurred by each inhabitant of the metropolis, for all sorts of animal food, at 81. 8s. According to M. Chabrol, the consumption of butchers' meat in Paris amounts to between 85 lbs. and 86 lbs. for each individual. At Brussels the consumption is a little greater, being supposed to average 89 lbs. each individual; being rather more than 3 lbs. above the mean of Paris, and 34 lbs. under the mean of London.


were 342,398 cattle, 40,207 calves, 1,624,405 sheep, and 30,803 pigs brought into the Metropolitan Cattle Market in 1865.

In estimating the weights of the animals killed in country towns, a lower standard must be adopted than that taken for London; first, because the largest and finest cattle are brought to the metropolis; and secondly, because a very large proportion of the calves killed in country towns are sucklers, which are excluded from the London accounts. Neither is the consumption so great in country towns as in the metropolis; and supposing the consumption in the latter to be at the rate of 123 lbs. per individual, it does not probably exceed 100 lbs. per do. in Manchester, Glasgow, Liverpool, and other great provincial towns. In 1851 there were slaughtered in Glasgow 29,569 oxen, 4,443 calves, 123,188 sheep and lambs, and 5,157 pigs. And this statement taken in connection with the fact that very large quantities of fresh and salted meat are imported into Glasgow, and that, so late as 1760, the slaughter of bullocks for the supply of the public market was unknown in that city, sets the wonderful improvement that has taken place in the food of the Scotch people in the most striking point of view. Previously to 1780 it was customary in Glasgow, Edinburgh, and the principal Scotch towns, for families to purchase in November what would now be reckoned a small half-fed cow or ox, the salted carcase of which was the only butchers' meat they tasted throughout the year. In the smaller towns and country districts this practice prevailed till the present century; but it is now everywhere abandoned. We believe, indeed, that there has never been, in any country, a more rapid increase in the quantity, or a greater improvement in the quality, of the food brought to market, than has taken place in Scotland since 1770. In so far as respects butchers' meat, this has been occasioned partly by the growing numbers and opulence of all classes, and partly by the vast increase in the food of cattle consequent on the introduction of green crops, and of an improved system of cultivation. [BREAD.]

The introduction of steam navigation, and the improved means of communication by railroads

Number of draught cattle

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fatting cattle
young cattle

684,491 741,57%


912,656 2,852,048

and otherwise, have already had, and will no doubt | England. The greatest discrepancy, unaccomcontinue to have, a material influence over the panied by a single explanatory sentence, exists supply of butchers' meat. Owing to the difficulty between them; but there can be no doubt that and expense of their conveyance, cattle could not the following estimate (Eastern Tour, vol. iv. p. formerly be conveniently fattened at any very 456), though, perhaps, rather under the mark, is considerable distance from the great markets; but infinitely nearer the truth than the other, which steam navigation has gone far to remove this is about twice as great:difficulty. Instead of selling their cattle, lean or half-fed, to the Norfolk graziers, by whom they were fattened for the London market, the producers, in various districts of Scotland, now fatten them at home, either sending the live animals or the carcases by steam to London, Liverpool &c. This practice is indirectly as well as directly advantageous to the farmer, inasmuch as it enables him to turn his green crops to better account, and to raise larger supplies of manure. The same practice is also extending in Ireland; and will, no doubt, spread itself over every part of the country where feeding can be carried on, that has the required facility of transport.

Exclusive of the cattle raised in Great Britain, we import considerable supplies of beef and of live

cattle from Ireland.

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Now, taking this number at the round sum of 3,000,000, and adding a half to it for the increase since 1770, and 1,500,000 for the number of cattle in Scotland, we shall have 6,000,000 as the total

head of cattle of all sorts in Great Britain.


common estimate is, that about a fourth part of the entire stock is annually slaughtered; which, adopting the foregoing statement, gives 1,500,000 head for the supply of the kingdom; a result which all that we had heard down to 1859 inclined us to think was not far from the mark.

But in 1866 an enumeration of the cattle, sheep, and pigs was taken for England, Wales, and Scotland. The number in Ireland has been stated for some years past. This census gives 4,785,846 as the total number of cattle in Great Britain. Of these, 3,307,054 were returned for England, 541,401 for Wales, 937,411 for Scotland. In Ireland the cattle were 3,493,414; those in the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands 37,700: making a total of 8,316,960 for the United Kingdom.

The cattle reared and held in the United Kingdom is considerably less than that held on an average in foreign countries. We subjoin a table of these countries according to the latest returns, of the population and number of cattle in several the countries being arranged according to the number of their population.

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Oxen, bulls,


and cows

Sheep and






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These figures will show how much less is the proportion of cattle to head of population in the United Kingdom than is to be found in some other communities.

Number of Head of Cattle in Great Britain.-It Importation of Cattle.-Previously to 1842 the would, on many accounts, be very desirable to importation of horned cattle, sheep, hogs, and have an accurate estimate of the number and other animals used as food was strictly prohibited; value of the stock of cattle in Great Britain, and but this prohibition was then withdrawn, and the of the proportion annually killed and made use of; importation of the animals in question permitted on but owing to the little attention that has been paying a duty of 20s. a head on oxen and bulls, paid to such subjects in this country, where most 15s. on cows, 3s. on sheep, 5s. on hogs &c. This branches of statistical knowledge are at a low certainly was one of the boldest and most imebb, there are no means of arriving at any con- portant inroads ever made on the prohibitive clusions that can be depended upon. The follow-system, and reflected the greatest credit on the ing details may not, however, be unacceptable.

Arthur Young has given, both in his Eastern and Northern Tour, estimates of the number and value of the different descriptions of stock in

administration of Sir Robert Peel. It was supposed at the time that this change would lead to a very heavy fall in the prices of all sorts of stock, a supposition which was in some degree realised

by the panic which it occasioned. But there was no good foundation for such anticipations; and this we endeavoured to show, in the edition of this Dictionary published soon after the repeal of the prohibition.

The home producer was not affected adversely by the change-indeed no real change occurred during the prevalence of these duties. Hence in 1846 Sir R. Peel completed his reform in the cattle trade by admitting animals duty free. The result has been a considerable importation of lean stock, the fattening of which has been the profitable business of farmers and graziers. Cattle

imported are rarely in condition for the butcher, for the confinement and hardships of a sea voyage tell severely upon lean stock, and would involve a serious loss on beasts shipped in prime condition.

A temporary check, however, was given to the importation of foreign cattle by the late prevalence of the cattle plague. In the period from June 24, 1865 to November 10, 1866, 198,481 cattle in England were attacked, of which but 21,589 recovered, while 38,443 healthy beasts were slaughtered to prevent the spread of the disease. (Miscellaneous Statistics, p. 323.)

Account showing the Number and Declared Real Value of the Foreign Cattle, Sheep &c. Imported into the United Kingdom in 1865-67 (Statistical Abstract, 1868).

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According to the last Report on the Trade in Animals (July 16, 1866, Parl. Paper No. 427), the chief sources of cattle imports into Great Britain are Spain, Portugal, France, Belgium, Holland, Schleswig, Denmark, and Sweden. The market is also supplied from Orkney and Shetland to the Scotch ports, and from Scotland and Ireland to England. Importations are permitted to certain ports only, these having been approved by the Customs authorities, the regulation being practically a measure of quarantine. The chief ports for foreign cattle are Liverpool, London, Harwich, Hull, Newcastle, Leith, and Granton; and for Irish cattle, Glasgow, Silloth, Morecambe Bay, Liverpool, and Bristol. Scotch cattle are generally carried to Liverpool and London.

The following are extracts from the Report of the House of Commons' Committee of 1866 appointed to enquire into the manner in which the home and foreign trade in animals is conducted :Transit. The sea-borne cattle arrive generally in good condition. The vessels are, with some exceptions, specially fitted up for the purpose, and have divisions for every four or six animals, windsails or other means to secure ventilation, and in some cases shelter for the cattle on deck. The cattle, however, in well-ventilated vessels appear to suffer from the want of a free current of air when the vessels are coming up the Thames or are waiting for the tide to discharge their cargo, as at Newcastle, Hull, Bristol, and Leith, where the cattle cannot be landed at all states of the


The animals carried between decks are usually tied with their heads to the sides of the vessel, though the best mode is to tie them with their heads to the centre, because this latter method affords greater facility for feeding and watering, and for good ventilation; the Irish store cattle are brought over loose.

There is no rule respecting the numbers put on board, but with the exception of some cases in the Irish and Bremen trade, the vessels do not appear to be overcrowded.

It is in evidence that in Ireland much injury arises to cattle from bad treatment received from drovers, and that cattle landed from Oporto and Spain arrive in a better state than those from Ireland.

In the voyage from Oporto, each animal is allowed space to lie down, and is fed with compressed food, and watered; in other cases the animals are packed close to one another, so as to

prevent their lying or being shaken down, and sometimes are neither fed nor watered until landed.

The animals are chiefly made to walk on and off board, and the practice of slinging is nearly abandoned.

It has always been the practice to cleanse the ships, more or less, after each voyage, and recently disinfectants have been used.

On the railways cattle are often overcrowded and badly treated, especially in Ireland, and are carried for 36 to 48 hours without being fed or watered.

It is bad for the cattle and troublesome to untruck them, while there is some difficulty in watering them while in a truck-a difficulty, however, which is not insuperable.

A journey, whether by sea or rail, causes cattle to deteriorate in value, and makes them feverish, and tends to produce, if it does not actually cause, the foot and mouth disease. These evils are very much increased if cattle are ill-treated or not properly watered.

Since the recent Orders in Council, the cattle trucks appear to have been properly cleansed as far as is possible. Possibly the floors might be constructed so as to admit of a more thorough cleansing than is at present practicable.

The Committee is of opinion that it should be made imperative upon all railway companies or steamboat proprietors who are engaged in the carriage of animals, to thoroughly cleanse and disinfect the trucks, steamboats, and pens used by them after every journey or voyage; and that provision should be made under Government superintendence for the proper ventilation of all vessels employed in carrying cattle by sea; and also that similar provision should be made with respect to the vessels employed in carrying cattle from Ireland and Scotland.

The laws relating to cruelty to animals might be often enforced with advantage in the case of both vessels and railways.

Home Trade.-If London and other large towns could be supplied entirely with meat killed in the country, a great deal of the traffic in cattle, and consequently a great deal of the chance of spreading infectious diseases, would be avoided.

London and other large towns can, except in hot weather, be supplied, to a great extent, with dead meat from a distance; and frequently countrykilled meat, though not so good looking, is better and keeps longer than town-killed meat.

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