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S. lat. and 30' and 40′ W. long. of Guilo. It is, however, supposed to have within a recent period existed in all the valleys of the Andes which debouch in the Guyagulian plain, but in most of these districts it has been completely exhausted. The red bark is imported in chests containing from 100 to 150 lbs. each. It consists of various sized pieces, most of them flat, but some partially quilled or rolled. The internal part is woody, and of a rust red colour; it has a weak peculiar odour, and its taste is much less bitter, but more austere and nauseous than that of the other barks.

in his work on Himalayan Botany, suggesting that it might be cultivated on the slopes of the Neilgherries, and he again recommended that endeavours should be made with the same object in 1847, and his recommendations were strongly supported by Dr. Falconer, superintendent of the Hon. East India Company's Botanic Gardens in 1852. At length, in 1859, Mr. Clements Markham was instructed by Lord Stanley, then Secretary of State for India, to proceed to Peru with a view to procure seeds and plants of the Cinchona and to convey them to India, to which country, in conjunction with Mr. Spruce, a botanist, and Mr. Cross, a practical gardener, he succeeded, after innumerable difficulties owing principally to the upwards of 400 plants of the C. Calisaya, where they were planted at the nursery at Ootacamund. These plants were, however, reported as all dead at the end of 1860, but Mr. Cross succeeded in arriving in April 1861, with 463 plants of the C. succirubra and six plants, brought from England, of the C. Calisaya, and Mr. Spruce introduced from Java the C. Calisuya, C. caucifolia, and C. Pahudiana. From this stock the present Cinchona plantations in India have been established with results so successful, that the number of plants growing on the Neilgherries in February 1863 was as follows:

We would refer for a description of the mode of collecting the bark to a report by Mr. Spruce to the Under-Secretary of State for India (Parl.jealousy of the Peruvian Government, in conveying Papers, Return E. India Chinchona Plant, 1863, No. 118, p. 65 et seq.) with reference to his expedition to the red bark tree districts. Limon, the situation to which Mr. Spruce's observations refer, is at the junction of a stream of that name with the river Chasuàn.

The entire quantity of the red bark collected in 1859 did not reach 50 quintals, and it was sold for 43 dols. the quintal. In 1860 no red bark at all was got out, so that the trade in it is well nigh extinct.

Number and Distribution of Cinchona Plants on the Neilgherries, on February 28, 1863.

No. of Species

Value pet
Pound of

Botanical Names

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Dry Bark m

the London Market

The third sort of yellow bark of the shops is obtained from the Cinchona Calisaya, growing in Bolivia and the Peruvian province of S. Caravaya. It is imported in serons, containing 6 arrobas of about 150 lbs. each, and consists of pieces 8 or 10 inches long, some quilled but greater part flat. The interior is of a yellow colour passing to orange. It has nearly the same odour in decoction as the pale; the taste is more bitter and less austere, and it excites no astringent feeling when chewed. The C. Calisaya is used in the manufacture of sulphate of quinine and is consequently of great commercial value. The forests of New Granada yield several sorts of bark used in quinine manufactures. The most valuable of these are the C. pitaya and the C. lancifolia, which have recently been imported into Europe in great quantities. According to Dr. Macpherson's account of the medico-botanical history of cinchona, it was first introduced into Europe in 1640, and it is 11 C. Pahudiana stated that the value of Peruvian bark as a medicine was first made known in connection with the cure of the Countess of Chinchon, whence the name Chinchona or more properly Chincona.

The quantity exported from Payta (the port of Loxa) in 1860 was 1,400 quintals of pale bark at 30 dols. the quintal. The quantity exported from Arica in 1859 was 1,926 quintals, valued at 17,3344., and from January to November 1860 it was 3,888 quintals valued at 35,0007. From Islay in 1863 the quantity exported was 3,615 quintals, valued at 100 dols. per quintal, or 361,500 dols. | The bark from Islay is yellow bark.

The exhaustion of the Bolivian bark tree forests led the Government of Bolivia to establish in 1859 a bank of bark;' but as this institution was granted a monopoly of the export of bark, the result was, as stated by Dr. Forbes Royle, rather to enhance the price than to continue the preservation of the supply.

1 C. succirubra
2 C. Calisaya

3 C. Uritusinga
4 C. Condaminea
5 C. Crespula -
6 C. lancifolia
7 C. nitida

8 C. species without

name.

9. C. micrantha 10 C. Peruviana

Red bark
Yellow bark -
Original loxa bark
Select crown bark
Fine crown bark
Pitayo bark
Genuine grey bark

Fine grey bark
Grey bark
Finest grey bark
Unknown

Tota: number of plants

1. d. . d. 48,959.2 6 to 8 1,480,2 11,.

927 10.

51,022 10,

825% 10.6 11 8.2 8, 2

8,3:21

2,595 1 2 8,326 1 8.7 9 2.847-1 10 495 Worthless 133,7391

The Dutch Government attempted to introduce the Cinchona into their East Indian possessions in 1852, and Mr. Hasskarl succeeded in 1854 in introducing it into Java, where the plants are now thriving. The principal plantations are situated on the Kending and Malabar range of mountains in the southern portion of the island.

The quantity of Peruvian bark imported into Great Britain in 1866 was 13,797 cwt., valued at 109,4771.

The above has been compiled chiefly from information furnished by J. E. Howard, Esq. the author of the Nueva Quinologia de Paron, and from Parl. Paper 118, 1863, East India Cinchona. See also Dr. Weddell's Quinologie.

The cascarilleros or peelers usually destroy the tree by stripping off its bark as it stands; whereas were they to cut it close to the ground, young The increasing cost of the article and the danger shoots would spring up, which would in their arising from the reckless system of destruction of turn become fit for peeling in from six to twenty the bark-trees pursued by the owners of the Boli-years. This reckless destruction, coupled with vian forests, added to the great cost of the supply of the article for the British service in India (stated by Mr. Markham to have been 53,000l. in the years 1857-8), induced the British Government to endeavour to introduce the cultivation of the Cinchona in the hill districts of British India. Dr. Forbes Koyle had recommended its introduction in 1835,

the enormous demand for quinine in Europe, has occasioned so great a scarcity, that the authorities in Upper Peru contemplate placing an interdiction on the exportation of bark for a series of years. It is asserted that 800 to 900 trees are cut down in order to furnish 11,000 pounds of bark, and that 25 to 50 ounces, 1 to 3 per cent., are

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| to be any ground for supposing that it has diminished. Barley is also extensively used in fattening black cattle, hogs, and poultry. It now generally follows turnips, and is a very important crop in the rotation best adapted to light soils. The principal barley counties of England are Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridge, Bedford, Herts, Leicester, Nottingham, the upper parts of Hereford, Warwick, and Salop. The produce varies, according to soil, preparation, season &c. from about 20 to 60 or 70 bushels an acre. The most usual crop is from 28 to 36 or 38 bushels. The Winchester bushel of good English barley generally weighs about 50 lbs., but the best Norfolk barley sometimes weighs 53 or 54 lbs. Its produce in flour is about 12 lbs. to 14 lbs. grain. Barley is a tender plant, and easily hurt in any stage of its growth. It is more hazardous than wheat, and is, generally speaking, raised at a greater expense: so that its cultivation should not be attempted except when the soil and climate are favourable for its growth.

The re-exports of bark from Great Britain to foreign countries in 1865 amounted to 14,975 cwt., of which 5,517 cwt. went to Holland and 3,307 cwt. to France. Sulphate of quinine is manufactured in great quantities at Stuttgart in Würt-practical interest. emburg, and in France, from which sources the continent of Europe is largely supplied.

The superior cheapness of the German and French quinine is probably in some degree owing to the lower cost of the alcohol used in its pro

duction.

Quercitron Bark.-We are indebted for the discovery and application of the useful properties of quercitron to Dr. Bancroft, who obtained a patent for his invention in 1775; but the American war breaking out soon after, deprived him of its advantages. In consideration of this circumstance, Parliament passed, in 1785, an Act (25 Geo. III. c. 38) securing to him the privileges conveyed by his patent for fourteen years. At the expiration of the latter period the House of Commons agreed to extend his privilege for an additional seven years, but the House of Lords rejected the bill. Like too many discoverers, Dr. Bancroft profited but little by his invention, though it has been of great use to the arts and manufactures of the country. (Bancroft On Permanent Colours, vol. ii. p. 112; Report of the Committee of the House of Commons on Patents, Appendix, page 175.)

BARLEY (Fr. orge; Ger. gerstengraupen; Dutch, ryg; Ital. orzo; Span. cebada; Russ. fatechmea; Lat. hordeum; Arab. dhourra; Hind. jow). A species of bread-corn (Hordeum, Linn.), of which there are several varieties. It is extensively cultivated in most European countries, and in most of the temperate districts of Asia and Africa. It may also be raised between the tropics; but not at a lower elevation than from 3,000 to 4,000 feet, and then it is not worth cultivating. Large quantities of barley have been, for a lengthened period, raised in Great Britain. Recently, however, its cultivation has been supposed, though probably on no good grounds, to be declining. In 1765 Mr. Charles Smith estimated the number of barley consumers in England and Wales at 739,000; and as a large proportion of the population of Wales, Westmoreland, and Cumberland continue to subsist chiefly on barley bread, we are inclined to think that this estimate may not, at present, be very wide of the mark. But the principal demand for barley in Great Britain is for conversion into malt, to be used in the manufacture of ale, porter, and British spirits; and though its consumption in this way has not certainly increased proportionally to the increase of wealth and population, still there does not seem

The question whether malted or unmalted barley is the fittest food for cattle, has in this country For purposes of revenue, a considerable duty is levied on malt. It is asserted that this duty checks the cultivation of barley on light soils, and that even when barley is grown, its most useful purpose, that of stimulating the flow of milk in cows, and of promoting the rapid growth of fat stock, is prohibited by the operation of an excise duty. The Act 27 & 28 Vict. c. 9 has indeed so far relaxed the excise system as to permit, under proper regulations and supervision, the malting of barley for the use of stock, the chief precaution taken in order to prevent the abuse of the privilege being the admixture of a certain amount of linseed meal with the malt. This, it appears, renders the malt permanently unfit for the manufacture of beer or spirit.

In the 11th Inland Revenue Report (1867), p. xxiii., it is stated 'The farmers, however, appear to be finding out by experience what science long ago indicated as the truth-that malt contains no feeding properties not possessed by barley, and that the cost of malting is worse than thrown away, because the barley during the process loses a portion of its nutritious constituents, its value as an article of food being proportionately diminished.' Number of samples examined for cattle-feeding purposes in 1866-7, only 95 as against 462 in the preceding year. The customs' duty on foreign barley, pearled, is 44d. per cwt.

(For details as to the prices of barley, the quantities imported and exported &c. see CORN LAWS AND CORN TRADE; and for further details as to its consumption and culture, see Smith's Tracts on the Corn Trade, 2nd edition, p. 182; Brown On Rural Affairs, vol. ii. p. 42; Loudon's Encyclopædia of Agriculture; and Report of the Relative Values of Malted or Unmalted Barley as Food for Stock, presented to Parliament in 1866.)

BARRATKY. In Navigation, barratry is, in its most extensive sense, any fraudulent or unlawful act committed by the master or mariners of a ship, contrary to their duty to their owners, and to the prejudice of the latter. It appears to be derived from the Italian word barratrare, to cheat. It may be committed by running away with a ship, wilfully carrying her out of the course prescribed by the owners, delaying or defeating the voyage, deserting convoy without leave, sinking or deserting the ship, embezzling the cargo, smuggling, or any other offence whereby the ship or cargo may be subjected to arrest, detention, loss, or forfeiture.

ch. v.)

It is the practice in most countries to insure allowed to insure against such a copious source against barratry. Most foreign jurists hold of loss. In the maritime policies effected in that it comprehends every fault which the master France, the barratry of the master of the ship and crew can commit, whether it arise from will, under certain circumstances, vitiate the fraud, negligence, unskilfulness, or mere impru- claim to compensation, especially when the dence. But in this country it is ruled that no act captain has been appointed by the claimant. of the master or crew shall be deeme i barratry un- (For a further discussion of this subject, see less it proceed from a criminal or fraudulent motive. MARINE INSURANCE; and Marshall On Insur'Barratry can only be committed by the mas-ance, book i. ch. xii. s. 6, and Park On Insurance, ter and mariners by some act contrary to their duty in the relation in which they stand to the owners of the ship. It is, therefore, an offence against them, and consequently an owner himself cannot commit barratry. He may, by his fraudule it conduct, make himself liable to the owner of the goods on board, but not for barratry, Neither can barratry be committed against the owner with his consent; for though he may be liable for any loss or damage occasioned by the misconduct of the master to which he consents, yet this is not barratry. Nothing is more clear than that a man can never set up as a crime an act done by his own direction or consent.' (Marshall On Insurance, book i. ch. xii. s. 6.) When, therefore, the owner of a ship is also the master, no act of barratry can be committed; for no man can commit a fraud against himself.

It is a maxim in law, that fraud shall not be presumed, but must be clearly proved; and it is a rule in questions of insurance, that he who charges barratry must substantiate it by conclusive evidence.

It is not necessary, to render an act barratrous, that it should be committed with a criminal intent as respects the owners, in order to injure them, or to benefit the captain or crew. It may even be committed with a view to promote the owner's interests; for an illegal act done without the authority or privity of the owners, and which proves detrimental to them, is barratry, whatever be the motives in which it originated. Lord Ellenborough, in an able judgment, has laid it down as clear law, that a breach of duty by the master in respect of his owners, with a fraudulent or criminal intent, or er maleficio, is barratry; that it makes no difference whether this act of the master be induced by motives of advantage to himself, malice to the owner, or a disregard of those laws which it was his duty to obey; and that it is not for him to judge or suppose, in cases not intrusted to his discretion, that he is not breaking the trust reposed in him, when he endeavours to advance the interests of his owners by means which the law forbids, and which his owners also must be taken to have forbidden.'

The circumstance of the owners of ships being permitted to insure against the barratry of the master and mariners can hardly fail, it may be not uncharitably presumed, of rendering them less scrupulous in their enquiries with respect to their character than they would otherwise be. Perhaps, therefore, it might be expedient to prohibit such insurances, or to lay some restrictions upon them. They were, indeed, expressly for bidden by the Ordinance of Rotterdam; and Lord Mansfield, whose authority on all points connected with the law of insurance is so deservedly high, seems to have thought that it would be well to exclude barratry entirely from policies, and to cease 'making the underwriter become the insurer of the conduct of the captain whom he does not appoint, and cannot dismiss, to the owners who can do either.' But though it were expedient to prevent the owners from making an insurance of this sort, nothing can be more reasonable than that third parties, who freight a ship, or put goods on board, should be

By 24 & 25 Vict. c. 100 s. 13 it is enacted that if any person set fire to any ship or part thereof, or any goods or chattels therein, or shall cast away any ship with intent to commit murder, be shall be guilty of felony, and liable, at the discretion of the court, to be kept to penal servitude for life, or for any term not less than three years, or to be imprisoned for any term not exceeding two years, with or without hard labour, and with or without solitary confinement.

BARREL. A cask or vessel for holding liquids, particularly ale and beer. Formerly the barrel of beer in London contained only 32 ale gallons 32 imperial gallons; but it was enacted by 43 Geo. III. c. 69 that 36 gallons of beer should be taken to be a barrel; and by the 6 Geo. IV. c. 58 it is enacted that whenever any gallon measure is mentioned in any excise law, it shall always be deemed and taken to be a standard imperial gallon. At present, therefore, the barrel contains 36 imperial gallons. It may be worth while observing that the barrel or cask is an exclusive product of European ingenuity; and that no such article is known to any nation of Asia. Africa, or America, who have not derived it from Europeans.

BARWOOD. A red dye-wood brought from Africa, particularly from Angola, and the river Gaboon. The dark red which is commonly seen upon British Bandana handkerchiefs is for the most part produced by the colouring matter of barwood, saddened by sulphate of iron. (Bancroft On Colours.) The imports of barwood, in 1865, amounted to 2,347 tons. It is estimated, in the official accounts, as being worth about 31, per ton.

BARYTA, SULPHATE OF. This substance is found native in many parts of the United Kingdom, and is known under the name of heary spar.

Considerable importance attaches to this substance from the use which has latterly been made of it in the arts, as a body for paint. The native sulphate being crystallised, and therefore more or less translucent, is not available for this purpose, and when mixed with white lead, as is frequently done, must be looked on as an adulteration. That, however, which is prepared by artificial means is more opaque, though still far inferior in body and solidity to white lead. It has certain advantages, however. It is not affected as lead is by the vapour of sulphuretted hydrogen, and therefore does not blacken on exposure to the air, and its use is unattended with those deleterious effects which ensue from the constant manipulation of lead salts. Sulphate of baryta is used as a water-colour by artists, under the name of permanent white or blank fir. It is also said to be largely used in the manufacture of paper-hangings.

A very great impetus has been given to the use of barytes by the paper collar trade. When the collars were covered with white lead there was reason to fear that health might be endangered by the pores absorbing this deleterious substance. A durable enamel prepared from barytes has consequently been substituted, and with so much success, that upwards of twenty tons are daily

used in the collar manufactories of New York city alone. (Journal of the Society of Arts, Oct. 26, 166.)

Account of the Quantities and Values of the Principal Articles, the Produce of the Eastern Archipelago, exported from Jara and Madura in 1863.

BASKETS (Fr. corbeilles; Ger. körbe; Ital. paniere; Span. canastas, canastos; Russ. korsinu). Baskets are made, as everyone knows, principally of the interwoven twigs of willows, osier, birch &c. but frequently also of rushes, Arrack splinters of wood, straw, and an immense number of other articles. They are used to hold all sorts of dry goods, and are constructed of every variety of quality and shape. Besides the vast quantities produced at home, some of the finer kinds were imported under an ad valorem duty, which, previously to 1854, was 10 per cent. In the above year the duty was reduced to 4d. It is now repealed. Very large quantities of rods for making baskets are imported.

BAST. Material for straw hats or bonnets. [HATS; MATTING.]

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BATAVIA. A city of the Island of Java, the capital of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, and the principal trading port of the Oriental islands; lat. of lighthouse on the west pier, visible 13 miles off in clear weather, 6° 5' 4" S., long. 106° 47' 40" E., on the north-west coast of the island, on an extensive bay. The harbour, Iron wares or rather road, lies between the main land and several small uninhabited islands, which, during the boisterous or north-western monsoon, afford sufficient shelter, and good anchorage. Ships of from 300 to 500 tons anchor at about 1 mile from shore. A small river runs through the town, which is navigable for vessels of from 20 to 40 tons, a couple of miles inland; a number of canals branch off from it into different parts of the town, affording great conveniences for trade. Batavia was formerly so very insalubrious, that General Daendals was anxious to transfer the seat of government to Sourabaya; but being thwarted in this, he set about building a new town, a little farther inland, on the heights of Weltevreden, whither the Government offices were immediately removed. Most part of the principal merchants now live in the new town, repairing to the old city, only when business requires it, during Rice a portion of the day. In consequence, the old town is at present principally occupied by Chinese, and the descendants of the ancient colonists, several of its streets having been deserted and demolished. More recently, however, the Baron Capellen, whose enlightened administration will long be gratefully remembered in Java, sensible of the superior advantages of the old town as a place of trade, exerted himself to prevent its further decay, by removing the causes of its unhealthiness; to accomplish which, he widened several of the streets, filled up some of the canals, and cleaned others, demolished useless fortifications &c.: and the effect of these judicious measures has been, that Batavia is now as healthy as any other town of the island. The population, according to an accurate census taken in 1832, consisted of 2,800 Europeans, 80,000 natives, 25,000 Chinese, 1,000 Arabs, and 9,500 slaves; in all 118,300 persons, exclusive of the garrison. As the population has increased since, it may at present be estimated at from 140,000 to 150,000, independently of the military, of which there are always a considerable number. Among the principal merchants are Dutch, English, Americans, French, and Germans. The island of Java forms the most important portion of the Dutch possessions in the East, and is, in fact, one of the finest colonies in the world. It contains, inc. Madura, an area of 52,000 square miles, with a population on Dec. 31, 1862, of 13,380,770.

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Amount received from the several Duties and Dues | place of import, the goods cannot enter before the levied in the Islands of Java and Madura in the difference is paid. Years 1861-1863.

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4. Clothes, linen, used furniture, and luggage passengers (regalen), imported by them.

Art. 3.-An Export duty shall be paid on the articles, as specified in the following list, when they are exported from the countries named in Art. 1.

Dues:

Bonding

Shipping Weighing Warehouse rent

Excise duty on tobacco

Additional 5 per cent.

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Duties when exported to

Elsewhere

80,847
4,413
50.688

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141,841

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87,514 521,991

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The Netherlands

Birds' nests

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Coffee.

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Hides

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Sugar.

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Foreign ships are admitted to the ports of Batavia, Samarang, and Sourabaya, on a principle of reciprocity. They are, however, prohibited from engaging in the coasting trade, which is reserved exclusively for Dutch and colonial ships. A large portion of the import and export trade of Java, especially the latter, has been engrossed by the Netherlands Commercial Company, established in 1819. But of late years the private traders have been gaining on the Company; and were it not for the patronage that has been injudiciously accorded to the latter by Government, its agents would most probably be driven from the

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Art. 1.-On all articles imported for consumption into Java and Madura, the west coast of Sumatra, Benkoelen, the Lampong districts, Palembang, Banca, Billiton, and West, South, and East sections of Borneo, a duty shall be paid as specified in the following tariff, save on articles positively exempted.

Art. 2.-Besides the goods exempt from importduty, the following also may be imported free, 1. All goods for the use or on account of the Government.

2. a. All produce of the Netherlands East Indies where customs-duties are levied, as cotton goods, tobacco and cigars, must be followed by a certificate of export. b. All the produce of other Netherlands East India possessions and of the Inland friendly States of the Eastern Archipelago;gambier excepted only on Java and Madura, besides woven cotton goods, tobacco and cigars.

The prohibitory stipulations relating to the import of some articles have nevertheless effect on these goods.

3. All goods on which duty is paid at one of the Netherlands India custom-boards.

When a higher duty must be paid at the second

Tin

Tobacco not prepared for the
inland market

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Art. 4.-When goods subject to a differential customs-duty are exported to the Netherlands, then the payment of the higher duties shall be warranted, according to the stipulations of the governor-general.

The lowest duty shall be levied only when it shall be proved that the goods are landed in their entirety within the term fixed by the governor-general in a Dutch Harbour, out of the same ship in which they had been laden.

The governor-general may exempt from the higher duty when convinced that goods have been totally or partly lost at sea, or necessarily laden in another ship.

The governor-general may also exempt from the higher duty part of a cargo landed in one of in consequence of a disaster on sea, to sell the rest the Dutch harbours, when it has been necessary, of the goods in a foreign harbour.

Art. 5.-No export duty is to be paid on1. The goods exported for the use or account of the Government;

2. The goods on which the duty is paid at one of the Netherlands Indies custom-boards. of export, then the goods cannot be cleared before When a higher duty is due at the second place the difference is paid.

duties, and the particular stipulations for MoearaArt. 6.-The rules about the import and export Kompeh, in Djambi, fixed by resolution of the governor-general of April 23, 1847, shall continue to have effect.

The governor-general may levy custom duties in those parts of the Dutch Indies not indicated in Art. 10 where as yet no duties were levied; provided that this shall take place after a nondifferential tariff.

Art. 7.-On the import and export duties no additional cents are to be paid.

Art. 8.-The dock-duties (entrepôt-gelden), those for loading from one ship into another, and those for weighing (waaggeld), are abolished.

The governor-general fixes the tariffs of payment for warehousing and watching goods, and other services rendered.

Art. 9.-No duties on the transit will be levied. Art. 10.-No import or export duties will be levied in the residency Riouw, its subjections on the east coast of Sumatra, not including the government of Celebes and subjections, the government of the Moluccas, and the residencies Menado and Timor. The application of this stipulation in the western, southern, and eastern sections of Borneo is reserved.

Art. 11.-Necessary measures will be taken to maintain the execution of this law, and to prevent the duties being evaded.

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