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88.-What is a Pronoun ?..

Why are Pronouns used?

What is an Antecedent of a Pronoun ?

Antecedents may consist of what?
Why are Pronouns classified?.
How are Pronouns classified?

What is a Personal Pronoun ?

89.-How are Personal Pronouns distinguished?.

How are Pronouns modified?

Decline the Personal Pronoun.

.See Def.

.See Rem.

..See Obs. 1
.See Obs. 2

.See Rem.
..See Prin.

. See Def.

.See Obs.

.See Prin.

90.-What Pronouns are varied in form to denote Gender?.See Obs. 1.


For what are the principal variations made? .......See
How do we distinguish the Persons of Pronouns?
Why are Possessive Specifying Adjectives placed
with Pronouns? ....

When are mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, and theirs
used as Substantives? and why?.....

Make Sentences having each of these Words as
Subjects-as Objects-as Objects of Phrases-in
Credicate with a Verb.

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.See Obs. 2.

.See Obs. 3.

What may be some of the different Antecedents of it?.See Obs. 4. 91.-What is a Relative Pronoun?

Give the LIST of Relative Pronouns.

.See Def.

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Which of the Relative Pronouns are varied in form?.See Obs. 3.

92.-What are the peculiar uses of who, which, and that?.See Obs. 4, 5, 6. What is there peculiar in the use of the Word what? .See Obs. 7. What other Double Relatives have we?.....

What is an Interrogative Pronoun? .....
Give the LIST of Interrogative Pronouns

93. Sentences are made Interrogative-how?

.See Obs. 8.

.See Def.

.See Obs. 1.

..See Obs. 2.

What is the Antecedent of an Interrogative Pronoun?. See Obs. 3.
An Interrogative Pronoun is to be construed-how?-See Obs. 5.
What is an Adjective Pronoun ?

.See Def.

94.--What distinct offices are performed by Adjective Pronouns ? . See Obs. 2. Why is the term Adjective Pronoun given to this class of


See Obs. 3.

Give the LIST of Words most frequently used as Adjec

tive Pronouns

.See Obs. 4.


REM.-As things possess individuality, and have points of difference from each other, so we have Words which point out and describe those things, and mark their differences from other things. Hence,

DEF. 86.-An Adjective is a Word used to qualify or otherwise describe a Noun or a Pronoun.


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1. To express a quality-as, good boy-red rose-sweet apple.
2. To specify or limit-as, the book-thy pen-three boys.
3. To express, incidentally, a condition, state, or act-as, loving
-wheeling-injured. Hence,

PRIN.-Adjectives are distinguished as

Qualifying Adjectives,

Specifying Adjectives, and
Verbal Adjectives.

DEF. 87.-A Qualifying Adjective is a Word used to describe a Substantive by expressing a quality.


An honorable man.
An amiable disposition.

A virtuous woman.

Some good fruit.

Three sweet oranges.
Much cold water.

DEF. 88.-A Specifying Adjective is a Word used to define or limit the application of a Substantive without denoting a quality.


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OBS. 1 —Adjectives derived from Proper Nouns are called Proper Adjectives.


OBS. 2.- Which, what, and sometimes whose, when used as Adjectives, are called Interrogative Adjectives when they indicate a question

EXAMPLES.-1. Which side will you take?

2. What evil hath he done?

3. Whose book is that?

REM.-Adjectives may specify

1. By simply pointing out things—by limiting or designating.
2. By denoting relation of ownership, adaptation, or origin.
3. By denoting number, definite or indefinite. Hence,

PRIN.-Specifying Adjectives are distinguished as Pure, Numeral, and Possessive.

DEF. 89.-A Pure Adjective is a Word used only to point out or designate things.


Thou art the man.
That question is settled.
Those books are received.

"Such shames are common."

The next class.

The same lesson.

Other cares intrude.

Any man may learn wisdom.

DEF. 90.-A Possessive Adjective is a Word that de scribes a being or thing by indicating a relation of ownership, origin, fitness, &c.


My father-my neighbor.

Our enemies.

Their losses are severe.

Children's shoes.

John's horse.

Teacher's absence.

"O my offense is rank: it smells to heaven;

It hath the primal, eldest curse upon it,

A brother's murder."

"He heard the king's command, and saw that writing,s truth

NOTE. A Possessive Adjective is generally derived from a substan tive, by changing the Nominative into the Possessive form.


DEF. 91.-A Numeral Adjective is a Word used to denote Number.


OBS. 1.-Numeral Adjectives may be,


Indefinite.-Few-many-some (denoting number).

OBS. 2.-A and an, when they denote number, are to be classed as Numeral Adjectives.

EXAMPLES." Not a drum was heard, nor a funeral note." "Not an instance is on record."


DEF. 92.-A Verbal Adjective is a Word used to describe a Noun or a Pronoun, by expressing, incidentally, a condition, state, or act.

OBS. This class of Adjectives consists of Participles, used primarily to describe Nouns and Pronoung.

A running brook.
A standing pond.

Disputed territory.

Undoubted fact.


I saw a boy running to school.
Another standing by the way.
It is a truth undisputed

It is a fact undoubted.

"Scaling yonder peak,

I saw an eagle wheeling near its brow."

In this example the Sentence is, "I saw eagle:" and "scaling yonder peak," is a Phrase used to describe "I." "Wheeling near its brow," describes "eagle." Scaling and wheeling are Participles used to describe a Noun and a Pronoun-hence they are, in their office, Adjectives. (See Def. 86.) They describe by expressing (not in the character of Predicates, but), “incidentally, a condition, state, or act,” of “I” and "eagle"-hence they are Verbal Adjectives.

REM. 1.-To render the classification more simple, I have preferred to class all Participles used chiefly to describe Nouns and Pronouns, as Adjectives—and, because they are derived from Verbs and retain more or less of the properties of the Verbs from which they are derived, I use the term Verbal Adjectives.

But Teachers who are unwilling to do more than simply to call them Participles, will not find it difficult to adapt their views to the plan of this work; the Pupil being taught that—

"Participles, like Adjectives, belong to Nouns and Pronouns."

And, in the use of Diagrams

"Participles used to limit Substantives, occupy the same position as Adjectives."

REM. 2.-Participles used as Adjectives, commonly retain their verbal character, and like their Verbs, may have Objects after them. Hence,

PRIN.-Verbal Adjectives are distinguished as Transi tive and Intransitive.


Intransitive." He possessed a well-balanced mind."

"Truth, crushed to earth, will rise again."
Transitive—" Scaling yonder peak, I saw an eagle.”
"We saw the children picking berrica”

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